Project Management and Practice

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Project Management and Practice

  1. 1.     CS4457 ­ Project Management in Practice        ‘Erasmus students registration system’                Tara Donoghue ­ 10131787  Caitriona Conefrey ­ 10103791  Killian Vigna ­ 10127267  Killian Stone ­ 09005157  Lakshika Serasinhe ­ 09004322              
  2. 2. Table of Contents    Introduction     ks    Interaction Management........................kv...........ls...................................  Develop Project Charter.....................kv...........................................  Stakeholder Analysis…………………kv……………………...  Project Management Plan...............................ls................................  SWOT Analysis..............................kv.................................  Monitor & Control Project Work..................ls.....................................  Close Project or Phase.................................ls..............................    Scope Management....................................kv ..................(DONE)..........  Collect Requirements...............................................................  Define Scope...............................................................  Create WBS...............................................................  Control Scope..............................................................    Time Management.....................kv.......ls..................................................  Plan Schedule................................................................  Define Activities...............................................................  Estimate Activity Resources & duration..............................................  Develop and Control Schedule.........................................................  (add gantt charts and screenshots)   
  3. 3. Cost Management............................ls.......................................................  Plan Cost................................................................  Estimate Cost...............................................................  Determine Budget...............................................................  Control Cost...............................................................    Risk Management................ks................................................................   Identification...............................................................  Risk analysis...............................................................  Risk mitigation ...............................................................  Risk Control ...............................................................    Software Design .................................td cc...ks................................    User requirements ………….  Usability requirements...............................................................  Implementation Technologies...................................................  Concept sketches...............................................................  Scenarios...............................................................  Storyboards………….  Evaluation of Similar Websites………………...  Paper Prototypes ­ Low fidelity …………………..  Evaluation of Paper prototypes……….  Interactive prototype ………….  Medium Fidelity …………….  Progress report……….. 
  4. 4.   Software Development ……………td cc…………………………...…..  Heuristics evaluation of Interactive prototype……  Usability testing…….  Implementing the technology…………   Results and conclusion of the website…..    Technical discovery………………..  Technical collaboration and client review  Template development ………………  Client review …….  Launch……..    Closing activities……….    Appendices....................................................................................  References....................................................................................  Bibliography....................................................................................  Screenshots Appendices......................................................  Prototype mock ups ………………  Questions for industry experts (SAA and website developer) ……..         
  5. 5. Introduction (KS)  This project sets out to develop a system to help newly arriving Erasmus students settle                              faster in the University of Limerick upon their initial few weeks. The Project plan involves                              creating a web based system that will cater to the following needs for Erasmus Students;  ● Registration with the University of Limerick.  ● Allocation of Student number and student email.  ● Appointment for Student Card.  ● Allocation of Timetable.  ● Module registration.  ● Extra Information on the area (map, best shops, etc).    Upon the implementation of this system by the University of Limerick we would expect that                              all newly arriving Erasmus students would use this web based system in the opening                            weeks in order to become better familiarised with their host University. The system will                            continue to be maintained year round so that any information that needs to made available                              or noticeable to Erasmus students can be placed on this site in order to reach the desired                                  audience. We would hope for the final system to be maintained by the International Society                              of UL.                       
  6. 6. Interaction Management (KV/LS)  Develop Project Charter       Stakeholder Analysis  The stakeholder of a project is the person who has the most to gain or lose in a project.                                      These are individuals or groups that are affected by our firms actions. These are divided                              into two categories, Primary and Secondary Stakeholders. The primary stakeholders are                     
  7. 7. the individuals or groups involved in the project, where the secondary do not have any                              direct economic involvement.The stakeholders affected by our project are:  Potential Erasmus students, UL staff members, UL Erasmus and International Exchange                      department, the University of Limerick and Erasmus.org.       http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_07.htm    From the above Power/Interest chart we can see the following:  We have Erasmus students in the Players section (High Power, High Interest). These are                            the people we must engage with most and are they group we aim to satisfy the most.  For the Subjects section (Low Power, High interest) we have included the Erasmus                          Department as this website will make their workload much easier. 
  8. 8. There are two stakeholders in the Crowd section (Low Power, Low Interest), Erasmus.org                          and UL Staff. Although it is our role to monitor these people, they require very little                                communication throughout the project planning.  The final section is Context Setters (High Power, Low Interest). Here we have the University                              of Limerick itself. With the objective of this website being based on making life easier for                                potential Erasmus students studying in UL, it is essential to put in enough work with the                                University to keep them satisfied, but not so much information that they will become bored                              of.    Project Management Plan      SWOT Analysis  ● Strengths:   ○ Students can pre­register online.  ○ Here potential UL erasmus students will have access to all relevant                      documents and forms.   ○ They are assigned their own unique student ID number.  ○ Can arrange an appointment to receive their student card.  ○ Allows students to choose their own modules before arriving in Ireland.   ○ They can create their own timetable using their account.  ○ They can access a forum to converse with past erasmus students.    ● Weaknesses:  ○ Miscommunication between the students and website due to language                  barriers   ○ Not setting up the project with a realistic budget could cause major problems                          during the later stages in the project 
  9. 9. ○ Irresponsibly cutting corners to keep the cost down could result in poor                        quality of the website.  ○ Not preparing for problems in advance    ● Opportunities:   ○ Students can only access relevant forms through each college’s own                    Erasmus department.  ○ This will be the only website providing a potential Erasmus student with all                          the relevant information before they move over.    ● Threats:   ○ Online user security.  ○ Malware(malicious software online that attempt to gain private information)    Monitor & Control Project Work  This process involves the tracking reviewing and reporting what has been done up until this                              point. This is achieved by meeting the performance objectives defined in the project                          management plan. The main objective of this process is to allow the stakeholders involved                            an update into the progress made so far.    Close Project or Phase      Scope Management (KV)  Collect Requirements  Collecting requirements is a process that involves determining, documenting and                    managing stakeholder needs. This can be done through interviews, focus groups and                        facilitated workshops. For this section we interviewed Patricia O’ Flaherty, the University of                         
  10. 10. Limerick coordinator for Erasmus & International Exchange before performing a                    brainstorming session as a group.  We contacted patricia through a series of emails as she was too busy to meet up with the                                    increase of incoming and outgoing Erasmus students this year. Once we had received her                            answers we formed a group brainstorming session to find out what exactly happens in the                              Erasmus office, how students enrol into a college, the process behind registering each                          student, and how the process can be made easier.    Define Scope  This process involves the development of a detailed description of the project and product.    Scope Statement  ______________________________________________________________________________  Project Name: Erasmus Students Registration System  Group: DesignFix  Project Manager: Caitriona Conefrey  Date:  /  /2014    ______________________________________________________________________________  Prepared By  Document Owner(s)  Project/Organization Role  Killian Vigna  Cost Manager            Project Justification 
  11. 11.   At present, the only online resource for Erasmus students enrolling into a new                        college is www.esn.org a resource website. This website however only assists                    students in cultural, accommodation and the social aspects of studying abroad.        Project Product    An online resource for students coming to Ireland to study in the University of                          Limerick. This is website separate from UL where foreign exchange students can                      find everything about enrolling in UL.       Project Deliverables  Carry out an heuristic evaluation on the current UL Erasmus page.  Obtained information from Patricia O’ Flaherty, UL’s Erasmus & INternational                  Exchange coordinator.  Design a fresh, original and user friendly website.  An easy to access and navigate through website.  make information more refined and clearer for students.  Prototyping.  Carryout user testing on the new design.       
  12. 12. Project Objective  A one stop solution for future Erasmus students looking to enrol at the University of                            Limerick. This website will allow potential students to create an online account,                      receive their own student ID number, pick their desired modules for the year and                          organise their own timetable where they will be automatically registered for each                      module. Students can obtain all relevant documentations and forms required to enrol                      at UL and forums will be provided for these students to get into contact with other                              past, present and future Erasmus students.           Assumptions/Limitations    Time  Cost   Skill  Inexperience of required skills          Overall Project Priority:  High    Comments:    Approved By: KIllian Vigna   Project Manager : Caitriona Conefrey  Date: 01 / 03  /2014 
  13. 13.     Create WBS    http://www.wbstool.com/WBSEditor.php    Work Breakdown Structure Indepth:  1 Erasmus Students Registration System    1.1 Gather Requirements  1.1.1 Technical Specifications  1.1.1.1 Expected Bandwidth  1.1.1.1.1 User Registration  1.1.1.1.1.1 Restricted Areas  1.1.2 User Requirements  1.1.2.1 Menu Navigation  1.1.2.1.1 Interactive Modules  1.1.2.1.1.1 Static Pages  1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Flash Elements  1.1.3 Reporting Requirements  1.1.3.1 Bandwith & Usage  1.1.3.1.1 Page Views  1.1.3.1.1.1 Session Length 
  14. 14.     1.2 Establish Design  1.2.1 Design Elements  1.2.1.1 Banner  1.2.1.1.1 Footer  1.2.1.1.1.1 Logo  1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Colour Scheme  1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Font Usage  1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Images  1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Photography  1.2.2 Overall Layout  1.2.2.1 Column Setup  1.2.2.1.1 Optional Modules  1.2.2.1.1.1 Navigation Layout  1.2.3 Content Elements  1.2.3.1 About Page  1.2.3.1.1 Contact Page  1.2.3.1.1.1 Services Page  1.2.3.1.1.1.1 FAQ Page  1.2.3.1.1.1.1.1 Photo Gallery      1.3 Select Technical Framework  1.3.1 Evaluate Options Against Requirements  1.3.2 Evaluate Cost and Time to Develop  1.3.3 Make Decision     
  15. 15. 1.4 Implement Technical Framework  1.4.1 Build or Acquire Back End  1.4.2 Build or Acquire User Interface  1.4.3 Integrate Back and Front      1.5 Create Content  1.5.1 Create Content  1.5.2 Establish Content  1.5.3 Assign Content Creation  1.5.4 Create Detailed Content      1.6 Load Content    1.7 Test Site  1.7.1 Navigation  1.7.2 Interactive Elements  1.7.2.1 Contact Form  1.7.2.1.1 User Registration  1.7.3 Browser Compatibility        1.8 Roll Out Site  1.8.1 Establish Target Date  1.8.2 Create Communication Plan  1.8.3 Make Site Live 
  16. 16.     Control Scope  A Control Scope is used to compare the current scope of a project and the baseline scope                                  information, and find any changes or differences that has or will take place. A control scope                                is only necessary when the project manager agrees it will make an impact. If the impact of                                  change is big enough, it is required to make updates to requirements documents and the                              requirement traceability matrix. In this case there are no changes in the projects scope plan                              and therefore there is no control action required.    Time Management (KV/LS)   Plan Schedule      Define Activities      Estimate Activity Resources & duration      Develop and Control Schedule      Cost Management (LS)  Plan Cost      Estimate Cost 
  17. 17.     Determine Budget      Control Cost              Risk Management (KS)  Identification  In order to identify all the potential risks to this project we first met with our Industry Client,                                    Patrica O’Flaherty, from the SAA in the University of Limerick as well as a web developer.                                From our two interviews with these Industry Clients we outlined a list of potential areas of                                risk for this project. We then used this information to create a RBS (Risk Breakdown                              Structure) in AgenaRisk. This allowed us to outline the categories and subcategories                        where we thought issues may arise during the course of this project.  The RBS satisfies the minimalist requirements described by Chapman and Ward [a]                        where they recommend that any approach to risk quantification:     “should be so easy to use that the usual resistance to   appropriate quantification based on lack of data and lack of comfort with subjective  probabilities is overcome”.     Our RBS is outlined below. Orange is high risk, yellow is low risk. 
  18. 18.     As can be seen from the above RBS Cost Management has the highest potential risks                              involved followed by the Project Management itself. Our lowest area for potential risk is the                              design area, this is because as a group of designers we feel confident in controlling this                                area with some level of expertise.     Risk Analysis  Risk Analysis involves assessing the identified risks according to the possibility of them                          impacting and affecting the project. The probability of a certain risk occurring by the impact                              the occurrence would have on the project equals the total risk itself.    Risk = Probability x Impact.   
  19. 19.     We used a program called COCOMO in order to assess all of the risks and costs involved                                  in creating a website for Erasmus Students in the University of Limerick. By creating a                              table in the program and entering the risk data we gathered through interviews and our risk                                map we can produce probabilities based on how likely a particular risk is to occur and                                what financial impact this may have.    Our COCOMO Risk Table can be seen below;          Probability and Impact Matrix  
  20. 20.   The above Probability and Impact Matrix shows all the areas of potential risk according to                              both the Probability of them occurring and the impact they would have on the project in the                                  event of their occurrence. The credibility and quality of the risk analysis  requires different levels of risk probability and impact to be defined that are specific to this                                project context for building a web based system.    Risk Mitigation  Risk Mitigation is “the process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities  and reduce threats to project objectives.” [b] It is the act of preparing for risk impact. Risk  Mitigation involves developing contingency plans in case of a risk impacting the course of  the project. In the case of this project where the project is to build a website there are a  number of risks involved where a contingency plan may be necessary.  They are listed as  follows:   
  21. 21. Potential Risks  Contingency Plan  Product fails heuristic evaluation.  Worst possible outcome. Product will be  brought back to designers and redesigned  from scratch.  Poor Website Usability.  Website will undergo another heuristics  evaluation.  Unrealistic Time Management.  Time Management will be evaluated on a  weekly basis.  Security Flaws.  High Class Security will be brought on  board if product fails security tests.  Missing Requirements.  Requirements will continuously be  assessed throughout each evaluation.  Bad Cost Estimation.  Project Spending will be evaluated at the  end of each month.  Lack of/Low Funding.  Further funding may be secured by  securing sponsorship from UL.    Risk Control  Risk Control is the process of “tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks,                        identifying new risks, executing risk response plans, and evaluating their effectiveness                      throughout the project life cycle”.[c] This project has not run into any issues as of yet,                                therefore we have been unable to evaluate the risk responses. However we have evaluated                            certain aspects. We can confirm that all project assumptions outlined above in the                          document are still valid and project management policies and procedures are being                        adhered to in this project by all members of the team.  If any new risk is identified or scope is changed during the course of this project  then a new contingency plan should be developed in order to deal with the worst case  scenario. Risk control should be reassessed multiple times over the course of the project.  Risks will be accessed and updated throughout the process. Risks will be accessed every  fortnight.  
  22. 22.     Software Design (TD/CC)  User Requirements  Poslad (2011) refers to the importance of user­awareness, and being aware of the context                            of the user, in supporting centered tasks and goals. Before looking into design concepts,                            the profile of the foreseen user is essential. This would include identifying their needs and                              objectives when interacting with the device. The main challenge in the first phase of                            designing a website is eliciting use requirements (Hengst, Van de Kr, Appelman, 2004).                          The chosen demographic who will benefit from the website are international students who                          will be completing erasmus in UL. When managing a project it is important to identify user                                requirements of international students coming to study in UL. User requirement define what                          should be developed. (Hengst, 2004).    Main requirements for users of this website;  ● Appropriate links   ● Appropriate documents and resources   ● Answers to frequent questions  ● Contact information  ● A social element    Usability Requirements  The primary aim is to design a website that will ease the stresses an erasmus student                                make face when they have chosen to study at the university of Limerick. This is a crucial                                  stage as it allows for the usability requirements to be included in the final design, as a                                  result ensuring that a functional and usable website is designed.     Requirements for this website design; 
  23. 23. ● Straightforward and easy to use.  ● Fun but informative  ● Good user interface  ● Recognisable functions  ● Number of languages     Ease of use and mapping is very important because it makes the website easier to use.                                Ease of use and mapping proved to be very important. As Nielsen says “Consistency of                              the most powerful usability principles: when things always behave the same, users don’t                          have to worry about what will happen. Instead, they know what will happen based on earlier                                experience”    During the design of the website, Jakob Nielsens ten heuristics were applied to ensure                            usability requirements; visibility of system status, match between system and real world,                        user control and freedom, consistency and standards, error prevention, recognition rather                      than recall, flexibility and efficiency of use, aesthetic and minimalist design, help users                          recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors and help and documentation (Nielsen, J.                        Molich, R. 1990).        Implementation Technologies   Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator­  Adobe Systems have developed, among others, the desktop software products known as                        Photoshop and Illustrator. Photoshop is a popular graphics­editing program, used in many                        creative areas, with a selection of tools to edit, create and manipulate graphics. Illustrator                            can be used alongside Photoshop, creating original outline of graphics to then be edited in                              Photoshop. Available drawing tools allow for the basic details needed when creating logos,                          symbols or fonts. 
  24. 24. Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator were used in developing the final prototype. Both                        applications used together produced adequate design work. The style and layout                      aesthetics of the website was designed using these programs.  A design visualization module allowed us to become familiar with these programs by                          drawing and rendering designs. These fundamentals learned were of great help in the                          mock­up and final design stages.      Axure­  Axure is a wireframing mock­up tool that can be used to create mock­ups of application                              user interfaces. This tool allows for the building of interactive prototypes without requiring                          the skill or time of coding. Along with websites, Axure is also used in creating tablet and                                  mobile application prototypes.  This software helps in making design decisions and to communicate design concepts in a                            clearer and more accurate way. With Axure we can develop a fully interactive website                            prototype, that can be presented and testing on any computer monitor or laptop. It's                            important to have such prototypes to allow for user feedback from devices, which reflect the                              final product with accurate size and display. This results in more decisive and detailed                            modification.     Concept Sketches(T)  Concept sketches not only helped in communicating ideas to others but also for                          discovering new possible features and working out difficult obstacles of how the website                          will operate. The concept sketches show the content of the website. The concepts will be                              used to produce low fidelity prototypes and a medium fidelity prototype.      Scenarios (T)  Scenario­based design allows us to identify users and show how they will interact with a                              product in everyday life. Scenarios can be helpful to both the designer and clients. A                             
  25. 25. description of end users is clearly expressed, while adjustments of functionality can be                          easily made in the early stages. A scenario was generated keeping the stakeholder in                            mind and In order to understand how the website would be used by an erasmus student, a                                  step by step scenario was created.     Scenario 1  Camilla is a 21 year old student from sweden who has decided to study for a year in                                    Ireland. Having looked at the courses available in the University of Limerick, she has                            decided to complete her Erasmus year of study in UL. She logs onto the erasmus website                                for incoming students to find out everything she needs to know and in order to retrieve all of                                    the documents she needs. When she opens the webpage, she sees a tab named                            resources. When she goes to that tab she finds all of the forms and documents she needs                                  prior to her visit in Ireland. The forms on the website allow her to complete tasks she would                                    have had to do when she arrived in Limerick.   Camila is nervous about moving away from home and to a new country. She wants to get                                  some more information about the registration process from someone who has been                        through a similar experience. She clicks on the forum tab and writes to Francesca, another                              swedish student who completed erasmus in UL last year.     Storyboarding(T)   Following the description of a scenario comes the storyboarding, where we can visualize                          the concept. This step also allows for further correction of details, which may have been                              missed or overlooked. Storyboarding is one of the most important aspects when designing                          something new (Williams, 2009). Creating a storyboard for the website is very important                          because it provides an outlook as to how the website will look and progress (Williams,                              2009).  Creating a storyboard made the process easier and gave direction and scope.      Storyboarding was used during the research and design process of developing the                        website for erasmus students. The storyboard consists of a number of hand drawn                         
  26. 26. illustrations and sketches. The aim of the storyboard is to assist in visualising the layout                              and design of the website. It also shows how the website will be used in a scenario like the                                      one mentioned previously. Storyboarding allowed our project group to convey “functionality                      of a proposed solution, product or service” and “Collecting requirements and generating                        feedback on how the events and functionalities” (Beaudouin­Lafon & Mackay, 2003)    Storyboard images(killians drawings)    Evaluation of Similar Websites(T)    Screenshots of the existing website            Produce and design  “A good design is better than you think” (Rex Heftman, 2000). There are a number of                                stages in the design process. These include the design of, low, medium and high fidelity                              prototypes. Each prototype is further developed than its predecessor and the development                        is based on feedback from testing using prototypes. A prototype is a “Concrete                          representation” of a design. (Beaudouin­Lafon, Mackay, 2003). Prototypes provide the                    means for examining design problems and evaluating solutions. Prototypes both inform                      the design process and help designers select the best solution. (Beaudouin­Lafon,                      Mackay, 2003). Low fidelity prototypes are the first prototypes developed. In this case the                            low fidelity prototypes were developed following an assessment of the current information                        provided on the UL website and feedback from industry experts. Low fidelity prototypes                          are commonly cheap and are easily altered. Medium fidelity prototypes include a more                          developed design. The development is based on the results from testing using low fidelity                           
  27. 27. prototypes. Medium fidelity prototypes include functions but redesign and further                    improvements can be made.     From the outset of the project, our project management group felt it was extremely crucial                              to prototype early and regularly in order to ensure that my final design goals were achieved.                                Paper prototypes, low fidelity prototypes and medium fidelity prototypes were made using                        AXURE, Illustrator and Photoshop. Prototypes were used to gather valuable feedback                      from users.      Paper Prototypes ­ Low Fidelity   Following an exploration of similar websites and what makes for good website design, low                            fidelity prototypes were carried out. This allowed us as designers to envision the websites                            layout and also to finalise relevant features. Prototypes come in a number of different                            forms. A number of quick sketches on paper can be considered a prototype. Paper                            prototypes help the designer in a number of ways. Offline prototypes also known as paper                              prototypes do not require a computer or technological device. Offline prototypes can be                          created quickly and cheaply. By beginning with paper prototypes we were able to map out                              the structure of the website. The paper prototypes show how the website will function.                            Paper prototypes demonstrated the overall usability.   
  28. 28.  
  29. 29.  
  30. 30.   Evaluation of Paper Prototypes   Some of our course colleagues were happy to offer feedback on the Paper Prototype                            design. As we wanted to use these prototypes to test and improve on the overall layout,                                usability and design, we concentrated on the negatives more than positive feedback                        received. Areas we set out to improve from here are the background design, text details,                              and implementing icon/symbols.      Interactive Prototype ­ Medium Fidelity  (T)  The Interactive Prototype can be accessed at:   http://nn7n8p.axshare.com/home.html here        A bright and colourful homepage was designed using photoshop. At the top of the                            webpage is all of the tabs the students may need. These include an about page which will                                  tell visitors of the webpage about the site. A FAQ page which will features some frequently                               
  31. 31. asked questions. These questions will be questions past erasmus students may face.                        Finally a contact page where students will be able to find contact details for the University                                of Limerick and website creators.      The resources page provides all of the documents an erasmus student may need. These                            include fact sheets, registration form, information on paying fees and the university                        campus. Students will be able to download all of these files onto their PC. 
  32. 32.   Here Erasmus students who will be coming to UL in the future will be able to talk to past                                      erasmus students who have completed the experience in UL. Future students are able to                            talk to former students who are willing to offer advice and guidance. Through a chat                              service, students can interact and talk to these students.     Progress Report  Each task from the Software Design stage was met on target regarding time and quality                              where applicable.    Software Development (TD/CC)  Heuristic Evaluation of Interactive Prototype   Usability Testing (T)  Implementing The Technology   Photoshop and Illustrator (T)  §t 
  33. 33.   Axure (C)  Results and Conclusion of Design    Closing activities    Appendices  References  KS  [a] Lowrence W, The Nature of Risk, in Societal risk assessment: how safe is safe                              enough?, R Schwing & W Albers (eds), 5­14, New York: Plenum, 1980. [Accessed                          28 April 2014].    [b] Risk Mitigation Planning, Implementation, and Progress Monitoring | The  MITRE Corporation. 2014. Risk Mitigation Planning, Implementation, and Progress  Monitoring | The MITRE Corporation. [ONLINE] Available  at:http://www.mitre.org/publications/systems­engineering­guide/acquisition­syste ms­engineering/risk­management/risk­mitigation­planning­implementation­and­pr ogress­monitoring. [Accessed 29 April 2014].    [c] Project Management Institute (2004). A Guide to the Project Management Body of  Knowledge. 3rd ed. USA: ANSI. 237. [Accessed 30 April 2014].   Nielsen, J. Molich, R. (1990) 'Heuristic evaluation of user interfaces.' In ACM  Poslad, S (2011) 'Ubiquitous Computing: Smart Devices, Environments and                  Interactions.' Wiley.   
  34. 34. Bibliography      Screenshots Appendices      Prototype mock ups      Questions for industry experts (SAA and website developer)  QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS GIVEN    QUESTIONS FOR AN ERASMUS STUDENT AND ANSWERS  Questions and answers for a website designer.. NB­ What                  management tools do they use!!!!                           
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