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Considerations in evaluating a method of teaching


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Considerations in evaluating a method of teaching

  2. 2. The concept of Method “Any procedure which applies some rational order or systematic pattern to diverse objects." Morris. R. Cohen (1933)
  3. 3. The concept of Method Justus Buchler (1963) has raised many questions; • What is the relation between method and procedure? • What does it mean to apply an order? • What kind of order is rational and systematic? • What makes a method methodic?
  4. 4. Components of Method •Buchler introduced Repeatability to the concept of method. •Methodic refers not only to the use or reproduction of an achieved pattern, but also to the invention and refinement of pattern.
  5. 5. The value of Method •Method is value-free. oThere are viable methods and sterile methods. oThere are important methods and unimportant methods.
  6. 6. The value of Method •According to Kumar, method has an ideological motivation. •A method is but a “reflection of a particular view of the world and is articulated in the interest of unequal power relations.” Pennycook (1989)
  7. 7. Method in practice Elements that may influence the application of a teaching method: •Teachers •Students •Society •School system •Curriculum •Teaching supplies
  8. 8. Teachers and method application “Human action typically employs „mediational means‟ such as tools and language, and that these mediational means shape the action in essential ways.” Wertsch (1991)
  9. 9. Mediational means subject object The mediational means
  10. 10. Mediational means teacher goal Method of teaching
  11. 11. Teachers and method application Why would a teacher choose a certain method in delivering a specific subject?
  12. 12. Mediational means teacher goal Method of teaching
  13. 13. Teachers and method application “The goal constrains the options for action.” Nikiforov (1990)
  14. 14. Teachers and method application •Teachers‟ use of a technique that they disapprove may be caused by the goal-in-context. •Sometimes, goals are „imposed‟ upon teachers.
  15. 15. Teachers and method application • When a mediational means has been used frequently in a particular setting, the subject begins to “appropriate” it. • “Appropriation refers to the process through which a person becomes sufficiently familiar with a mediational means that he or she is able to use it purposefully and flexibly in particular social environments.” (Grossman et al., 1999)
  16. 16. Teachers and method application “Beliefs have a strong shaping effect on behavior.” Schoenfeld (1998)
  17. 17. Teachers and method application • Beliefs have a significant influence on the instructional and classroom practices (Calderhead, 1996; Thompson, 1985). • Inconsistencies between beliefs and practices would result in tension and contradiction which cause the teacher to attempt to change (Lerman, 2002).
  18. 18. Teachers and method application Why would some teachers not try to fill the gap between their beliefs and practices?
  19. 19. Teachers and method application • Festinger‟s (1957) dissonance theory principle: Disharmony among cognitive “elements” motivates cognitive changes designed to restore harmony.
  20. 20. Teachers and method application In order to restore harmony, one of the following cognitive changes may occur: 1. The teacher avoids thinking about the elements that conflict. 2. The teacher tries to change her practice. 3. The teacher changes her beliefs. 4. The teacher incorporates into her thinking additional “consonant elements”.
  21. 21. Teaching material Teacher‟s awareness of the right method Teacher‟s goal beliefs attitude
  22. 22. Students and method application What’s the student’s role in the learning process?
  23. 23. Students and method application Teacher-centered approach • The formal authority approach • The demonstrator model approach student-centered approach •School system •Curriculum •Teaching supplies
  24. 24. Students and method application Student role Teacher- centered approach The formal authority approach Demonstrator model approach Student- centered approach Guided participation concept
  25. 25. Students and method application Issues that can be raised about student- centered conceptions include the tendencies: to promote active student engagement at the expense of active teaching to privilege individual experience over linguistically-mediated cultural knowledge in the development of higher-order knowledge to confuse desired outcomes of education with the developmental processes that lead to those outcomes
  26. 26. Students and method application Reflection is “an act of searching, hunting, inquiring, to find material.” Dewey (1933)
  27. 27. Students and method application preparation engagement in an activity the process of what has been learned Learning stages: