A good methods engineering program will follow an orderly process, starting from the selection of the project and ending the implementation of the project.The first, and perhaps most crucial, step – whether designing a new work center or improving an existing operation – is theidentification of the problem in a clear and logical form.
Developed by the economist Vilfredo Pareto to explain the concentration of wealth. Items of interest are identified and measured on a common scale and are then ordered in descending order, as a cumulative distribution.
Also known as cause-and-effect diagrams. Developed by Ishikawa in the early 1950’s while working on a quality control project for Kawasaki Steel Company. The method consists of defining an occurrence of a typically undesirable event or problem, that is, the effect, as the “fish head” and the identifying contributing factors, that is the causes, as “fish bones”.
Emerged during the 1940’s in response to the need to manage complex defense projects and systems better. Simply shows the anticipated completion times for various project activities as bars plotted against time on the horizontal axis.
Stands for Program Evaluation and Review Technique. Also referred to as network diagram or critical path. Is a planning and control tool that graphically portrays the optimum way to attain some predetermined objective, generally in terms of time. Is used to improve scheduling through cost reduction or customer satisfaction.
Identifies problems within a particular area, department, or worksite. Before collecting quantitative data, the analysts first walks through the area and observes the worker, the task, the workplace, and the surrounding working environment. In addition, the analyst identifies any administrative factors that may affect worker’s behavior or performance.
Operation Process Chart Flow Process Chart Flow Diagram Worker and Machine Process Chart Gang Process Chart
Shows the chronological sequence of all operations, inspections, time allowances, and materials used in a manufacturing or business process, from the arrival of raw materials to the packaging of finished product. Two symbols are used in constructing the operation process chart: a small circle, usually 3/8 inch in diameter, which denotes an operation; and a small square, usually 3/8 inch on a side, which denotes an inspection. Vertical lines indicate the general flow of the process as work is accomplished, while horizontal lines feeding into the vertical flow lines indicate material, either purchased or worked on during the process.
The operation process chart is also an aid in promoting and explaining a proposed method. This important tools: 1. Identifies all operations, inspections, materials, moves, storages, and delays involved in making a part or completing a process. 2. Shows all events in correct sequence. 3. Clearly shows the relationship between parts and fabrication complexity. 4. Distinguishes between produced and purchased parts.
5. Provides information on the number of employees utilized and the time required to perform each operation and inspection.
It is used primarily for each component of an assembly or a system to effect the maximum savings in manufacturing or in the procedures applicable to a particular component or sequence of work. The flow process chart is especially valuable in recording nonproduction hidden costs, such as distances traveled, delays and temporary storages. Flow process charts need several symbols in addition to the operation and inspection symbols used in operation process charts.
Two types of flowcharts are currently in general use: 1. Product chart provides the details of the events involving a product or a material 2. Operative flowchart details how a person performs an operational sequence.
Show a pictorial plan of the flow of work. The direction of flow is indicated by placing small arrows periodically along the flow lines. The flow diagram is a helpful supplement to the flow process chart because it indicates backtracking and possible traffic congestion areas, and it facilities developing an ideal plant layout.
Is used to study, analyze, and improve one workstation at a time. The chart shows the exact time relationship between the working cycle time of the person and the operating cycle of the machine.