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Theories

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This is a word document of a collection of theories.

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Theories

  1. 1. AndrewGoodwin’s There are 5 keyaspectsof musicvideosthatwe the audience shouldlookoutforwhichare: Thoughtbeats- seeingthe sound  Firststep- to lookat the musicvideoitself.We musttake intoaccountthe structure of the songfor e.g. chorus/verses  Secondly- the voice of the song.The artistvoice isextremelyunique andcanform identificationortrademarksthatwork well withthe starimage.RolandBarthestheoryof the Grain of voice canbe relatedtothis.He seesthe singingvoice asan expressive instrumentandtherefore abletomake associationsof itsown.  Thirdly- Goodwinalsopointsoutthe artistmode of address.Songscanbe seenasstories and the artistthe storyteller,makingthe musicvideoatwocommunicationdevice,them tellingusastory and uslistening. Narrative andperformance  Most songsfail to give usthe complete narrative  We onlytendtoget a gistof the meaningof the songand thentendto make up our own ideaof what isbeingtold.Goodwinexplainsthatmusicvideosshouldignore common narrative.Itis importantintheirrole of advertising.Musicvideoshouldcoherent repeatability.Narrative andperformance workhandinhanditmakesiteasierforthe audience towatchoverand overwithoutlosinginterests. The artistactingas both narrator and participanthelpstoincrease the authenticity,howeverthe lipsyncandothermimed actionsremainsthe heartof the musicvideos.The audienceneedtobelieve thisisreal.  It helpstomake the song lookmore realisticandalsogivingthe audience aspecial connectingandgoodunderstandingof the song.Forexample KatyPerryROAR,she isthe mainactor in the song an alsothe singerandit helpsthe videobymakingthe songand videolookmore realisticandthisalsohelptoengage the audience.
  2. 2. The star image  The star image isanothervital aspectof musicvideos.Metanarrative whichisa bigstory that describesthe developmentof the starovertime, ithas an importantpart to playinthe musicvideoproductionprocess.  Thishelpstopromote the artist/starsimage inpublicandalsohelpstopromote the video while creatingapublicreputationforthe artist. Relationof visualstosong  There are three waysinwhichmusicvideosworktopromote a song.  Illustrate- musicvideoscanuse a setof imagesto illustrate the meaningof lyricandgenre, thisisthe mostcommon.Thisexplainsthe meaningof lyricstotheirsongand the genre.  Amplify- thisissimilartorepeatability.Meaningsandeffects are manipulatedandconstantly sownthroughthe videoanddrummedintoourvision.  Disjuncture- thisiswhere the meaningof the songiscompletelyignored  He believedthatamusicvideocanpromote a song bythoughthe wayit analysisthe lyrics. Thisis showninmanymusicvideoswhenacharacter doesexactlywhatthe songsays.For example whenthe songsaysJUMPJUMP JUMP and on the videothere are characters/actors actuallyjumping. Technical aspectsof musicvideo  Technical aspectsholdthe musicvideotogetherthroughuse of camerawork,movement, angle,mise-en-scene,editing,soundandspecial effects.  Speed,cameramovement,editing,cuttingandpostproductionare all formsof use of camera.  Lightingthe colourhelpsetthe moodsandemphasise key momentsof the songfordramatic effect.  Mise-en-scene,the settingof musicvideosisvital,itneedstolookauthentictoattain professionalism.  Beats,musicvideosuse cutsto go withthe beator rhythmmakingthe videomore entertaining.Thisisvery useful astheycanhelptocreate effective cutsthatgo withthe rhythmof the songto make the musicvideolookmore entertaining.
  3. 3. Laura Mulvey’s The male gaze 1975 She believesthatintelevisionaudienceshave to“view”charactersfromthe perspective of a heterosexual male. Thisis the conceptof the gaze is one that dealswithhow people anaudience viewsthe people presented. For feministsitcanbe thoughtof in 3 ways: 1. How menlookat women 2. How womenlookatthemselves 3. How womenlookateach other Features:  The camera lingersonthe curvesof the female body,andaneventwhichoccursto women are presentedlargelyinthe contextof aman’sreactionto these events.Relegateswoman to the status of objects.The female viewermustexperience the narrative secondarily,by identificationwiththe male.  Alsosome theoristsalsohave noticedthe sexualisingof the femalebodyeveninsituations where femalessexinesshasnothingtodowithproductbeingadvertise. Criticisms:  Some womenenjoybeinglookedat,forexample beautypageants  The gaze can alsobe directedtowardmembersof the same genderforseveralreasons, not all of whichare sexual,suchasincomparisonof body image orin clothing. Marjorie Ferguson(1980) categorisedfacial expressionsforwomen:  Chocolate box
  4. 4.  Invitational  Super-smiler  Romantic  Sexual
  5. 5. While TrevorMillum(1975) categorisedfacial expressionsformen:  Carefree  Practical  Seductive  Comic  Catalogue
  6. 6. The Uses and GratificationModel An approachto understandingwhyandhow people activelyseekoutspecificmediatosatisfy specificneeds.UGT isan audience-centredapproachtounderstandingmasscommunication. Thiscommunicationtheory ispositivisticinitsapproach,basedinthe socio- psychological communicationtradition,andfocusesoncommunicationatthe massmediascale. The drivingquestionof UGTis: Whydo people use mediaandwhatdotheyuse themfor?UGT discusses howusersdeliberatelychoosemediathatwill satisfygivenneedsandallow one toenhance knowledge,relaxation,social interactions/companionship,diversion,orescape It assumesthataudience membersare notpassive consumersof media.Rather,the audience has powerovertheirmediaconsumptionandassumesanactive role ininterpretingandintegrating mediaintotheirownlives.Unlike othertheoreticalperspectives,UGT holdsthataudiencesare responsible forchoosingmediatomeettheirdesiresandneedstoachieve gratification. Thistheory wouldthenimplythatthe mediacompete againstotherinformationsourcesforviewers' gratification Researchhasshownthat mediatakeninfor entertainmentpurposes(i.e.,movies,songs,television, etc.) have a wide range of usesand emotional gratifications,andthatthese are notmutually exclusivebutcanoverlapwitheachother.  Mood management:Thisisthe mostprominentlycitedemotional gratificationof mediause.People prefertomaintainastate of intermediate arousal;thisisa pleasantmedium.Wheninabad mood,bored,or over- aroused,people will seekmediaasregulationforordistractionfromtheir mood.  Affectivedisposition:Affectivedispositiontheorystatesthatpeople enjoy "rootingfor"characters depictedasgoodand moral.Usersexperience gratificationwhengoodthingshappentocharacterswith"good"moralsand alsowhenbadthingshappento "evil"or"bad"characters.  Excitationtransfer:Thisuse andgratificationformediapositsthatpeople like tofeel worriedforcharacterswe perceive as"good,"andthisiseven more gratifyingif thatcharacter gets"rewarded"insome wayinthe end.  Sensationseeking:Thisuse andgratificationcanbe understoodwhen consideringexcitementasitsownreward.  Modesof reception:"Emotionalinvolvementcorrelateswithothermodesof reception,especiallywithdiegeticinvolvement(gettingabsorbedinthe fictional world),socio-involvement(identifyingwithcharacters),andego- involvement(relatingthe filmtoone'sownlife). ...Emotional involvement can be helpful forthe pursuitof abroadervarietyof goalsinthe reception process....It can be concludedthatthe experience of emotionscanbe functional inanumberof other waysthanjust regulatingemotionsinterms of affective valenceandarousal."  Intrinsicmotivation:If the userexperiencesachallenge tohisorhermedia- relatedskills,butnotto the pointof beingfrustratedoroverwhelmed,then the gratificationisareward ina feelingof competence thatinspires the user to continue usingthe mediainquestion.  Mood adjustment:Usersare gratifiedbyusingmediatoadjusttheirmood to whateveriscurrentlyhappening.Forinstance,once alreadyprovokedby
  7. 7. an aggressorand promisedachance to retaliate,maleswere foundtoprefer bad newsovergoodnewsinthat emotionallychargedmoment.  Gendersocializationof emotions:Thisuse isgratifiedbythe ideathat womenenjoyfeelingother-directedsadness(empathy,sympathy,andpity) because ourculture valuesand validateswomen’sfeelingthese; similarly, teenage coupleslike towatchscary moviessothe male feelsprotectiveand the female feelsvulnerable.  Relationshipfunctionsof entertainment:Accordingtothisparticularbranch of use andgratification,we use entertainmenttoapplylessonstoor escape fromour real-liferelationships.  Para-social relationships:Consumersof entertainmentmediasometimesuse it to gratifya needforsocial connectionbybecomingveryattachedto characters seeninentertainmentmedia,suchascharactersin a TV show or newscasters.  Vicariousexperiences:A relateduse andgratificationforentertainment mediaisthe ideaof livingthroughthe charactersportrayedandimagining ourselvesintheirlivesbyadoptingthe characters'perspectives.  Downwardsocial comparison:Thisuse andgratificationholdsthatwe enjoy takinginmediathat portrayspeople similarorworse off thanourselves  Eudaimonicmotivation:Mediaconsumersalsoturntoentertainmentmedia to searchfor deepermeanings,insights,purpose forlife,findingbeauty, raisingmorale,experience strongemotions,andunderstandhow others thinkandfeel.
  8. 8. HypodermicNeedle Model: Thisis a model of communicationssuggeststhatanintendedmessageis directlyreceivedandwholly acceptedbythe receiver.The model isrootedin1930s behaviourism.Thistheoryisnotbasedon empirical findingsfromresearchbutratherassumptionsof the time abouthumannature.People were assumedtobe uniformlycontrolledbytheirbiologicallybasedinstincts.Thistheoryisalso knownas the Magic Bulletthisassumes thatthe media'smessage isabulletfiredfromthe "media gun" intothe viewer's"head"(Berger1995). Thissuggeststhatthe mediainjectsitsmessage straight intothe passive audience,andthenthe audience isdirectlyaffectedbythe message.Thissuggestsa powerful anddirectflowof informationfromthe sendertothe receiver. It suggeststhatmediamessagesare injectedstraightintoapassive audience whichisimmediately influencedbythe message,because of the limitedcommunicationtoolsandthe studiesof the media’seffectonthe massesat the time.There isnoescape fromthe effectof the message inthis model.Peopleare seenaspassive andendupthinkingwhattheyare toldbecause there isnoother source of information. Factors whichcontribute:  Speedyincrease of popularmedia  IndustriesPersuasionbyadvertisingorpublicopinion  Impact of motionpicturesonchildren(The Payne Fund)  Hitler’smonopolizationof the massmediainworldwartwo.

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