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Nnatural enemies in Agricultural crop


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Natural enemies

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Nnatural enemies in Agricultural crop

  1. 1. NATURAL ENEMIESNATURAL ENEMIES Dr. Akhilesh Kumar SMS (Plant Protection) Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rewa (MP)
  2. 2. Biological ControlBiological Control The use of living natural enemies to control pests. Includes: • Predators • Parasitoids • Pathogens
  3. 3. PredatorsPredators • Insect, mite or spider that attacks & feeds on its prey • Kill & consume more than one victim to complete development
  4. 4. Modes of PredationModes of Predation • Active Search • Ambush • Lures • Traps
  5. 5. ParasitoidParasitoid • An organism that lives in or on the body of its host, at least during a part of its lifecycle • Kill & consume less than or equal to one victim in order to complete development Healthy aphids Parasitize d aphids
  6. 6. Types of ParasitoidsTypes of Parasitoids • Endoparasitoid • Ectoparasitoid
  7. 7. EndoparasitoidEndoparasitoid • Develops inside the host • Associated with hosts in both concealed and exposed sites
  8. 8. EctoparasitoidEctoparasitoid • Develops outside of host • Typically associated with hosts in “protected” sites (I.e., tunnels, leafmines, rolled leaves)
  9. 9. PathogensPathogens • Viruses • Bacteria • Fungi
  10. 10. PathogensPathogens • Process: – Adhesion of spore to host cuticle – Spore germination – Penetration of the cuticle – Growth in hemocoel – Insect death • Examples: – Beauveria bassiana – Metarhizium anisopliae
  11. 11. Predators andPredators and ParasitoidsParasitoids
  12. 12. AntsAnts • Social insects • Predators • May tend aphids or other honeydew producing insects • Feed on sugars, fats, proteins and honeydew
  13. 13. Earwigs • ¼” to 1” long • Flattened body • Pale to dark brown • Forceps-like cerci used to capture prey or defend themselves • Predators
  14. 14. Green LacewingsGreen Lacewings • Adults generally eat aphids, honeydew, nectar and pollen • Larvae are predators • They are commonly found on grass, weeds, cultivated row crops and shrubs
  15. 15. Green Lacewing LarvaeGreen Lacewing Larvae • Larvae are elongate • Large, sickle-shaped mandibles, inject a paralyzing venom • Feed on eggs and immature stages of aphids, caterpillars, leafhoppers, mealybugs, moths, spider mites, thrips and whiteflies
  16. 16. Green Lacewing AdultGreen Lacewing Adult • Adults are greenish white with copper- colored eyes • About ¾” in length • Feed mostly on aphids, honeydew, nectar or pollen
  17. 17. BeetlesBeetles • Adults and larvae of some species are predators
  18. 18. Ladybird BeetlesLadybird Beetles • Both adults and larvae prey on aphids, scale insects, mealybugs, mites and other soft- bodied insects
  19. 19. Adult Ladybird BeetlesAdult Ladybird Beetles • Oval shaped • Black with yellow or red markings OR orange or reddish with black markings • Range from 1/16” to 1/2” long
  20. 20. Ladybird Beetle Larvae • Larvae are elongate, somewhat flattened & covered with spines • Usually dark or black with brightly colored spots or bands • Some are white in color and resemble mealybugs
  21. 21. Rove BeetlesRove Beetles • Larvae and adults of most species are predators • Adults are brown or black, slender, with stubby wings • Larvae resemble adults • Prey on aphids, springtails, nematodes and fly maggots
  22. 22. Ground BeetlesGround Beetles • Larvae and adults of most species are predators • Adults are dark colored, often metallic • Larvae are elongate, dark brown or black • Prey on aphids, other beetles, chinch bugs, fly eggs, some caterpillars and moths
  23. 23. Praying Mantids • Usually over 2” in length • Brown or green in color • Prey on many different insects, including other beneficials
  24. 24. Minute Pirate BugsMinute Pirate Bugs • Small, oval, flattened, and black with white markings • Nymphs and adults are predators • Prey on corn earworms, small caterpillars, insect eggs, leafhopper nymphs, spider mites and thrips
  25. 25. Big-eyed BugsBig-eyed Bugs • Gray, brown, black or tan with tiny spots, and bulging eyes • Prey on eggs and immature aphids, armyworms, hornworms, corn earworms, leafhoppers, lygus bugs, mealybugs, psyllids, spider mites and thrips
  26. 26. Stink BugsStink Bugs • Usually oval or shield- shaped • Brown, green or gray, many brightly colored • Prey on many insects, especially caterpillars
  27. 27. Stink BugsStink Bugs Beneficial forms • Spines projecting from “shoulders” • Short, stout beaks Plant feeders • Round “shoulders” • Long, thin mouth parts
  28. 28. Robber FliesRobber Flies • ¼ to 1¼” in length • Face is usually very hairy with a groove between the eyes • Prey on many insects including beetles, grasshoppers, bees, leafhoppers, wasps and other flies
  29. 29. Syrphid Fly AdultsSyrphid Fly Adults • Adults are bee mimics • Feed on pollen and aphid honeydew • Female will lay hundreds of eggs in an aphid colony, using honeydew as an ovipositional stimulant
  30. 30. Syrphid Fly LarvaeSyrphid Fly Larvae • Some larvae are grayish or greenish with a slug- like appearance • Each larva can eat hundreds of aphids
  31. 31. WaspsWasps • Various sizes • Slender, brown or black with a constricted waist • Fairly host-specific; most pests have a complex of parasitoids
  32. 32. Predatory MitesPredatory Mites • Often red or orange • Legs are longer than spider mites • Front legs extended forward • Commonly attack two- spotted spider mites
  33. 33. SpidersSpiders • 8 legs, 2 body parts • Predators • Hunt • Spin webs • Ambush
  34. 34. Vertebrate AnimalsVertebrate Animals • Armadillos • Birds • Fish • Raccoons • Snakes • Squirrels