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  1. 1. Contents:
  2. 2. History firstA varying current in theor primary winding creates avarying magnetic flux in thetransformers core and thus avarying magnetic field throughthe secondary winding.
  3. 3. HistoryThis varying magneticfield induces avarying electromotive force(EMF), or "voltage", in thesecondary winding. This effectis called inductive coupling.
  4. 4.  A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformers coils.
  5. 5. How it is used? A transformer is used to bring voltage up or down in an AC electrical circuit. A transformer can be used to convert AC power to DC power.
  6. 6. Responsible for the Development ofTRANSFORMER
  7. 7. William Stanley, Jr. (USA)•He contributedto thedevelopment ofan alternatingcurrentinductionmotor.
  8. 8. Lucien Gaulard (France)(1850 - November26, 1888)invented devicesforthe transmissionof alternatingcurrent electricalenergy.
  9. 9. Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti (England) who promoted theinstallation oflarge electricalgeneratingstations andalternating-currentdistributionnetworks in
  10. 10. TRANSFORMERPower converterthat transferelectrical energyfrom one circuit toanother throughinductively.
  11. 11. Principle transformer is based on two principles: (1) that an electric current can produce a magnetic field ( electromagnetism) (2) that a changing magnetic field within a coil of coil induces a voltage across the ends of the coil( electromagnetic induction)
  12. 12. TYPES OF TRANSFORMER Step Up TransformerStep Down Transformer
  13. 13. Step Up TransformerThis type oftransformerconverts lowvoltage of highvoltage at lowcurrent.
  14. 14. PrimaryThe primary coilis made of thickcopper wire whilethe secondary coilis made of thinwire.
  15. 15. SecondaryThe number ofturns in thesecondary coil isgreater than thenumber of turns inthe primary coil.
  16. 16. Step Down TransformerIf we assumethere is no lossof power,Out put power= Input powerEsIs = EpIp = K
  17. 17. If a load is connected to the secondarywinding, current will flow in this winding, andelectrical energy will be transferred from theprimary circuit through the transformer to theload. In an ideal transformer, the inducedvoltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is inproportion to the primary voltage (Vp) and isgiven by the ratio of the number of turns in thesecondary (Ns) to the number of turns in theprimary (Np) as follows:
  18. 18. The transformer equation: N1 = V1 N2 = V1 N1 = Number of turns on coil 1 N2 = Number of turns on coil 2 V1 = Voltage on coil 1 V2 = Voltage on coil 2
  19. 19. Advantage of Alternative Current Electric power distribution primarily used direct current at the same voltage used by motors and lights. Changing direct current voltage level required rotating machinery which was costly to purchased and install.
  20. 20. Advantage of Alternative Current
  21. 21. BASIC TRANSFORMER The basic transformer is an electrical device that transfers alternating-current energy from one circuit to another circuit by magnetic coupling of the primary and secondary windings of the transformer.
  22. 22. The voltage applied to the primary winding causes currentto flow in the primary.This current generates a magnetic field, generating acounter emf (cemf) which has the opposite phase to that ofthe applied voltage. The magnetic field generated by thecurrent in the primary also cuts the secondary winding andinduces a voltage in this winding.
  23. 23. TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION A TRANSFORMER consists of two coils of insulated wire wound on a core. The primary winding is usually wound onto a form, then wrapped with an insulating material such as paper or cloth.
  25. 25. Transformer Consructions The most common types of transformers are the shell-core and the hollow-core types. The type and shape of the core is dependent on the intended use of the transformer and the voltage applied to the current in the primary winding.
  26. 26. Exciting Current When voltage is applied to the primary of a transformer, exciting current flows in the primary.
  27. 27. The current causes a magnetic fieldto be set up around both theprimary and the secondarywindings. The moving flux causes avoltage to be induced into thesecondary winding, countering theeffects of the counter emf in theprimary.
  28. 28. Power of Transformer A transformer with two or more windings wound on a laminated iron core. The transformer is used to supply stepped up and stepped down values of voltage to the various circuits in electrical equipment.
  29. 29. Power of Transformer
  30. 30. Application The major application of transformer is to increase voltage before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through the wire. Also used extensively in electronic products to step down the supply voltage to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they contain.
  31. 31. Activity Time
  32. 32. Question…..
  33. 33. If this is a step–uptransformer, whichside would be thesecondary?A. RightB. Left
  34. 34. Correct Answer Is (b.) Left A step-up transformer raises voltage.The secondary would have more voltage and more coils: the left side.
  35. 35. Which side has the most CURRENT? A. Bottom B.Top
  36. 36. A. Bottom because Power in must = Power out, the sidewith the least voltagemust have the most current.
  37. 37. currentmust be use in transformer?? A. Ac B. Dc
  38. 38. Answer : A. AC A transformer transfers voltage by transferringmagnetic flux. Magnetic flux occurs with changing magnetism and changing current: Alternating Current.
  39. 39. Problem Solving1.A transformer has 100 turns oncoil 1 and 200 turns on coil 2. *What will the voltage on coil 2 be if the voltage on coil 1 is i. 10 volts? ii. 200 volts? iii. 1000 volts?
  40. 40. Created By:Mallillin, Khate A.• IV-2•Fernandez, Mariel• IV-2•Aguilar, Marry Grace• IV-2•
  41. 41. References: • http://www.physicstutorial ansformers • http://www.worsleyschool. net/science/files/transform ers/page.html • s/book2/5k.htm • *http://edisontechcenter.o rg/Transformers.html