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Solar poewer generation


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Solar poewer generation

  2. 2. Group members: Haris Amir (100335) Fawad Ahmed (100365) Mudassir Hayat (100269) M. Khubaib (100155) Omair Akhter (100179) 2
  3. 3. Introduction Solar power generation:  solar power generation is one of the best non-conventional sources of Energy.  In solar power generation we convert solar energy in to different types of energy.  We can convert solar energy directly into electricity by solar cells (PV cells).  We can convert solar energy into heat energy by thermal combustion. 3
  4. 4. Introduction Why we need Solar power generation?  We have abundant quantity of solar energy.  Coal and other conventional sources deplete with the passage of time.  Low maintenance cost.  Can used in remote areas. 4
  5. 5. Introduction 5
  6. 6. 6 Photovoltaic (PV) Cells Using the sun to generate electricity
  7. 7. 7 What is PV Photovoltaic (PV) systems convert sunlight directly into DC power, and are potentially one of the most useful renewable energy technologies.
  8. 8. Composition of PV Cells • Made up of single crystal of silicon into which doping materials are diffused to form a semi conductor. • Thick N region covered with a thin p region. 8
  9. 9. Working of PV Cells • When exposed to light, an electron hole pair is generated. • Increases charge carriers in both regions. • Electric field due to junction potential barrier causes current flow into external circuit. 9
  10. 10. Efficiency of PV • PV made up of silicon crystal has efficiency is 24%. • Commercially available PV cells have efficiency 10% to 12 %. • Also made up of Gallium arsenide with efficiency of 24% but it is expensive as it is rare therefore silicone PV’s are preferred. 10
  11. 11. 11 Photovoltaic power is ideal for remote applications where other power sources are impractical or unavailable, such as in the Swiss Alps. Solar-powered water pumps PV-powered streetlights battery chargers for boats, vehicles, and equipment
  12. 12. Solar Thermal Power Generetion Two methods : Power tower Solar rays collector 12
  13. 13. Power Tower 1) General idea is to collect the light from many reflectors spread over a large area at one central point to achieve high temperature. 2) Example is the 10-MW solar power plant in Barstow, CA. • 1900 heliostats, each 20 ft by 20 ft • a central 295 ft tower 1) An energy storage system allows it to generate 7 MW of electric power without sunlight. 2) Capital cost is greater than coal fired power plant, despite the no cost for fuel, ash disposal, and stack emissions. 3) Capital costs are expected to decline as more and more power towers are built with greater technological advances. 4) One way to reduce cost is to use the waste steam from the turbine for space heating or other industrial processes 13
  14. 14. Power tower 14
  15. 15. Solar Ray Collector Three types of solar ray collector  Flat plat collector  Line focusing collector  Point focusing collector 15
  16. 16. Flat Plate Collector • Solar rays pass through transparent covers • Absorbed by conducting pipes. (Aluminum , copper steel etch) • Liquid in pipes get heated. • 150- Butane,Freon-14 used instead of water. 16
  17. 17. Flat Plate Collector 17
  18. 18. CONCENTRATING COLLECTORS 18 • Line focusing collectors • Point Focusing collectors
  19. 19. Line Focusing Collectors • Cylindrical parabolic collectors. • 2-3m length,1-1.5m width. • Array of collectors installed • Rfelects sun rays on conducting pipe. • Conducting pipe on focus axis. 19
  20. 20. Line Focusing Collectors 20
  21. 21. Point Focusing Collectors • Sun rays are focused on a point on absorber cavity • Liquid in cavity gets heated 21
  22. 22. Point Focusing Collectors 22
  23. 23. Advantages of concentrating collectors • They are simple and use less material • Cost of collecting per unit area is low • They have more efficiency • High temperature attained in less volume so to store energy we need less cost. 23
  24. 24. Working of solar thermal power plant 24
  25. 25. Photo-voltaic VS solar thermal • Easy to install • Less Expansive • Get DC easily • Less maintenance • Requires Sterling Engine and Mirrors • Takes time to operate • More losses • Less Efficient 25
  26. 26. Solar Radiation map of Pakistan 26
  27. 27. Solar Radiation map of World 27
  28. 28. Top Solar energy producing Countries 28
  29. 29. Advantages and Disadvantages of solar energy • Not harmful to environment so called Green Energy • Unlimited Energy • No need of fuel for operation • Requires less maintenance • Easy to install • No Pollution • No need of Generator and other machinery • Difficult to operate at it maximum efficiency • Effect of weather • Very Expensive • Requires large area to capture sun energy • Effect of geographical location 29
  30. 30. Thank You 30