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Following our successful participation at SIGGRAPH Asia 2012 in Singapore, the Khronos Group is excited to demonstrate and educate about Khronos APIs at SIGGRAPH Asia 2013 in Hong Kong. This presentation covers WebCL and WebGL -- bringing the power of the GPU to the web, by Neil Trevett

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  1. 1. Bringing the Power of the GPU to the Web Neil Trevett Vice President NVIDIA President Khronos © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 1
  2. 2. Mobile is the New Epicenter of Innovation © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 2
  3. 3. Khronos Standards 3D Asset Handling - Advanced Authoring pipelines - 3D Asset Transmission Format with streaming and compression Visual Computing - Object and Terrain Visualization - Advanced scene construction Camera Control API Over 100 companies defining royalty-free APIs to connect software to silicon Acceleration in the Browser Sensor Processing - WebGL for 3D in browsers - WebCL – Heterogeneous Computing for the web - Mobile Vision Acceleration - On-device Sensor Fusion © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 3
  4. 4. Mobile Web is a Real Time Application 2048x1536 3100K Pixels 326 DPI + 1024x768 786K Pixels 132 DPI 320x480 153K Pixels 163 DPI Apple iPhone Buttery smooth touch interaction needs continuous 60Hz updates Apple iPad = Apple iPad Mini In 5 years the number of pixels to process on mobile screens has gone up by factor of TWENTY Need GPU Acceleration for everything Web! © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 4
  5. 5. How are GPUs Accessible to the Web? • Hardware composition - Within the browser stack – under the hood • Vector Acceleration for SVG - Using NVIDIA OpenGL extensions • 3D Developer Functionality - OpenGL ES functionality through JavaScript • Compute Acceleration - Offloading compute intensive code to GPU • Compression and streaming of 3D assets - For network transmission • Camera, vision and sensor processing - Future JavaScript bindings to native APIs? © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 5
  6. 6. Mobile OS Adoption of Khronos APIs OpenGL ES 2.0 Shipping - Android 2.2 OpenSL ES 1.0 (subset) Shipping – Android 2.3 OpenMAX AL 1.0 (subset) Shipping - Android 4.0 EGL 1.4 Shipping under SDK -> NDK Opera and Firefox WebGL now Chrome soon OpenGL 3.2 on MacOS OpenCL 1.2 on MacOS OpenGL ES 3.0 on iOS Can enable on MacOS Safari iOS5 enables WebGL for iAds © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 6
  7. 7. WebGL – 3D on the Web – No Plug-in! • Leveraging HTML 5 and <canvas> element - WebGL defines JavaScript binding to OpenGL ES 2.0 - Enables a 3D context for the canvas • Low-level foundational Web API for accessing the GPU - Flexibility and direct GPU access - Enables higher-level frameworks and middleware Availability of OpenGL and OpenGL ES on almost every web-capable device JavaScript binding to OpenGL ES 2.0 Increasing JavaScript performance. HTML 5 Canvas Tag © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 7
  8. 8. WebGL Implementation Anatomy Content downloaded from the Web. Middleware can make WebGL accessible to non-expert 3D programmers Content JavaScript, HTML, CSS, ... JavaScript Middleware Browser provides WebGL functionality alongside other HTML5 technologies - no plug-in required OS Provided Drivers. WebGL on Windows can use Direct3D - for example Angle open source project creates OpenGL ES 2.0 over DX9 Much WebGL content uses three.js library: HTML5 JavaScript CSS OpenGL ES 2.0 OpenGL DX9/Angle © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 8
  9. 9. WebGL Availability in Browsers - Microsoft – “where you have IE11, you have WebGL – turned on by default and working all the time” - Microsoft - WebGL also enabled for Windows applications - web app framework and web view - Apple - WebGL must be explicitly turned on MAC Safari and only exposed on iOS for iAds - Chrome OS - WebGL is the only cross-platform API to program the GPU - Google IO announcement - Chrome on Android will soon launch with WebGL © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 9
  10. 10. Cross-OS Portability HTML/CSS SDK C/C++ Dalvik (Java) HTML/CSS Objective C HTML/CSS HTML5 provides cross platform portability. GPU accessibility through WebGL available soon on ~90% mobile systems C# Preferred development environments not designed for portability DirectX Native code is portablebut apps must cope with different available APIs and libraries © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 10
  11. 11. WebGL First Wave Application Categories • Maps and Navigation • Modeling Tools and Repositories • Games • 3D Printing • Visualization • Music Videos and Promotion • Education • Photo Editors • Music Visualizers • Vision/Video Processing © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 11
  12. 12. Google Maps • All rendering (2D and 3D) in Google Maps uses WebGL © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 12
  13. 13. Microsoft PhotoSynth2 • Demonstrated at Build 2013 1:50 © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 13
  14. 14. WebGL on Logan Android Tablet © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 14
  15. 15. WebGL on Logan Android Tablet © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 15
  16. 16. OpenGL 3D API Family Tree WebGL 2.0 is in development now will bring OpenGL ES 3.0 functionality to the Web ES3 is backward compatible so new features can be added incrementally Programmable vertex and fragment shaders Fixed function 3D Pipeline OpenGL ES 2.0 Content OpenGL ES 1.1 Content OpenGL ES 3.0 Content Mobile 3D WebGL 1.0 OpenGL ES 1.1 OpenGL ES 2.0 WebGL 2.0 OpenGL ES 3.0 ES-Next OpenGL ES 1.0 OpenGL 1.3 OpenGL 1.5 OpenGL 2.0 OpenGL 2.1 OpenGL 3.1 OpenGL 3.3 OpenGL 4.2 OpenGL 4.3 OpenGL 4.4 OpenGL 4.0 OpenGL 3.0 OpenGL 3.2 OpenGL 4.1 OpenGL 4.4 is a superset of DX11 Desktop 3D 2002 2003 2004 GL-Next 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 16
  17. 17. OpenGL ES 3.0 Highlights • Better looking, faster performing games and apps – at lower power - Incorporates proven features from OpenGL 3.3 / 4.x - 32-bit integers and floats in shader programs - NPOT, 3D textures, depth textures, texture arrays - Multiple Render Targets for deferred rendering, Occlusion Queries - Instanced Rendering, Transform Feedback … • Make life better for the programmer - Tighter requirements for supported features to reduce implementation variability • Backward compatible with OpenGL ES 2.0 - OpenGL ES 2.0 apps continue to run unmodified • Standardized Texture Compression - #1 developer request! © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 17
  18. 18. Why Khronos for WebGL? • Hardware API standards must take into account silicon design cycles - Multi-year pipeline of APIs that affect chips that take $100Ms to execute - Deep insights into silicon and driver architectures - Rigorous conformance tests and infrastructure • Khronos is committed to being a good citizen in the larger Web community - Opened Khronos WebGL processes to enable cooperation with web community • Khronos is the industry forum to drive hardware consensus and cooperation - Help create foundational support for higher-level Web standards that access hardware capabilities © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 18
  19. 19. Leveraging Proven Native APIs into HTML5 • Khronos and W3C liaison - Leverage proven native API investments into the Web - Fast API development and deployment - Designed by the hardware community - Familiar foundation reduces developer learning curve HTML Canvas WebVX? Vision Processing Path Rendering Native APIs shipping or Khronos working group JavaScript API shipping, acceleration being developed or work underway WebCAM(!) WebStream? Sensor Fusion Camera control and video processing Camera Control JavaScript Native Possible future JavaScript APIs or acceleration © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 19
  20. 20. OpenCL as Parallel Compute Foundation C++ AMP OpenCL HLM WebCL Aparapi JavaScript binding to Java language C++ Shevlin Park Uses Clang syntax/compiler OpenCL for initiation extensions for parallelism of OpenCL C kernels extensions and LLVM River Trail PyOpenCL Harlan Compiler High level Python wrapper Language directives for language for GPU around extensions to Fortran C and C++ programming OpenCL JavaScript OpenCL provides vendor optimized, cross-platform, cross-vendor access to heterogeneous compute resources © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 20
  21. 21. WebCL • WebCL is a JavaScript binding to OpenCL APIs - Enables initiation of Kernels written in OpenCL C within the browser - Requires a conformant underlying OpenCL on the host system • Leverage heterogeneous computing resources - 3D asset codecs, video codecs and processing, imaging and vision processing - Physics for WebGL games, Online data visualization, Augmented Reality • WebCL 1.0 based on OpenCL 1.1 Embedded Profile: - Implementations may utilize OpenCL 1.1 or 1.2 • WebCL API is designed for complete security - Restriction of some OpenCL native functionality - WebCL kernel validation – similar to WebGL © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 21
  22. 22. WebCL 1.0 Kernels • HTML data interoperability - <canvas>, <image>, ImageData sources bindable to WebCLBuffer & WebCLImage - <video> tag can be bound to a WebCLImage • Interoperability between WebCL and WebGL - Through GL_SHARING extension • WebCL may support the following extensions - KHR_FP16 — 16-bit float support in kernels - KHR_FP64 — 64-bit float support in kernels • No 3D image support in WebCL 1.0 - May change in future WebCL versions © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 22
  23. 23. WebCL 1.0 Security • Leverages OpenCL 1.2 robustness/security extensions - Context Termination - to prevent DOS from long running kernels - Memory Initialization - so no leakage from out of bounds memory access • Kernels passed through open source WebCL Kernel Validator - - Initializes local and private memory if underlying OpenCL implementation does not implement memory initialization extension - Keeps track of memory allocations and traces valid ranges for reads and writes • API/Language Restrictions and definition of undefined OpenCL behavior - Kernels do not support structures as arguments - Kernels name must be less than 256 characters - Mapping of CL memory objects into host memory space is not supported - Binary kernels are not supported - Some OpenCL Extension may not be supported or require translation - Certain OpenCL parameters may not directly carry over to WebCL © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 23
  24. 24. WebCL 1.0 Current Status • WebCL 1.0 API definition is being publicly developed - Working Public Draft first released April 2012: • WebCL distribution lists -, • WebCL1.0 specification finalization expected in 1H14 - - With conformance tests and utilities - Samsung contributed tests, working group reviewed • WebCL Conformance Framework and Test Suite (WiP) - Full API coverage and Input/output validation - Available on GitHub: © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 24
  25. 25. OpenCL to WebCL Translator Utility • OpenCL to WebCL Kernel Translator - Input: An OpenCL kernel - Output: WebCL kernel, and a log file, that details the translation process - Tracked by a “meta” bug on Khronos public Bugzilla - • Host API translation (WiP) - Input: an OpenCL host API calls - Output: WebCL host API calls to be wrapped in JS - Provides verbose translation log file, detailing the process and any constraints - Tracked by a “meta” bug on Khronos public Bugzilla: - 25 © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 25
  26. 26. WebCL Prototype Implementations • Nokia - Firefox build with integrated WebCL - Firefox extension, open sourced May 2011 (Mozilla Public License 2.0) - • Samsung - uses WebKit, open sourced June 2011 (BSD) - • Motorola Mobility - uses Node.js, open sourced April 2012 (BSD) - Based on Apple QJulia Based on Iñigo Quilez, Shader Toy Based on Iñigo Quilez, Shader Toy © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 26
  27. 27. WebCL Parallel Computing for Web Acceleration © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 27
  28. 28. Khronos APIs for Augmented Reality W3C Augmented Web Community Group discussing many of these issues for the Web: e.g. leveraging WebRTC in the short term MEMS Sensors Sensor Fusion Application on CPUs, GPUs and DSPs Vision Processing Precision timestamps on all sensor samples Advanced Camera Control and stream generation Audio Rendering EGLStream stream data between APIs 3D Rendering and Video Composition On GPU Camera Control API AR needs not just advanced sensor processing, vision acceleration, computation and rendering - but also for all these subsystems to work efficiently together © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 28
  29. 29. 3D Needs a Transmission Format! • Compression and streaming of 3D assets becoming essential - Mobile and connected devices need access to increasingly large asset databases • 3D is the last media type to define a compressed format - 3D is more complex – diverse asset types and use cases • Needs to be royalty-free - Avoid an ‘internet video codec war’ scenario • Eventually enable hardware implementations of successful codecs - High-performance and low power – but pragmatic adoption strategy is key Audio Video Images 3D MP3 H.264 JPEG ? ! An effective and widely adopted codec ignites previously unimagined opportunities for a media type © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 29
  30. 30. glTF – OpenGL Transmission Format • Binary file format for efficient transmission for 3D assets - Reduce network bandwidth and minimize client processing overhead • Run-time neutral - DO NOT IMPLY OR MANDATE ANY RUN-TIME BEHAVIOR - Can be used by any app or run-time – usually WebGL accelerated • Scalable to handle compression and streaming - Though baseline format does not include compression • ‘Direct load efficiency’ for WebGL - Little or NO processing to drop glTF data into WebGL client • Carry conditioned data from any authoring format - Prototyping and optimizing efficient handling of COLLADA assets Authoring Playback A standards-based content pipeline for rich native and Web 3D applications © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 30
  31. 31. COLLADA and glTF Open Source Ecosystem OpenCOLLADA Importer/Exporter and COLLADA Conformance Tests On GitHUB Tool Interop COLLADA2GLTF Translator Other authoring formats Web-based Tools Pervasive WebGL deployment Three.js glTF Importer. Rest3D initiative © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 31
  32. 32. WebGL as Test-bed for 3D Asset Compression • Integrating and benchmarking 3D geometry compression formats with glTF - Baseline is GZIP • Scalable Complexity 3D Mesh Compression codec MPEG-SC3DMC - Royalty-free graphics compression technology from MPEG (MIT License) - Open3DGC is efficient JavaScript and C/C++ implementation - Convertor using Open3DGC to compress 3D Meshes, Skinning, Animations - • WebGL-loader is Google lightweight compression for WebGL content • OpenCTM uses LZMA compression © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 32
  33. 33. Initial Compression Results • Compression Efficiency - Gzip (default level=6) - OpenCTM (default settings) - Open3DGC and Webgl-loader 300 Size (MBytes) - Positions on 14 bits - Normals and texCoords on 10 bits 400 Gzip OpenCTM 200 Webgl-loader + Gzip Open3DGC-ASCII + Gzip 100 Open3DGC-Binary 0 CAD (3748 models) 3D Scanned (78 models) MPEG dataset (1211 models) Open3DGC is 5x-9x more efficient than Gzip 1.3x-2.4x more efficient than OpenCTM and 1.2x-1.5x more efficient than webgl-loader © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 33
  34. 34. 3DGC Decode Times • Javascript Decoding Speed - Desktop machine - Windows® 64-bit, 8GB RAM, Chrome - AMD Phenom™ II X4 B95 CPU @ 3.0GHz - Smart phone - Samsung Galaxy S4 - Android 4.2.2 - Chrome Number of triangles Desktop decoding time (ms) Smart phone decoding time (ms) “Hand” 100K 130 1045 “Dilo” 54K 85 768 “Octopus” 34K 65 457 Decoding speed will become even more critical with dense 3D meshes generated by 3D digitization technologies (e.g. 3D scanners) 3D Codec can be accelerated by WebCL Kernels or (eventually) hardware © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 34
  35. 35. Texture Compression is Key • Texture compression saves precious resources - Network bandwidth, device memory space AND device memory bandwidth • Developers need the same texture compression EVERYWHERE - Otherwise portable apps – such as WebGL need multiple copies of same texture Quality ASTC Royalty-free BUT only optional in ES. Only 4bpp | 3 channel No alpha support NOT Royalty-free. Platform Fragmentation DXTC/S3TC Windows ETC1 Mandated in Android Froyo (400M devices) ETC2 / EAC MANDATED in OpenGL ES 3.0 OpenGL 4.3 Royalty-free Backward compatible with ETC1 ETC2: 4bpp | 3 channel EAC: 4 (8) bpp | 1(2) channel COMBINED: RGBA 8bpp | 4 channel Does not have 1-2 bit compression WITH ALPHA PVRTC OpenGL ES 3.0 and OpenGL 4.3 extensions -> Core once proven Royalty-free Best quality. Independent control of bit-rate and # channels 1 to 4 channel 1-8bpp in fine steps Pervasive Deployment iOS 2008-2010 2012-2013 2014-> © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 35
  36. 36. ASTC – Universal Texture Standard • Adaptive Scalable Texture Compression (ASTC) - Quality significantly exceeds S3TC or PVRTC at same bit rate • Industry-leading orthogonal compression rate and format flexibility - 1 to 4 color components: R / RG / RGB / RGBA - Choice of bit rate: from 8bpp to <1bpp in fine steps • ASTC is royalty-free and so is available to be universally adopted - Shipping as OpenGL/OpenGL ES extension today for industry feedback Original 24bpp 8bpp ASTC Compression 3.56bpp 2bpp © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 36
  37. 37. Path Rendering Acceleration • Offload the CPU so the application can run as fast as possible - Make maximum use of the GPU for best performance and power CPU creates paths CPU creates paths CPU renders paths CPU creates paths CPU tessellates paths into polygons CPU GPU Use standard 3D commands to process polygons - Software Scanline renderers can be high quality and portable - CPU has to process complete pipeline – stealing cycles from the application - Software rendering limits performance Define new OpenGL path commands to process paths directly - Tessellation loads the CPU – stealing cycles from the application so perf sometimes slower than software alone - Tessellation consumes a lot of data and memory bandwidth = power - Quality can be compromised due to tessellation accuracy - Maximum CPU offload - Compact data format sent to GPU renderer - GPU provides excellent performance and power - GPU can increase quality and functionality © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 37
  38. 38. NV_path_rendering OpenGL Extension • Brings Path processing directly to OpenGL - No tessellation necessary • Goals - Functionally complete for key standards: SVG, Canvas, PostScript etc. - Much faster—often 4x to 100x faster than CPUs - Enhanced quality – can avoid approximations needed by CPU renderers - Lower power by leveraging dedicated hardware - New functionality – e.g. mix 2D paths with 3D and programmable shading © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 38
  39. 39. Stencil then Cover Approach • Create a path object and pass directly to the GPU - Cubic & quadratic Bezier segments, line segments, partial elliptical arcs • GPU “Stencils” the path object into the stencil buffer - GPU provides massively parallel stenciling of filled or stroked paths - Calculate winding rule or containment at every sub-pixel sample in parallel • “Cover” the path object and stencil test against its coverage - Test against path coverage determined in the 1st step and shade the path • Uses GPU MSAA anti-aliasing - 8 or 16 samples/pixel gives good quality Step 1 Stencil Step 2: Cover repeat © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 39
  40. 40. Enhanced Quality on GPU   weird big holes feathers? Skia  regular grid on CPU - sub-optimal Antialiasing  jitter pattern  Cairo NV_path_rendering Stroking approximations avoided by GPU on GPU for better Antialiasing GPU Offers Jittered Sampling for Free GPUs great at texturing: Mip-mapping Anisotropic filtering Wrap modes  GPU  Qt Moiré artifacts Similar for Qt & Skia color bleeding   Conflation free on GPU Eliminate Conflation Artifacts  Cairo conflation artifacts on CPU Multiple color AND stencil samples per pixel Proper gradient filtering on GPU © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 40
  41. 41. Comparing Performance © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 41
  42. 42. New GPU Functionality Projective Transformation Fast Arbitrary Path Clipping  linear RGB transition between saturated red and saturated blue has dark purple region light source position for BUMP Mapping Programmable Shading Paint in GLSL – for filter and blending acceleration sRGB perceptually smooth transition from saturated red to saturated blue Fully sRGB Correct Rendering Mixing depth tested Text, 3D, and Paths © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 42
  43. 43. Mixing 2D and 3D © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 43
  44. 44. Standardization and Adoption Pipeline • NVIDIA is proposing nvpr to OpenGL working group at Khronos to create open, royalty-free cross platform foundation for vector graphics acceleration Initial functionality proposal. Prove concepts. Solicit industry feedback Vendor Extension to OpenGL Desktop and mobile displays typically >300 DPI Pervasive multi-vendor availability. Widespread application usage inspires silicon optimizations OpenGL Extension or Core nvpr is here! OpenGL vector acceleration adopted into OpenGL and OpenGL ES Vector acceleration pervasive on desktop and mobile Mobile silicon is CUDA/OpenCL capable © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 44
  45. 45. Path Rendering Acceleration on Android Tablet © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 45
  46. 46. Summary • Open standards such as WebGL and WebCL are enabling web applications to reach the power of the GPU through JavaScript • GPU acceleration will soon become vital for Web applications wanting to leverage advanced use of camera and sensors • Direct acceleration of path primitives directly on GPUs will drive browser smooth touch performance for new classes of applications and devices • Work starting on 3D asset streaming and compression standards – to enable 3D as a social media type on the web • The Web and hardware community have significant opportunity to leverage each others efforts for the benefit of the industry • Khronos is committed to enable the hardware community to be a good citizen in creating the next generation of accelerated web standards • • © Copyright Khronos Group 2013 - Page 46