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Elastic Hierarchies: Combining
Treemaps and Node-Link Diagrams
Shengdong Zhao, Michael J. McGuffin, Mark H. Chignell
Unive...
University of Toronto
2
Hierarchies (Trees)
• Definition
• Data where cases relate to subcases
• Examples
• Family histori...
University of Toronto
3
Common Tree Representations
Node-Link Containment
Alignment,
Adjacency
Outline
University of Toronto
4
Common Tree Representations
Node-Link Containment
Alignment,
Adjacency
Outline
Node-Link
Diagram
University of Toronto
5
Common Tree Representations
Node-Link Containment
Alignment,
Adjacency
Outline
Treemap
Node-Link
D...
University of Toronto
6
Common Tree Representations
Node-Link Containment
Alignment,
Adjacency
Outline
Treemap Sunburst
No...
University of Toronto
7
Common Tree Representations
Node-Link Containment
Alignment,
Adjacency
Outline
Treemap Sunburst
No...
University of Toronto
8
Tree Visualization Challenges
• Structure AND data within items
• Scalability (exponential growth)...
University of Toronto
9
Tree Visualization Challenges
• Different local properties
• Topology (dense vs. sparse)
• Data co...
University of Toronto
10
Tree Visualization Challenges
• Different local properties
• Topology (dense vs. sparse)
• Data c...
University of Toronto
11
Single Representation Limitations
Treemap Sunburst
Node-Link
Diagram Explorer
University of Toronto
12
Single Representation Limitations
Treemap Sunburst
Node-Link
Diagram Explorer
• Structure vs. dat...
University of Toronto
13
Single Representation Limitations
Treemap Sunburst
Node-Link
Diagram Explorer
• Structure vs. dat...
University of Toronto
14
Single Representation Limitations
Treemap Sunburst
Node-Link
Diagram Explorer
• Structure vs. dat...
University of Toronto
15
Single Representation Limitations
Treemap Sunburst
Node-Link
Diagram Explorer
• Structure vs. dat...
University of Toronto
16
Node-Link & Treemap
Node-Link Treemap
Pros
• Familiar
• Shows both
structure and
items
• Scalable...
University of Toronto
17
Node-Link & Treemap
Node-Link Treemap
Pros
• Familiar
• Shows both
structure and
items
• Scalable...
University of Toronto
18
Node-Link & Treemap
Node-Link Treemap
Pros
• Familiar
• Shows both
structure and
items
• Scalable...
University of Toronto
19
Node-Link & Treemap
Node-Link Treemap
Pros
• Familiar
• Shows both
structure and
items
• Scalable...
University of Toronto
20
Solving the Problem
• Hybridize complementary
representations to balance structure
and scalability
University of Toronto
21
Solving the Problem
• Hybridize complementary
representations to balance structure
and scalabilit...
University of Toronto
22
Solving the Problem
• Hybridize complementary
representations to balance structure
and scalabilit...
University of Toronto
23
Combine Multiple Representations
Node-Link
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24
Node-Link Treemap
Combine Multiple Representations
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25
Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1
Combine Multiple Representations
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Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1 Hybrid 2
Combine Multiple Representations
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27
… … …
Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1 Hybrid 2
Combine Multiple Representations
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… … …
Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1 Hybrid 2
Elastic Hierarchy:
Entire set of adjustable hybrids
of m...
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29
Elastic Hierarchy
Node–Link
Diagram
A tree of ~3500 nodes using Node-Link
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30
Elastic Hierarchy
Treemap
Same tree using Treemap
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31
Elastic Hierarchy
Same tree using Elastic Hierarchy
Elastic
Hierarchy
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32
Elastic Hierarchy
Node–Link Diagram Treemap Elastic Hierarchy
• Elastic Hierarchy
• Focus+context...
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33
y
x
Taxonomy
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34
y
x
Treemap (TM)
Node-Link (NL)
Taxonomy
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35
y
x
Treemap (TM)
Node-Link (NL)
outside
inside
Taxonomy
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36
y
x
Treemap (TM)
Node-Link (NL)
outside
inside
Taxonomy
NL outside NL
…….(A)
TM outside NL
…….(B)...
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37
y
x
Treemap (TM)
Node-Link (NL)
outside
inside
Taxonomy
NL outside NL
…….(A)
TM outside NL
…….(B)...
University of Toronto
38
y
x
Treemap (TM)
Node-Link (NL)
outside
inside
Taxonomy
NL outside NL
…….(A)
TM outside NL
…….(B)...
University of Toronto
39
y
x
Treemap (TM)
Node-Link (NL)
outside
inside
Taxonomy
Figure 4: here, the same tree is depicted...
University of Toronto
40
y
x
Treemap (TM)
Node-Link (NL)
outside
inside
Taxonomy
Figure 4: here, the same tree is depicted...
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41
Treemap Outside Node-Link
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42
Treemap Outside Node-Link
• Preserve top-level
topology
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43
Treemap Outside Node-Link
• Preserve top-level
topology
• Space filling at
crowded lower
levels
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44
Treemap Outside Node-Link
• Preserve top-level
topology
• Space filling at
crowded lower
levels
•...
University of Toronto
45
Treemap/Node-Link Outside Treemap
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46
• Focus+Context
Treemap/Node-Link Outside Treemap
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47
• Focus+Context
• Multiple foci
Treemap/Node-Link Outside Treemap
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48
• Focus+Context
• Multiple foci
• Occlusion
Treemap/Node-Link Outside Treemap
University of Toronto
49
Node-Link Inside Treemap
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50
Node-Link Inside Treemap
• Local topology within context
• But, has tight space constrains
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51
Node-Link Inside Treemap
• Local topology within context
• But, has tight space constrains
• More...
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52
Working Together
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53
Working Together
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54
Implementation
University of Toronto
55
Implementation
University of Toronto
56
Implementation
University of Toronto
57
Implementation
University of Toronto
58
Implementation
University of Toronto
59
User Interactions
• Toggle between representations
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60
User Interactions
• Toggle between representations
• Pan, zoom
University of Toronto
61
User Interactions
• Toggle between representations
• Pan, zoom
• Resize any subtree
University of Toronto
62
User Interactions
• Toggle between representations
• Pan, zoom
• Resize any subtree
• Unambiguous...
University of Toronto
63
Elastic Hierarchy Video
University of Toronto
64
Contributions
• Elastic representation
… … …
Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1 Hybrid 2
University of Toronto
65
Contributions
• Elastic representation
• Design space
… … …
Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1 Hybrid 2
Fi...
University of Toronto
66
Contributions
• Elastic representation
• Design space
• Interaction techniques
… … …
Node-Link Tr...
University of Toronto
67
Future Work
• Empirical evaluation
• Other useful elastic representations
University of Toronto
68
Acknowledgments
Ben Bederson, Ben Shneiderman,
Ravin Balakrishnan, Maneesh
Agrawala, Ed Chi, Amy ...
University of Toronto
69
Questions
Node–Link Diagram Treemap Elastic Hierarchy
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Elastic Hierarchies: Combining Treemaps and Node-Link Diagrams

  1. 1. Elastic Hierarchies: Combining Treemaps and Node-Link Diagrams Shengdong Zhao, Michael J. McGuffin, Mark H. Chignell University of Toronto
  2. 2. University of Toronto 2 Hierarchies (Trees) • Definition • Data where cases relate to subcases • Examples • Family histories, ancestries • File/directory systems on computers • Organization charts • Animal kingdom: phylum, genus • Object-oriented software classes
  3. 3. University of Toronto 3 Common Tree Representations Node-Link Containment Alignment, Adjacency Outline
  4. 4. University of Toronto 4 Common Tree Representations Node-Link Containment Alignment, Adjacency Outline Node-Link Diagram
  5. 5. University of Toronto 5 Common Tree Representations Node-Link Containment Alignment, Adjacency Outline Treemap Node-Link Diagram
  6. 6. University of Toronto 6 Common Tree Representations Node-Link Containment Alignment, Adjacency Outline Treemap Sunburst Node-Link Diagram
  7. 7. University of Toronto 7 Common Tree Representations Node-Link Containment Alignment, Adjacency Outline Treemap Sunburst Node-Link Diagram Explorer
  8. 8. University of Toronto 8 Tree Visualization Challenges • Structure AND data within items • Scalability (exponential growth) • Context (when focus changes) • Multiple hierarchies or polyarchies • Multiple foci [Robertson] [Furnas & Zacks]
  9. 9. University of Toronto 9 Tree Visualization Challenges • Different local properties • Topology (dense vs. sparse) • Data content (image vs. text)
  10. 10. University of Toronto 10 Tree Visualization Challenges • Different local properties • Topology (dense vs. sparse) • Data content (image vs. text) • Dynamic data • Hierarchies evolve • Adjustment required for content, context, topology
  11. 11. University of Toronto 11 Single Representation Limitations Treemap Sunburst Node-Link Diagram Explorer
  12. 12. University of Toronto 12 Single Representation Limitations Treemap Sunburst Node-Link Diagram Explorer • Structure vs. data within items
  13. 13. University of Toronto 13 Single Representation Limitations Treemap Sunburst Node-Link Diagram Explorer • Structure vs. data within items • Expressivity
  14. 14. University of Toronto 14 Single Representation Limitations Treemap Sunburst Node-Link Diagram Explorer • Structure vs. data within items • Expressivity • Static representation
  15. 15. University of Toronto 15 Single Representation Limitations Treemap Sunburst Node-Link Diagram Explorer • Structure vs. data within items • Expressivity • Static representation
  16. 16. University of Toronto 16 Node-Link & Treemap Node-Link Treemap Pros • Familiar • Shows both structure and items • Scalable, space efficient • Eases comparison of branch patterns Cons • Hard to scale (100 nodes) • Less familiar • Hard to see structure
  17. 17. University of Toronto 17 Node-Link & Treemap Node-Link Treemap Pros • Familiar • Shows both structure and items • Scalable, space efficient • Eases comparison of branch patterns Cons • Hard to scale (100 nodes) • Less familiar • Hard to see structure
  18. 18. University of Toronto 18 Node-Link & Treemap Node-Link Treemap Pros • Familiar • Shows both structure and items • Scalable, space efficient • Eases comparison of branch patterns Cons • Hard to scale (100 nodes) • Less familiar • Hard to see structure
  19. 19. University of Toronto 19 Node-Link & Treemap Node-Link Treemap Pros • Familiar • Shows both structure and items • Scalable, space efficient • Eases comparison of branch patterns Cons • Hard to scale (100 nodes) • Less familiar • Hard to see structure
  20. 20. University of Toronto 20 Solving the Problem • Hybridize complementary representations to balance structure and scalability
  21. 21. University of Toronto 21 Solving the Problem • Hybridize complementary representations to balance structure and scalability • Representational adaptations for branches and tasks
  22. 22. University of Toronto 22 Solving the Problem • Hybridize complementary representations to balance structure and scalability • Representational adaptations for branches and tasks • User manipulation and automatic adjustment
  23. 23. University of Toronto 23 Combine Multiple Representations Node-Link
  24. 24. University of Toronto 24 Node-Link Treemap Combine Multiple Representations
  25. 25. University of Toronto 25 Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1 Combine Multiple Representations
  26. 26. University of Toronto 26 Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1 Hybrid 2 Combine Multiple Representations
  27. 27. University of Toronto 27 … … … Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1 Hybrid 2 Combine Multiple Representations
  28. 28. University of Toronto 28 … … … Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1 Hybrid 2 Elastic Hierarchy: Entire set of adjustable hybrids of multiple representations Combine Multiple Representations
  29. 29. University of Toronto 29 Elastic Hierarchy Node–Link Diagram A tree of ~3500 nodes using Node-Link
  30. 30. University of Toronto 30 Elastic Hierarchy Treemap Same tree using Treemap
  31. 31. University of Toronto 31 Elastic Hierarchy Same tree using Elastic Hierarchy Elastic Hierarchy
  32. 32. University of Toronto 32 Elastic Hierarchy Node–Link Diagram Treemap Elastic Hierarchy • Elastic Hierarchy • Focus+context • Adaptability+user control • Multiple foci
  33. 33. University of Toronto 33 y x Taxonomy
  34. 34. University of Toronto 34 y x Treemap (TM) Node-Link (NL) Taxonomy
  35. 35. University of Toronto 35 y x Treemap (TM) Node-Link (NL) outside inside Taxonomy
  36. 36. University of Toronto 36 y x Treemap (TM) Node-Link (NL) outside inside Taxonomy NL outside NL …….(A) TM outside NL …….(B) NL outside TM …….(C) TM outside TM …….(D) NL inside TM …….(E) TM inside TM …….(F) NL inside NL …….(G) TM inside NL …….(H)
  37. 37. University of Toronto 37 y x Treemap (TM) Node-Link (NL) outside inside Taxonomy NL outside NL …….(A) TM outside NL …….(B) NL outside TM …….(C) TM outside TM …….(D) NL inside TM …….(E) TM inside TM …….(F) NL inside NL …….(G) TM inside NL …….(H)
  38. 38. University of Toronto 38 y x Treemap (TM) Node-Link (NL) outside inside Taxonomy NL outside NL …….(A) TM outside NL …….(B) NL outside TM …….(C) TM outside TM …….(D) NL inside TM …….(E) TM inside TM …….(F) Figure 4: here, the same tree is depicted 6 different ways (illustration): in A, with a traditional node-link diagram, in F, with a Treemap, and in B-E, with mixed, hybrid representations.
  39. 39. University of Toronto 39 y x Treemap (TM) Node-Link (NL) outside inside Taxonomy Figure 4: here, the same tree is depicted 6 different ways (illustration): in A, with a traditional node-link diagram, in F, with a Treemap, and in B-E, with mixed, hybrid representations. NL outside NL …….(A) TM outside NL …….(B) NL outside TM …….(C) TM outside TM …….(D) NL inside TM …….(E) TM inside TM …….(F)
  40. 40. University of Toronto 40 y x Treemap (TM) Node-Link (NL) outside inside Taxonomy Figure 4: here, the same tree is depicted 6 different ways (illustration): in A, with a traditional node-link diagram, in F, with a Treemap, and in B-E, with mixed, hybrid representations. NL outside NL …….(A) TM outside NL …….(B) NL outside TM …….(C) TM outside TM …….(D) NL inside TM …….(E) TM inside TM …….(F)
  41. 41. University of Toronto 41 Treemap Outside Node-Link
  42. 42. University of Toronto 42 Treemap Outside Node-Link • Preserve top-level topology
  43. 43. University of Toronto 43 Treemap Outside Node-Link • Preserve top-level topology • Space filling at crowded lower levels
  44. 44. University of Toronto 44 Treemap Outside Node-Link • Preserve top-level topology • Space filling at crowded lower levels • Pattern comparison among branches
  45. 45. University of Toronto 45 Treemap/Node-Link Outside Treemap
  46. 46. University of Toronto 46 • Focus+Context Treemap/Node-Link Outside Treemap
  47. 47. University of Toronto 47 • Focus+Context • Multiple foci Treemap/Node-Link Outside Treemap
  48. 48. University of Toronto 48 • Focus+Context • Multiple foci • Occlusion Treemap/Node-Link Outside Treemap
  49. 49. University of Toronto 49 Node-Link Inside Treemap
  50. 50. University of Toronto 50 Node-Link Inside Treemap • Local topology within context • But, has tight space constrains
  51. 51. University of Toronto 51 Node-Link Inside Treemap • Local topology within context • But, has tight space constrains • More space if resizing is allowed • But, resizing changes visual landmarks
  52. 52. University of Toronto 52 Working Together
  53. 53. University of Toronto 53 Working Together
  54. 54. University of Toronto 54 Implementation
  55. 55. University of Toronto 55 Implementation
  56. 56. University of Toronto 56 Implementation
  57. 57. University of Toronto 57 Implementation
  58. 58. University of Toronto 58 Implementation
  59. 59. University of Toronto 59 User Interactions • Toggle between representations
  60. 60. University of Toronto 60 User Interactions • Toggle between representations • Pan, zoom
  61. 61. University of Toronto 61 User Interactions • Toggle between representations • Pan, zoom • Resize any subtree
  62. 62. University of Toronto 62 User Interactions • Toggle between representations • Pan, zoom • Resize any subtree • Unambiguous selection within Treemaps using tabs
  63. 63. University of Toronto 63 Elastic Hierarchy Video
  64. 64. University of Toronto 64 Contributions • Elastic representation … … … Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1 Hybrid 2
  65. 65. University of Toronto 65 Contributions • Elastic representation • Design space … … … Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1 Hybrid 2 Figure 4: here, the same tree is depicted 6 different ways (illustration): in A, with a traditional node-link diagram, in F, with a Treemap, and in B-E, with mixed, hybrid representations.
  66. 66. University of Toronto 66 Contributions • Elastic representation • Design space • Interaction techniques … … … Node-Link TreemapHybrid 1 Hybrid 2 Figure 4: here, the same tree is depicted 6 different ways (illustration): in A, with a traditional node-link diagram, in F, with a Treemap, and in B-E, with mixed, hybrid representations.
  67. 67. University of Toronto 67 Future Work • Empirical evaluation • Other useful elastic representations
  68. 68. University of Toronto 68 Acknowledgments Ben Bederson, Ben Shneiderman, Ravin Balakrishnan, Maneesh Agrawala, Ed Chi, Amy Zhu, John Hancock, Joe Laszlo, Jim Chengming Cai, Noah Lockwood, Bowen Hui, anonymous reviewers, and other IML & DGP members at University of Toronto
  69. 69. University of Toronto 69 Questions Node–Link Diagram Treemap Elastic Hierarchy

Authors: Shengdong Zhao, Michael J. McGuffin, Mark H. Chignell

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