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DSM KhepriCoat™ high transmission/anti-reflective coating


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Discover KhepriCoat™ anti-reflective coating technology for solar modules

KhepriCoat™ is an anti-reflective coating technology from DSM that is truly like no other.

This revolutionary technology increases the daily performance of solar Photovoltaic (PV) modules by up to 4% and solar thermal modules by up to 8%.

By rethinking and reconstructing nano-porous coatings, we've created a product that lets in more light while resisting extreme weather conditions.

KhepriCoat™ is:

· Cost-effective: Glass can be treated in a standard dip-coating unit or with slot die, spray or roll coating.
· Sustainable: No separate curing or after-treatment step, so no additional expensive ovens or chemicals are needed.
· Flexible: We licence our technology to glass processors, help them set up the equipment and support them through the manufacturing process.
· Adaptable: It can be tailored to suit most solar cover glass and cell types and can easily be scaled up to match the needs of the fast-growing solar market.

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DSM KhepriCoat™ high transmission/anti-reflective coating

  1. 1. Same sun,more powerKhepriCoat™ - the best-performinganti-reflective coating for solar cover glass
  2. 2. Boost module efficiencyMaximize light transmission by minimizing reflectionOver recent years, global demand for sustainable energy has grown steadily – and iscertain to continue growing. As a result, solar energy systems will play an increasinglycentral role in the energy economy of the future. And as the technology becomes moreefficient, their role will become even more critical. To help boost the price/performanceratio of solar energy systems, DSM is developing new breakthrough technologies –technologies such as KhepriCoat™. Set to contribute significantly to the hunt for grid parity,KhepriCoat™ is the best-performing anti-reflective coating technology for solar cover glasson the market. By transmitting more light, it boosts module efficiency significantly.Advantages at a glance:• KhepriCoat™ maximizes light transmission by minimizing reflection.• KhepriCoat™ can be used on solar cover glass for both photovoltaic modules and solar thermal modules and can be applied on one or both sides of the glass.• KhepriCoat™ can by applied by a range of deposition technologies, like dip, roll, spray and slot die coating.• KhepriCoat™ is tough and durable.• KhepriCoat™ adds significant value by improving the price/performance ratio, this lowering the cost/Wp. Minimum reflection, maximum trans- Traditional coatings mission The cost price of solar panels is under constant Wherever glass meets air, about 4% of the light pressure. As a result, when it comes to AR hitting the glass at a perpendicular angle is coatings, manufacturers must use single- reflected. And that percentage rises steeply as the layer systems to remain cost-effective. Whilst light’s angle of incidence increases. Obviously, for traditional single-layer AR coatings can be applied solar energy systems, reflected light represents in a single-step process, they are limited in the a wasted opportunity. KhepriCoat™ minimizes optical benefits they can deliver, due to the way this effect. In fact, it delivers a record-breaking they are structured. performance in terms of light transmission, beating all other AR coatings on the market Traditional single-layer AR coatings consist of today. Plus, it is mechanically robust and highly solid silica nano-particles “glued” together with durable – essential properties for this outdoor a binder so that the spaces between the particles application. act as nano-pores (see figure 1). Use too much binder, and this reduces the nano-porosity – and Why KhepriCoat™ is different thus the AR performance – of the coating. Use too AR coatings are turned inside out little binder, and this leads to poor mechanical KhepriCoat™ is a completely new technology. strength and low durability. To achieve this breakthrough, DSM has turned the structure of traditional nano-porous sol-gel What’s more, the structure’s open surface (see coatings “inside out”, enabling KhepriCoat™ to figure 1) makes the silica layer of the coating deliver a unique combination of mechanical and vulnerable to hydrolysis when exposed to extreme optical properties. weather conditions. And this can cause a sharp deterioration of both the optical and mechanical properties.KhepriCoat™ 2
  3. 3. Why KhepriCoat™ is differentAR coatings are turned inside outKhepriCoat™ avoids this trade-off between optical and mechanical properties by turningthe structure of the coating inside out. Instead of being formed in the spaces betweensolid nano-particles, the nano-pores in KhepriCoat™ are actually inside hollow particles. DSM uses core-shell particles that have a polymer core and a silica-based shell. In the coating stage, a 100-150 nanometer layer of these particles is deposited on the surface of the glass. The spaces between the core-shell particles are at the same time filled with a modified silica binder. The binder immediately forms a solid network between the core-shell particles. During the thermal-hardening step, the polymer cores of the particles are removed, leaving a well-adhering Figure 3: SEM picture of KhepriCoat™ showing the closed silica surface and high proportion of glass layer with a high internal porosity (figure 2). nano-pores. The optimized nano-pore/binder ratio ensures KhepriCoat™ delivers both outstanding optical and mechanical properties. And because it has a smooth, “closed” surface (see figure 3), the risk of hydrolysis is sharply reduced, enabling KhepriCoat™ to withstand extreme weather conditions and making it ideal for solar-cell cover glass. In addition, by optimizing the coathing thickness, the coating’s properties can be tailored to suit a variety of different module types. Binder Coating layer Solid silica particles (100-150 nm) Glass substrate Glass substrate Figure 1: The structure of a traditional sol-gel nano-porous AR coating Figure 2: The structure of a single layer of KhepriCoat™ 3 KhepriCoat™
  4. 4. Breaking records in light transmissionMake huge gains when the sun is high…Solar cover glass that is coated on both sides with KhepriCoat™ will on average transmitup to 7% more of the light hitting it at a perpendicular angle of incidence (see figure 4).…and even larger gains when the sun Test Description ΔT [%]is low Transmission at normal angle Increase in average transmission + 2.85 (TL)*And when the light’s angle of incidence is not per side compared to uncoated + 2.35 (TE)*perpendicular, the improvement in average glasstransmission can increase to almost 10% (seefigure 5). Abrasion resistance (EN 1096-2) Felt rubbing – 0.33 Immersion test Immersion in 85ºC water for + 0.22Performance per system 100 hoursThe increase in light transmission leads to a Immersion test saline Immersion in 35ºC salt solution + 0.05comparable rise in the energy yield of the solar (50 g NaCl per liter) for 100 hoursmodule. In practice, the actual improvement inenergy yield depends on several parameters: for Immersion test acid Immersion in 35ºC acid solution + 0.05example, on the type of cover glass, on the type (0.1 M H2SO4) for 100 hoursof solar cell and on the local cycle of the sun. The Vapour test Exposure to water vapour – 0.21typical daily improvement in module efficiencywill be in the range of: Damp-heat test (IEC 61215) Exposure to 85ºC, 85% humidity – 0.53 for 1000 hours• 3-4% for PV modules, Transmission - Angle-Dependency• 6-8% for solar thermal modules. Thermal cycling test (IEC 61215) 200 cycles from -40ºC to 85ºC – 0.12 100 Humidity-freeze test (IEC 61215) 10 cycles from 85ºC, 85% humidity – 0.50 Transmission 370 -800 [%] 95 to -40ºC Uncoated 90 Figure 6: Typical performance data of solar cover glass coated with KhepriCoat™. AR-coated glass * TL = 400-800 nm, TE = 400-1100 nm Average T 85 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Angle of incidence [deg] Transmission - Wavelength Transmission - Angle-Dependency 100 100 10 95 Average transmission 370 - 800 nm [%] 95 9 Transmission [%] Uncoated Transmission gain (%) 90 AR-coated glass uncoated glass 90 8 AR-coated glass Transmission gain 85 85 7 80 200 700 1200 1700 2200 Wavelength [nm] 80 6 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Angle of incidence [deg] Figure 4: Comparing the transmission spectrum of double-sided Figure 5: Comparing the angle-dependent transmission of double-sided KhepriCoat™-coated and uncoated 4mm low-iron float glass. KhepriCoat™-coated and uncoated 4mm low-iron float glass.KhepriCoat™ 4
  5. 5. Using KhepriCoat™ in-houseAnd add proven value to your productsDSM has developed state-of-the-art technologies for applying KhepriCoat™.And it is ready to supply the coating formulation and license the technology.The best light transmission Additional advantages:The strongest proof that KhepriCoat™ is the best • There’s no need to cureAR coating available today is that it was used by If your solar cover glass is heat tempered after coating, there is no need for aindependent research institute ECN to help set separate curing step. As a result, you do not need to invest in special ovens,a new world record for conversion efficiency in and there is no additional variable cost. What’s more, without the need tomulti-crystalline solar panels. DSM can enable handle chemicals for curing, the KhepriCoat™ technology is very safe andyou to break your own record, by helping you to environmentally friendly.optimize your KhepriCoat™ coatings to match the • You gain leading engineering supportabsorption spectrum of the specific cells you use. If you are not yet coating glass in-house, DSM can supply you with a complete engineering package and the technical support you need to construct and get started with coating facilities. Get in touch, and we will help you prepare for the future. An investment that pays DSM licenses its KhepriCoat™ technology to glass producers and solar cover glass processors. DSM produces the coating formulation in-house and supplies it directly to its licensees. With this license, you can produce and sell KhepriCoat™- coated high-performance AR solar cover glass. The coating technology requires a much lower capital investment compared with sputtering lines. AndDemonstrable durability most importantly, this investment will provide youThe durability of solar cover glass coated with with optimized returns, as the proven added valueKhepriCoat™ has been evaluated extensively. of glass coated with KhepriCoat™ fully justifies aFor example, it has been subjected to damp- premium price.heat tests, humidity-freeze tests, thermalcycling tests (all according to IEC 61215) and to Double-sided KhepriCoat™abrasion-resistance tests. As figure 6 shows, A two-sided coating of KhepriCoat™ can beKhepriCoat™ surpassed all test criteria, with only applied using standard dip-coating equipmentminor changes in transmission being observable (see figure 7). Typically, dip-coating speeds arefollowing these tests. in the range of 0.3-0.5 meter per minute. By coating multiple glass sheets with KhepriCoat™In addition, KhepriCoat™ has been tested simultaneously, you can achieve significantlycomprehensively in-situ on life-sized modules. higher effective coating speeds.It passed all relevant tests conclusively andmodules coated with KhepriCoat™ have receivedTÜV certification. Figure 7: DSM’s dip-coat unit is capable of dipping four glass sheets simultaneously 5 KhepriCoat™
  6. 6. Choose KhepriCoat™To make your products truly stand outAs pressure from governments and from public opinion is expected to grow in thefuture, project developers will increasingly ask for ever more efficient solar modulesin their hunt for grid-parity. In order to help you answer this demand, KhepriCoat™can enable you to further differentiate your business, and tailor your products tosuit the rapidly growing solar cover glass market.Single-sided KhepriCoat™ KhepriCoat™ key characteristics:One-sided coatings of KhepriCoat can be applied ™ • Offers excellent optical properties in a single-layer coating.using various coating technologies, such as slot • Can be applied 1- or 2-sided using a range of deposition technologies.die coating, spray coating and roll coating. DSM • Increases the output of PV modules by up to 4%.has adapted existing slot-die-coating technology • Highly robust, withstands extreme weather conditions and is easy to clean.for the high-speed deposition of optical coatings • Meets the durability criteria as specified in IEC61215 and is TÜV certified.on rigid substrates. This new system can even • Can be tailored to suit a variety of different cells and types of solar cover glasscarry out inline coating at speeds as high as • Offers you a quick return on investment.20m per minute. With this technology, DSM has • Is supported by a high level of design and engineering services.achieved a coating thickness of 100–150nm • Helps you to maintain or improve your position in a fast growing market bywith a thickness tolerance of just ± 2nm. Patents providing a differentiated product offering.are pending for this process, and a pilot line isavailable at DSM (see figure 8). DSM – Bright Science. Brighter Living.™ Royal DSM N.V. is a global science-based company active in health, nutrition and materials. By connecting its unique competences in Life Sciences and Materials Sciences DSM is driving economic prosperity, environmental progress and social advances to create sustainable value for all stakeholders. DSM delivers innovative solutions that nourish, protect and improve performance in global markets such as food and dietary supplements, personal care, feed, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, automotive, paints, electrical and electronics, life protection, alternative energy and bio-based materials. DSM’s 22,000 employees deliver annual net sales of over €8 billion. The company is listed on NYSE Euronext. More information can be found at www.dsm.comFigure 8: Pilot slot die coating line at DSMKhepriCoat™ 6
  7. 7. Khepri is the name of one of the major Gods in ancient Egyptianmythology. He was believed to push the sun across the sky andis responsible for the dawn. This name was chosen as sunriseand sunset are the times when the benefits of KhepriCoat™ offerthe highest yield increase versus normal solar glass. 7 KhepriCoat™
  8. 8. DSM Advanced SurfacesIf you’d like to know more aboutAR coated glass and how it can helpyour business contact us today.Email: info.advancedsurfaces@dsm.comwww.dsmadvancedsurfaces.comwww.khepricoat.comEuropeDSM Advanced SurfacesP.O. Box 11636160 BD GeleenThe NetherlandsPhone: +31 46-476 36 15Email: info.advancedsurfaces@dsm.comDISCLAIMERAlthough DSM has used diligent care to ensure that the information provided herein is accurate and up to date, DSM makes no representation or warranty of theaccuracy, reliability, or completeness of the informationThis publication is distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressly or implied. In no event shallDSM be liable for any damages arising from the reader’s reliance upon, or use of, these materials. The reader shall be solely responsible for any interpretation oruse of the material contained herein. The content of this document is subject to change without further notice. Please contact your local DSM representative formore details. All trademarks listed in this brochure are trademarks of DSM in The Netherlands and/or other countries.© DSM 2011Version 11.001