23. common neurological disorders


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23. common neurological disorders

  1. 1. Jannie Macanalalay Dixee Liao
  2. 2. What does the term “neurological disorder” mean? <ul><li>Neurological disorders are disorders of the nervous system. These diseases have connections to the nerve since the prefix “neuro-” means nerve. </li></ul>
  3. 3. To name some neurological disorders…… <ul><li>Alzheimer’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>OCD </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>Migraine </li></ul><ul><li>epilepsy </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is alzheimer’s disease? <ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease is also known in medical literature as “Alzheimer Disease(AD)”. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most common form of dementia(a loss of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. It affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior). </li></ul>
  5. 5. At what age do people get this disease? <ul><li>Most often, people diagnosed with this disease are 65 years and above, although the less-prevalent early onset of this disease can occur earlier. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What causes this disease? <ul><li>The cause of this disease is still unknown. However, there are still several factors known to be link to a higher risk of developing the disease, like: age, family history, head injuries, some diseases and conditions, etc. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Symptoms <ul><li>The symptoms of Alzheimer’s have 7 stages. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stage 1: No impairment <ul><li>The person does not experience any memory problems. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Stage 2: Very mild cognitive decline <ul><li>Could be normal age-related changes, or the earliest signs of Alzheimer's.  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stage 3: Early Confusional (Mild Cognitive Decline) <ul><li>Early-stage Alzheimer's is sometimes diagnosed at this stage. </li></ul><ul><li>The patient has slight difficulties which have some impact on certain everyday functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the time, the patients try to conceal the problems. Problems include word recall, organization, planning, mislaying things,  reading a passage and retaining information from it, ability to learn new things, and organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes moody, anxious and at times, depressed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stage 4: Moderate cognitive Decline <ul><li>Still identifies familiar people and is aware of self. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced memory of personal history. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraws from conversations, social situations, and mentally challenging situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Denies there is a problem and becomes defensive. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stage 5: Moderately Severe Cognitive Decline <ul><li>Cognitive deterioration is more serious. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot remember details about personal history, such as name of where they went to school, telephone numbers, personal address, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Confused about what day it is, month, year. </li></ul><ul><li>Confused about where they are or where things are. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy prey for scammers. </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to recall current information consistently. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stage 6: Severe Cognitive Decline <ul><li>Memory continues to deteriorate. </li></ul><ul><li>Require all-around help with daily activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption of sleep patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Wander off and become lost. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat words, phrases or repetitively utters sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicious, paranoid, and aggressive. </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbed, agitated, especially later on in the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive/compulsive behavior, such as tearing up tissues or wringing hands. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stage 7: Very Severe Cognitive Decline <ul><li>During the last stage of Alzheimer's disease patients lose the ability to respond to their environment, they cannot speak, and eventually cannot control movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients lose their ability to recognize speech, but may utter short words or moans to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexes become abnormal. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally bedridden. </li></ul><ul><li>Spends more time asleep. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Treatments <ul><li>There is no known cure for this disease and it will eventually end in death. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What is schizophrenia? <ul><li>Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that makes it hard for a person to distinguish what is real and unreal. It also makes it difficult to think clearly, manage emotions and relate to others . </li></ul>
  17. 17. When does it start? <ul><li>In men, symptoms usually start in the late teens and early 20s. For women, they start in the mid-20s to early 30s. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Causes <ul><li>The cause of schizophrenia is not yet fully known. However, it appears that schizophrenia usually results from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Symptoms: <ul><li>Delusions </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganized speech </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganized behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Negative symptoms or absence of normal behavior </li></ul>
  20. 20. Treatments and preventions <ul><li>Get involved in treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Build a strong support system. </li></ul><ul><li>Find ways to stay involved with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Put medication in its place. </li></ul><ul><li>Make healthy lifestyle choices. </li></ul>
  21. 21. What is Parkinson’s disease? <ul><li>Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the brain that leads to shaking and difficulty with walking, movement, and coordination. </li></ul>
  22. 22. At what age can you get it? <ul><li>If you are 60 or over, you are more likely to get this disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Most cases begin when one is over 60 years old. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Causes: <ul><li>This disease is caused by progressive impairment or deterioration of neurons(brain cells) in an area of the brain. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Symptoms <ul><li>The symptoms may be mild at first. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic movements (such as blinking) slow or stop </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired balance and walking </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle aches and pains </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with movement(difficulty starting or continuing movement, slowed movements, rigid or stiff muscles) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Treatment <ul><li>Currently, there is no known cure for this disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy is directed at treating the symptoms that are most bothersome to an individual with Parkinson’s disease. </li></ul>
  26. 26. What is OCD? <ul><li>OCD stands for obsessive-compulsive disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>OCD is a type of anxiety that happens when there is a problem with the way the brain deals with worrying and doubts.  </li></ul>
  27. 27. At what age does a person get this? <ul><li>OCD can first appear between ages 8 to 12. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be also between the late teens and early adulthood. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Causes <ul><li>No one has found a single, proven cause for OCD. </li></ul><ul><li>Some research shows that it may have to do with chemicals in the brain that carry messages from one nerve cell to another. One of these chemicals, called serotonin (say &quot;sair-a-tone-in&quot;), helps to keep people from repeating the same behaviors over and over again. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Symptoms <ul><li>Fear of being contaminated by germs or dirt or contaminating others. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of causing harm to yourself or others. </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusive sexually explicit or violent thoughts and images. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive focus on religious or moral ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of losing or not having things you might need. </li></ul><ul><li>Order and symmetry: the idea that everything must line up “just right.” </li></ul><ul><li>Superstitions; excessive attention to something considered lucky or unlucky. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Treatment <ul><li>The most effective treatment is the cognitive-behavioral theraphy. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure and response prevention involves repeated exposure to the source of your obsession. Then you are asked to refrain from the compulsive behavior you’d usually perform to reduce your anxiety. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive therapy focuses on the catastrophic thoughts and exaggerated sense of responsibility you feel. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. What is ADHD? <ul><li>ADHD stands for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Children with ADHD generally have problems paying attention or concentrating. They can't seem to follow directions and are easily bored or frustrated with tasks. They also tend to move constantly and are impulsive, not stopping to think before they act. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Causes <ul><li>The exact cause of ADHD is still unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>But they suspect that there are several factors that may contribute to the condition… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical imbalance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brain changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Head injury </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Symptoms <ul><li>Symptoms of ADHD in children are generally grouped into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Inattention <ul><li>Easily distracted </li></ul><ul><li>does not follow directions or finish tasks </li></ul><ul><li>does not appear to be listening when someone is speaking </li></ul><ul><li>does not pay attention and makes careless mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>is forgetful about daily activities </li></ul><ul><li>has problems organizing daily tasks </li></ul><ul><li>avoids or dislikes activities that require sitting still or a sustained effort </li></ul><ul><li>often loses things, including personal items </li></ul><ul><li>has a tendency to daydream </li></ul>
  35. 35. Hyperactivity <ul><li>often squirms, fidgets, or bounces when sitting </li></ul><ul><li>does not stay seated as expected </li></ul><ul><li>has difficulty playing quietly </li></ul><ul><li>is always moving, such as running or climbing on things (In teens and adults, this is more commonly described as a sense of restlessness) </li></ul><ul><li>talks excessively </li></ul>
  36. 36. Impulsivity <ul><li>has difficulty waiting for his or her turn </li></ul><ul><li>blurts out answers before the question has been completed </li></ul><ul><li>often interrupts others </li></ul>
  37. 37. Treatment <ul><li>Most ADHD patients respond well with medications. </li></ul><ul><li>The second proven treatment is behavioral interventions. Behavioral interventions include cognitive behavior modification, coaching, and support groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Most ADHD individuals find exercise extremely calming. </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to treat ADHD is with a combination of medication and behavioral therapy, under the advice of a doctor. </li></ul>