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Applied Interaction Design - Balanced University Lifestyle (P2)


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Applied Interaction Design - Balanced University Lifestyle (P2)

  1. 1. CS4078 ­ Applied Interaction Design     Assignment 2        ‘UniBalance’  Balancing Student Lifestyle              Killian Stone ­ 09005157  Killian Vigna ­ 10129758  Sean Connolly ­ 10127267               
  2. 2. Table of Contents    Section 1  Settings  (KV).....................................................................................  Process (KV).....................................................................................  Game Structure (KS)................................................................  Materials (KS)................................................................  Time Element (KS)...............................................................  Results (KS)...............................................................  Conclusion and General Considerations(KS)............................    Section 2  Processing and Reworking the Design Game Concept (KV)........  Research (SC).............................................................  NFC Tags (SC).............................................................  Existing Technologies (SC)....................................................  Scenarios and Prototyping (KV)..........................................  Final Design Concept and Prototype Features (KS)........................  Future Work (KV/KS).............................................    Appendices....................................................................................  References....................................................................................  Bibliography....................................................................................  Game Material Appendices...........................................................   
  3. 3. Section 1  Settings (KV)  Using a design game means “group members are more likely to learn games at the same                                rate, without large differences in learning due to rank, authority, or background . . . this in                                  turn can lead to greater sharing of ideas . . .” (Muller et al. 1994). To play our game we                                        used 1st year participants from various course backgrounds.    The location of this design game took place in a 1st year house next door to one of the                                      game designers. The idea of using the participants own living room meant it was more                              convenient for them and they would feel more relaxed throughout the game play. Along with                              having a game designer acting as the adjudicator, there were two more game designers                            present, one for observation, and the other acting as a second observer and cameraman.    The game requirements included:  ● Participants: Four 1st year between 17­19 years of age.  ● Location: Game designers 1st year neighbour's house.  ● Design Game: Game board and materials.  ● Design Rules: An external observer reads out the game rules from a printed rule                            sheet.  ● Equipment: Video camera, notepad and pens.    The selection process was based on 1st year students entering college for their first time.                              Therefore candidates were narrowed down to between the ages of 17 and 19 due to their                                first time experience of college. The reason behind this had to do with the observation                              process. Using students from their second year upwards, students repeating 1st year and                          mature students would inhibit the results being processed.    ● Game Board.  ● One Die. 
  4. 4. ● Playing Pieces.  ● Location Cards.  ● Question Cards.  ● Player Cards.  ● Pens.    Players were asked to report aloud their feelings, thoughts and ideas throughout the design                            game for the observers to report on. They were encouraged to cooperate with each other                              when placing the location cards on the board and prompted to discuss together their                            answers for the task rounds.    Process (KV)  To begin the design game we started off with a collaboration round. The idea behind the                                collaboration round was to prompt participants to work together. This begins by two                          location cards being dealt out to each of the four players, and the ninth card is given to the                                      judicature. Once all cards are divided amongst the players the game begins. Each player                            had the opportunity to randomly position their location cards on the board, or opt to                              collaborate with other players on designing their very own campus layout.     Originally this round had a time restriction of two minutes to prevent the game being                              prolonged. This time restriction idea was quickly dropped when participants began                      engaging with each other on where the best locations for each card were. This round was                                allowed to develop for several minutes as players went through a thinking­aloud process of                            where to place each location card and why, followed by where the next location should be.                                When all location cards were set up the judicature positioned the final card on the board.    Once all location cards were in place, each player took turns to roll a die. The player with                                    the highest number got to go first, and the play commenced clockwise around the board                              from there. Once it was decided who starts the game off each player then rolled the dice for                                   
  5. 5. a second time. This depicted which location card each player commenced play on, leaving                            each player dotted around the board. Once each player is positioned at their starting point                              on the board the player with the highest roll began the first question round.    Before the question round took place each participant was given a player card with the                              location names listed down the sheet and the three categories spread across the top. This                              layout allowed the players to identify their current location on the player card, and record                              points allocated to them under the chosen category. Using the player card, participants can                            then total up their scores to work out the range of the three categories together.    In the question round each location card has three categories the players could choose                            from, Academia, Health and Social. Under each category there are three question cards                          available. In total the game consisted of 81 question cards, three question cards for every                              category, three categories for every location, and a total of nine locations.     Once each player landed on a location (e.g The Gym) they could then choose a question                                card from one of the three categories (e.g. Health). Each question card gave the players a                                scenario, and offered them two choices. Once answered they recorded the score allocated                          to them by the judicature. The adjudicator's role included making sure each player                          understood the rules of the game, their roles in the game, and the tasks required of them.                                  During play the adjudicator then read aloud each question and allocated scores based on                            their answers.     As the game played out the adjudicator realised that the majority of players were choosing                              the social category. It became obvious by listen to their discussion that the participants we                              had chosen, ie aged between 17 and 19, were showing off. At that point the observers                                began taking more detailed notes about the discussion from the gameplay. Once we had                            analysed this data, it was obvious that the students had no idea how long they spend in                                 
  6. 6. college, how many hours of college they attend a week or where they spent the majority of                                  their time on campus.    Game Structure (KS)  It became clear during the gameplay that players were more interested in debating and                            discussing their choices in a given situation as opposed to the actual gameplay involved. It                              was also apparent to all that most players were choosing the “social” option ahead of all                                others in an attempt to be ‘cool’ or impress others. This frame of mind strongly impacted                                our gameplay and as such we had to adjust the structure of the game to accommodate it.                                  We decided that by focusing on what the players said during gameplay as opposed to the                                options they choose and taking notes, we could use the data gathered to greater                            understand why they made these choices and how we could help them to better understand                              how these decisions could impact their lifestyle in the real world.    Game Materials (KS)  Board:  We tried a number of different layout designs for the game board, all designed roughly with  pen and paper in order to develop quick prototypes. In the end we settled on a fairly blank  board as we wished to allow the players to create the ‘campus’ as they saw fit, we felt this  would give a small bit of input into how the students would lay out the campus if given the  opportunity. 
  7. 7. [GAME BOARD]    Location Cards:  The blank squares on the board need to be filled with Location Cards in order to start the  game, we decided to have the same amount of blank areas as location cards so that all  locations must be placed on the board however their locations are variable.     The nine location cards are as follows;    1. Library  2. Pub  3. Gym  4. Shop  5. Lecture Hall  6. Tutorial/Lab  7. Restaurant  8. Students Union  9. Park  [LOCATION CARDS]                                        
  8. 8.     Task/Question Cards:  Each location on the board contains three kinds of task/question cards related to health,  academia and social. These cards are ‘three­sided’, as such the front of the card displays  the cards field (social, health, academia) the back contains a task or question and a small  flap at the base of the back of the card shows the scores awarded depending on which  task or question has been answered.    [QUESTION CARDS]    Player Scorecard:    Each participant in the game is given a card and a pen in order to keep track of their  score. The card contains a blank space for the players name and player piece colour, a  blank space for their starting location (in order to know when they have completed the  board) and a table containing the three headings, social, health and academic along the  top and the nine locations along the left side. Players can then write their scores into these  locations on completion of a question or task, totaling their final score at the bottom of the  card. We also decided to include a small area for notes in case players feel the need to  add up sub­sections during the game or need to make small reminders for later in the  game with relation to score. 
  9. 9. [PLAYER CARD]    Player Pieces:  Each player will be given a little plastic player piece to keep track of their movements on  the board. These pieces will each have a separate color in order to avoid any confusion.  The players colour will also be added to their scorecard.    A Die:  A regular six­sided die is needed at the start of the game in order to decide where each  player will begin the game. Each player rolls the die and then moves that many spaces  from the ‘start’ square prior to the task/question cards being introduced. This allows for a  wider spread over the board at the beginning of the game and helps people to think  differently to each other as they are not all arriving in the same location at the same time.    Time Element (KS)  One aspect which arose during the creation of this game was a time element. We had                                originally discussed placing a time limit on the first part of the game where players set up                                  the campus by placing location cards on the board. We felt that this would created                              momentum at the start of the game which could then be carried throughout the gameplay.                              However, after having conducted our first attempt at gameplay using participants we found                         
  10. 10. that the players were very happy to discuss where and why they wanted to place certain                                location cards on certain areas of the map. This was not data we had originally anticipated                                so we decided to eliminate the time aspect and allow the players to freely discuss the                                choices they were making straight from the start of the game in order to gather as much                                  data as possible.    Results (KS)  The game provided us with a much needed insight into why young students make the                              choices they make while at University. We were able to take notes during gameplay as a                                lot of discussion ensued amongst the players. The information we gathered has shown that                            in this gameplay situation most of our players chose the social option. At first we saw this                                  as an issue as we felt it was upsetting our results but whilst listening to the players                                  discussing their choices we found that if we could show the players where their time is                                being spent then they may be more inclined to make the changes required in their life in                                  order to balance all the aspects.    The gameplay itself appeared to work quite well apart from the players continuously                          choosing the social option. All players worked their way around the board answering our                            questions and giving us important data through their discussions. When the game ended                          we were able to add up the scores and a winner was declared. However, the final range                                  was no where near what we had originally anticipated it to be due to the players choosing                                  the same option repeatedly. The information we gathered during gameplay proved better                        than we had thought as players really dove deep into discussing why they made their                              choices.         
  11. 11. Conclusion and General Considerations (KS)  While evaluating our gameplay the most obvious observations had to be that the players kept                              choosing the social option. We attempted to counteract this during gameplay but we did not want                                to directly stop the players from openly making their choices. As a result of this our data was                                    unbalanced. We decided to develop a solution to the data we were left with. We decided that if                                    the students/players were more aware of their time management whilst on campus then maybe                            they could become more productive in their day to day activities.     The players gave a lot of feedback during gameplay which we knew would be necessary. Our                                adjudicator took notes on what was talked about as this data would prove invaluable towards our                                final design concept.     The players gave mostly positive feedback during gameplay and all seemed to enjoy taking part.                              One aspect of the game where players gave negative feedback was the fact that we had not                                  incorporated a timer into the game, therefore when players began discussing why they made                            their particular choice, a lot of time could be lost, this was only little annoying for some players                                    and overall the gameplay was a success.    Section 2  Processing and Reworking the Design Game Concept (KV)  By forming a brainstorming session, it was obvious that the 1st year students were more                              interested in the social aspects of a college lifestyle. They were also unsure of how many                                hours a day they spend in college, or where they spend the majority of their time on                                  campus. Using this information we came up with the scenario of a student being able to                                keep track of their time in college, and how long they spend in different locations throughout                                the campus.    The scenario we came up with shows how a student could use their student ID card as a                                    method of ‘clocking in’ and ‘clocking out’ of an on campus building, like staff clocking in                                and out for their shift in a workplace. Students could swipe their student ID cards across                               
  12. 12. access scanners located at the entrance of each building. Their time management will then                            be represented on graphs and charts through a device. To expand this idea further, we will                                implement the idea of the college itself being able to access these records. This will assist                                Leaving Certificate students in not only choosing a course to study, but which college to                              attend based on the balance of student lifestyles.    Research (SC)  After having settled on our scenario and the direction we would be taking, we decided to                                research further into the areas we would be incorporating. We investigated a variety of                            card­scanning methods, ones that could incorporate various amounts and types of data,                        how they functioned and how easy or difficult they might be to implement. We also                              experimented with another type of technology known as ‘NFC’,and whether we could                        achieve what we wanted by possibly replacing cards with smartphones. Our goal was to                            have the easiest and most hassle­free method of ‘clocking’ in and out of buildings, which                              would encourage students to use our system without even thinking about it. We would                            eventually aim for it to be ubiquitous.     NFC Tags (SC)  NFC, which stands for ‘Near Field Communications’, is a “short­range, low­power                      communications protocol between two devices” [1], a popular technology which can allow                        data exchange between a powered device and a non­powered device. Similar to another                          system called RFID, or radio­frequency identification,[2] NFC is efficient in that it allows                          quick transfer of data simply by holding the main device within 10 cm of the other device.                                  This short distance often means it is easier to just tap the devices together for a moment.                                  The advantage NFC has over RFID however is that it allows two­way transfers of                            information, where as RFID can only send data to a receiver. RFID is used in a lot of                                    contactless payment systems. [3]   
  13. 13. Because NFC is a two­way system, it naturally lends itself to being more useful to embed in                                  a device, such as a smartphone or tablet. Many developers such as Samsung and                            software providers such as Google incorporate this feature. [4] This allows people to                          casually interact with various other objects in everyday life that have also implemented                          NFC. Advertising is one area that has embraced this technology.       Various bus shelters across the U.K have slowly began to include NFC tags alongside                            posters. These tags encourage people to turn on the NFC function on their particular                            device, and tap it off a tag such as the one shown. In turn the phone then receives a                                      message to perform a certain action, such as download a voucher, image, video, or some                              other action. This technology is very similar to the way QR codes work, but is simply faster.                                  However the tags do also include QR codes for people whose devices are not equipped                              with an NFC function.   
  14. 14. Existing Technologies (SC)  While NFC tags did initially seem like an interesting idea, we decided against it for a                                number of reasons. Implementing the tags, as well as setting up NFC scanners would have                              been very time­consuming, fitting them on to every building on the campus would ultimately                            have been more work than it was worth. Instead we decided to use the already existing                                technologies of RFID tags and cards, combined with an app on smartphones.This allows                          us to use technologies that are already fitted to all entrances and exits on buildings in the                                  University.      Scenarios and Prototyping (KV)  Scenario:  Venue:   ● University of Limerick campus  Characteristics:  ● Student heads to Csis  ● Clocks in using the buildings access scanner  ● Time lapsed clock   ● Student clocks out using the same access scanner  ● Checks his college performance with the app  Participant Material:  ● Verbally discussed scenario with a video prototype    John has just started his first year in college. He registers his newly obtained student ID                                card with a downloadable application on his phone during orientation day (or at any other                              time). He is informed there is an access scanner located at the entrance of every building                                on campus (the library, gym, Stables).   Once John arrives on campus he can record the arrival time on his app. Everytime he                                swipes his student ID card across the access scanner he ‘clocks in’ to the recognised                             
  15. 15. building on his app. When he leaves the building he swipes his card across the scanners                                and ‘clocks out’ again. Each building is listed under three categories, Academia, Health,                          Social. using his application he can now view his time management using visual graphs                            and charts. These graphs and charts display his range between the three categories                          allowing him to keep a balance of his college lifestyle. John can now keep this information                                for himself, or agree to allow his college use this information as anonymous records.    Final Design Concept and Prototype Features (KS)  The final design concept revolves around the idea of a ‘balanced university lifestyle’.                          Students everywhere seem unaware of how strongly the choices they make when skipping                          a lecture or class can affect their overall time management during the week. We have                              decided to implement a system which takes advantage of two pre­existing technologies,                        the student card and the building access scanners. The final design prototype consists of                            using a student card to ‘clock­in’ and ‘clock­out’ of buildings on campus. This will allow                              students to keep a record of their time management whilst on campus by creating graphs                              and charts within a mobile app. The data can also be sent anonymously to the University                                itself and used to create statistics for individual Universities with regards to their students                            lifestyles on campus.    The app prototype itself can be viewed or downloaded at: 
  16. 16.     In summary our final prototype includes the following features:  ● Use of student number to register with app.  ● The ability to clock in and out of buildings on campus using a Student Card.  ● An app which displays the data gathered in graphs, tables or bar charts.  ● Tips to help students spread their time more efficiently.  ● Data will be sent anonymously to the University to be used in demographics.   
  17. 17. Our reasoning for including the above features is that by using two pre­existing                          technologies, the student card and the building access scanners, half the implementation                        work is already complete. We also included an app which tracks progress and time                            management with the idea being that by allowing students to keep a record of their                              progress it encourages them to make changes wherever applicable to them. By                        anonymously sending data to the University we hope to allow the University to produce                            statistics on the work­life balance of the students attending these establishments which                        could in turn be used to encourage more students to apply.    Future Work (KV/KS)  The majority of this project already includes a variety of pre­existing technologies. These                          include access scanners readily installed at the entrance of every UL building and a student                              card which that activates the scanners. In our researching stages we tested a UL student                              card against these scanners. When a student card is held against these scanners an audio                              signal is played and the light above the scanner flashes. This shows that the student cards                                already have a magnetic field recognised by the scanners.   The next step of this project would involve programming the access scanners to register an                              individual student's card. A student can then synchronise their card through the application                          on their phone. Initially our main concern was being able to reprogram each scanner as                              these were UL property. But due to the nature of the student cards alerting the scanners                                this will only require the app to clock in and out when the student card is swiped upon                                    entrance and exit of the building. This implementation would be cost efficient as most                            technologies are already in existence and only minor changes are necessary for full app                            functionality.           
  18. 18.                                                          
  19. 19. Appendices  References  [1]­02/near­field­communication­helping­your­s martphone­replace­your­wallet­2010/  [2]  [3]­to­Contactless.asp  [4]­wallet.htm    Bibliography​  Download Unibalance Prototype app:  View Video Prototype at:                                        
  20. 20. Game Material Appendices  Game Board:    PlayerCard:   
  21. 21. Location Cards:    Question/Task Cards:      Social (KS)    Location: Question/task: Score= A/H/S    Library You have an exam tomorrow but its your friends birthday tonight, do you;  a) study in the library and miss the party  3/1/0  b) go to the party and hope the exam goes okay 0/0/3        Pub Your down to your last euro but the night is still young, do you;  a) borrow money from a friend and stay out 0/0/3  b) head home and call it a night 1/2/0        Gym            Gym membership costs the same as a bike, do you;  a) buy a bike and cycle to keep fit 0/3/0  b) walk everywhere and join the gym 0/3/1      Shop   You have very little money left to buy food but you are heading out tonight   do you;  a) Buy a healthy meal and skip the night out 1/3/0  b) split your money between food and alcohol 0/1/2      Lecture Hall You missed a lecture due to illness, do you;  a) ask a friend for their notes 2/0/1  b) explain you absence to the lecturer and ask for notes 3/0/0      Tutorial/Lab You missed an important lab due to a hangover, do you;  a) Contact the lecturer and explain yourself 3/0/0 
  22. 22. b) Ignore the problem and try to catch up next week 1/0/0      Restaurant Dining with friends, do you;  a) Split a pizza and a pitcher of beer 0/0/3  b) choose the healthy option but pay more 0/2/1          Students Union your students union is looking for candidates for the upcoming student   election, do you;  a) elect yourself or a friend to run 3/0/2  b) show up to vote for the most popular choice 0/1/1        Park your friends are playing sport in the park while you have a class, do you;  a) Skip the class and join your friends 0/2/2  b) miss the game and go to class 3/0/0        Health (SC)    Location: Question/task: score= A/H/S     PUB    ● You’re sick, and the doctor has put you on antibiotics. You head to the pub with your  friends. Do you:  ○ Drink a few pints, sure what harm?                   A/H/S:   0/0/2  ○ Stay off the drink for the night, play it safe?      A/H/S:   1/3/1    ● You’re out for the night with friends, you’re a good few pints in, starting to feel it. Do you:  ○ Keep on going, keep up with the rest of them?      A/H/S:   0/0/2  ○ Slow your pace, get a bite to eat first?                   A/H/S:   0/2/0    ● The pub is holding event nights every night one week, ending at 3am every night, and you  have four 9am starts. Do you:  ○ Head out every night, sure everyone else is?                         A/H/S:   0/0/3  ○ Head out one or two nights, get a few nights sleep too?         A/H/S:   2/3/0   
  23. 23.     Restaurant    ● The restaurant  has offers each day of the week for cheap food, however it mainly  consists of chips, pizza etc. Do you:  ○ Eat there every day, saving money?                                                  A/H/S:  0/0/1    ○ Eat there a few days, and buy healthier but more expensive food?   A/H/S: 0/2/1    ● Your friends plan to meet at the restaurant for a few days for some group studying &  meals, but the food is a tad expensive. Do you:  ○ Join them, spending a lot of money on food?                      A/H/S: 2/3/3  ○ Stay at home to save money, but join them online?            A/H/S: 2/1/2    ● The restaurant is offering a deal on pints with meals one evening only, but you’ve an  assignment due the next morning. Do you:  ○ Go with the offer, one pint can’t hurt?          A/H/S: 0/1/3  ○ Decline the offer, you need to study?          A/H/S: 3/3/0        Student Union    ● There’s a trampoline in the student union courtyard for Charity Week. Your friends are  enjoying it, but you’ve a sprained wrist. Do you:   ○ Have a go, sure you’ll only be using your feet?          A/H/S: 1/0/3  ○ Sit it out, go to the library until they’re finished?          A/H/S: 1/1/0        Shop    ● The shop is offering a great deal on chicken rolls, but they aren’t allowed in the computer  labs, and you’ve heard rumours of salmonella?  ○ Have one sure, you’ll only miss an hour of study?          A/H/S: 1/0/1  ○ Leave it, wait for dinner at home?                                     A/H/S: 2/1/0      Gym    ● You’ve just started on a new training program to keep fit, but your friends have been going  for weeks and are encouraging you to keep up with them. Do you:  ○ Push yourself, you’re fitter than they are anyway?          A/H/S: 0/1/2 
  24. 24. ○ Stay at the pace you were given?                                    A/H/S: 0/3/2    Park    ● The restaurant is offering a deal on pints with meals one evening only, but you’ve an  assignment due the next morning. Do you:  ○ Go with the offer, one pint can’t hurt?          A/H/S: 0/1/3  ○ Decline the offer, you need to study?          A/H/S: 3/3/0    Tutorial    ● A group exercise requires you to traverse across the campus to map out certain  buildings. Do you:  ○ Go along with the group, it’s a simple enough task?                    A/H/S: 2/2/2  ○ Head to the pool room, it’s not worth any marks anyway?          A/H/S: 0/1/3    Lecture    ● You can’t seem to stay awake during lectures, do you:  ○ Resort to bring an energy drink with your each time?          A/H/S:   ○ Try get more sleep, cut out a night or two drinking??          A/H/S:     Library    ● The library has a rule against water bottles, however you’re dehydrated. Do you:  ○ Sneak a bottle of water in, you need to liquids?          A/H/S: 2/3/1  ○ Obey the rules, suffer with a dry mouth?                     A/H/S: 1/0/1    Academia (KV)    Location: Question/task: score= A/H/S     Library You’re trying to finish an assignment due in a few hours but you’re friends    want to go for lunch, do you?                                      a) Skip lunch and finish the assignment in time?                    A/H/S: 3/0/0  b) Go for lunch and rush the rest of it when you get back?     A/H/S: 1/2/2        Pub You have a lecture you should go to, but you’re friends want to go for one ;  drink, do you?                                      a) Go to the lecture and skip the pub, it’s never just one        A/H/S: 3/2/0  b) It’s only a lecture, a pint sounds better                               A/H/S: 0/0/3 
  25. 25.       Gym             You have training tonight, but have to meet your group for a project.                                       Do you?    a) I’ll just tell them something came up, can’t miss the gym A/H/S: 3/0/2  b) I’ll skip tonight and meet get working on this project          A/H/S: 0/3/1      Shop             You’re working from home and want a sugar rush, do you?                                        a) Stay and have some coffee and a light meal.                     A/H/S: 3/2/0  b) It’s only short short walk and the sugar rush will be good.  A/H/S: 1/1/1      Lecture Hall You have a two hour lecture with a ten minute break in between, do you?;  a) Stay, it’s only another fifty minutes more.                           A/H/S: 3/0/0  b) Leave with your friends, nothing will happen in it.               A/H/S: 1/0/3      Tutorial/Lab You’re at home sick, but have an important class on, do you?;  a) Brave it out and struggle to class?                                      A/H/S: 2/0/1   b) It’s only one class, I’ll stay home.                                        A/H/S: 0/3/0      Restaurant You need a book for one of your lectures, but are also going to a dinner                                      with friends for a birthday. Do you;  a) I get paid next week, I’ll wait till then.                                   A/H/S: 0/2/3  b) Explain you need this book and don’t have money.            A/H/S: 2/1/0          Students Union The SU need writers for their regular students paper, do you?;  a) I’m busy enough with college as it is, maybe later.           A/H/S: 2/1/1  b) This will look great on my CV, sure!                                  A/H/S: 3/0/2        Park It’s the nicest day of the year and everyone is skipping class to go to the                                      park;  a) I’ll go to the class, the weather might hold up.                   A/H/S: 3/0/0  b) It’s a crime  not to be out in this weather.                          A/H/S: 0/2/3