QUALITY????????????• Conformance to standards• Conformance to specifications• Service quality is a term which describes a comparison of expectations from service with its performance.• The difference between what customers expect and what they perceive themselves to be receiving”.
• Improved service quality may increase economic competitiveness.• 2 Types: Internal and External
Dimensions of Service QualityReliability: Perform promised service dependably and accurately. Example: receive mail at same time each day.Responsiveness: Willingness to help customers promptly. Example: avoid keeping customers waiting for no apparent reason.
Dimensions of Service Quality Assurance: Ability to convey trust and confidence. Example: being polite and showing respect for customer. Empathy: Ability to be approachable. Example: being a good listener. Tangibles: Physical facilities and facilitating goods. Example: cleanliness.
Perceived Service Quality Word of Personal Past mouth needs experienceService Quality Expected Service Quality Assessment Dimensions service 1. Expectations exceeded Reliability ES<PS (Quality surprise)Responsiveness 2. Expectations met Assurance Perceived ES~PS (Satisfactory quality) Empathy service 3. Expectations not met Tangibles ES>PS (Unacceptable quality)
SERVICE QUALITY MODEL• The service quality model or the ‘GAP model’ developed by a group of authors- Parasuraman, Zenithal and Berry at Texas and North Carolina in 1985 , highlights the main requirements for delivering high service quality.• It identifies five ‘gaps’ that cause unsuccessful delivery.• Customers generally have a tendency to compare the service they experience with the service they expect . If the experience does not match the expectation , there arises a gap.
Customer Customer Satisfaction Customer GAP 5 Perceptions ExpectationsManaging the Customer / Understanding Evidence Marketing Research the Customer Communication GAP 4 GAP 1 Management Service Perceptions Delivery of Customer Expectations Conformance Design GAP 2 GAP 3 Conformance Service Design Service Standards
• GAP One: Management perception gap (The difference between expected service by customers and the management’s perceptions of consumer expectations)• GAP Two: Quality specification gap (The difference between company perception of customer expectation and customer driven service designs and standards)• GAP Three: Service delivery gap (The difference between customer-driven service designs and standards and service delivery)
• GAP Four: Market communication gap (The difference between service delivery and external communications to the customers)• GAP Five: Perceived service quality gap (The gap between perceived service and expected service)
COMPONENTS OF SERVICE QUALITY• TECHNICAL• FUNCTIONAL
IMPROVING SERVQUAL AttributesRELIABILITY ASSURANCEProviding service as promised Employees who instill confidenceDependability in handling in customerscustomers’ service problems Making customers feel safe in theirPerforming services right the transactionsfirst time Employees who are consistentlyProviding services at the courteouspromised time Employees who have theMaintaining error-free records knowledge to answer customer questionsRESPONSIVENESS EMPATHY Giving customers individual attention Keeping customers informed Employees who deal with customers in as to when services will be a caring fashion performed Having the customer’s best interest at Prompt service to customers heart Willingness to help Employees who understand the needs customers of their customers Readiness to respond to Convenient business hours customers’ requests
TANGIBLES Modern equipment Visually appealing facilities Employees who have a neat, professional appearance Visually appealing materials associated with the service
IMPROVING SERVICEQUALITY Benchmarking • Firms position in relative to competitors • Best ways to improve competitive advantage • Areas for benchmarking are 1. Advertising 2. R&d 3. Distribution 4. Marketing
SERVICE BLUEPRINTING• Breaking down the basic process and structure• Consists of various approaches• Value chain analysis• Story boarding
Process of blue printing• Chart all components of a service• Identification of fail points• Quality targets for a service• Identify all the evidence of service. Represent an encounter point