Mr1480.appb

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Mr1480.appb

  1. 1. Appendix B SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE IN THE LITERATUREDetailed information on Internet survey studies that we cite in thisreport is presented in Table B.1. 1 Some of the studies have multiplestudy arms, each of which is listed in a separate row in the table.Each study arm corresponds to a different experimental setting. Forexample, one arm of a study might use postal mail exclusively forcontacting individuals, while another might use e-mail to inviteindividuals to participate in a survey that is done on the Web.We classified the survey samples into census, random (or probabil-ity), and convenience samples. Depending on who the target popu-lation is, a sample may be classified as either random or conve-nience. For example, a random sample of participants in an Internetnewsgroup for dentists would count as a convenience sample if thepopulation of inference is all dentists in the United States (includingthose who do not participate in the Internet newsgroup).Contact modes are classified as mail, phone, e-mail, newsgrouppostings, traditional advertising (such as through newspapers ormagazines), Web site advertising (such as hyperlinks in prominentWeb sites), or Web.______________1Some unpublished studies that we cited are omitted from the table because of lim-ited information. 95
  2. 2. 96 Table B.1 Evidence Table for Survey Studies Cited in This Report Primary Sample Type of Contact Response Follow-up ResponseYear Author Survey Topic Target Population Size Sample Mode Mode Mode Rate (%)2001 Couper Drug and University of 3,500 Random Mail Mail Mail 41 alcohol use Michigan students2001 Couper Drug and University of 3,500 Random E-mail Web E-mail 62 alcohol use Michigan students2001 Berrens Attitudes on U.S. adults a E-mail Web — N/A 13,034 Convenience the environ- ment2001 Berrens Attitudes on U.S. adults a Random Phone Phone Phone 45.6 1,699 the environ- ment2001 Asch Enlistment College students and 14,150 Random Mail Mail + Mail 20.8 propensity in college-bound Web the military students Conducting Research Surveys via E-Mail and the Web under different scenarios2001 Everingham Balancing RAND employees 1,298 Census E-mail Web E-Mail 44 work and personal life2000 Paolo Curriculum Fourth-year medical 61 Census E-mail E-mail — 24 evaluation studentsUtopia R ✺❁❐❆
  3. 3. Table B.1—Continued Primary Sample Type of Contact Response Follow-up ResponseYear Author Survey Topic Target Population Size Sample Mode Mode Mode Rate (%)2000 Paolo Curriculum Fourth-year medical 83 Census Mail Mail Mail 41 evaluation students2000 Quigley N/A Active-duty 7,209 Random Mail Mail + Mail 37 personnel, military Web spouses, civilians, reserve members2000 Quigley N/A Active-duty 21,805 Random Mail Mail + Mail 42 personnel, military Web spouses, civilians, reserve members2000 Quigley N/A Active-duty 7,279 Random Mail Mail Mail 40 personnel, military spouses, civilians, reserve members2000 Schleyer Clinical Dentists 438 Convenience E-mail Web + E-mail 74.2 practice e-mail + fax2000 Taylor Political U.S. population N/A Convenience E-mail Web — N/A approval2000 Taylor 1998 U.S U.S. population N/A Convenience E-mail Web — N/A election for 23 governors Summary of Evidence in the Literature and 14 senators 97Utopia R ✺❁❐❆
  4. 4. 98 Table B.1—Continued Primary Sample Type of Contact Response Follow-up ResponseYear Author Survey Topic Target Population Size Sample Mode Mode Mode Rate (%)2000 Witte Social science: U.S. adults age 16 32,688 Convenience Webb Web — N/A geographic and over mobility, community1999 Couper Organiza- Employees of five 4,187 Census Mail Mail Mixed 70.7 tional U.S. federal climate agencies1999 Couper Organiza- Employees of five 4,066 Census E-mail E-mail Mixed 42.6 tional U.S. federal climate agencies1999 Flemming Election Anyone visiting the N/A Convenience E-mail Web — N/A PEW Web site1999 Flemming Election Anyone in prior PEW N/A Convenience E-mail Web — N/A phone interview1999 Jones Health Staff at ten 200 Random E-mail Web — 19 Conducting Research Surveys via E-Mail and the Web universities1999 Jones Health Staff at ten 100 Random Mail Mail — 72 universities1999 Jones Health Staff at ten 200 Random E-mail E-mail — 34 universities1999 Kaye Uses of Web Anyone browsing N/A Convenience News- Web — for political the Web group information postingsUtopia R ✺❁❐❆
  5. 5. Table B.1—Continued Primary Sample Type of Contact Response Follow-up ResponseYear Author Survey Topic Target Population Size Sample Mode Mode Mode Rate (%)1999 Sheehan Attitudes and Individuals with 5,000 Random E-mail Mail + E-mail 24 behaviors personal e-mail e-mail associated accounts with on-line privacy1999 Sheehan Health Web Creators of health- 834 Random E-mail Mail + E-mail 47 site purpose related Web sites e-mail and funding1999 Sheehan Attitudes University faculty, 580 Random E-mail Mail + e-mail 47 toward on- staff, and students e-mail line privacy1999 Shermis Telecommu- Members of the 585 Random Mail Mail — 36 nications National Council needs of on Measurement in educators Education1999 Shermis Telecommu- Members of the 585 Random E-mail E-mail — 30 nications National Council needs of on Measurement in educators Education1999 Vehovar Electronic All Internet users in N/A Convenience E-mail Web — N/A commerce Slovenia1999 Vehovar Electronic All Internet users in N/A Random Phone Phone — N/A Summary of Evidence in the Literature commerce Slovenia 99Utopia R ✺❁❐❆
  6. 6. Table B.1—Continued 100 Primary Sample Type of Contact Response Follow-up ResponseYear Author Survey Topic Target Population Size Sample Mode Mode Mode Rate (%)1999 Zhang Scholarly Researchers with in- 201 Census E-mail Mail + Mixed 77.6 paper press papers to be Web + fax submissions published in eight library science journals1998 Dillman Past Web sites Purchasers of 9,522 Random Phone Web E-mail 41.1 visited, computer products lifestyles, behavior (“plain” Web page design)1998 Dillman Past Web sites Purchasers of 2,466 Random Phone Web E-mail 36.3 visited, computer products lifestyles, behavior (“fancy” Web Conducting Research Surveys via E-Mail and the Web page design)1998 Nichols Economic Large commercial 50 Convenience Mail Mail + Mixed 94 data of large U.S. companies Web commercial firms1998 Nichols Economic Large commercial 2,552 Census Mail Mail Mixed 84 data of large U.S. companies commercial firmsUtopia R ✺❁❐❆
  7. 7. Table B.1—Continued Primary Sample Type of Contact Response Follow-up ResponseYear Author Survey Topic Target Population Size Sample Mode Mode Mode Rate (%)1998 Schaefer N/A Permanent faculty of 226 Census E-mail Mail + E-mail 58 Washington State e-mail University1998 Schaefer N/A Permanent faculty of N/A Census E-mail E-mail E-mail 48 Washington State University1998 Schaefer N/A Permanent faculty of N/A Census E-mail E-mail Mail 54 Washington State University1998 Schaefer N/A Permanent faculty of 226 Census Mail Mail Mail 57.5 Washington State University1998 Schillewaert Attitudes Flemish Web users a Convenience Traditional Web — 0.18 110 toward the advertising Web1998 Schillewaert Attitudes Flemish Web users a Convenience News- Web — 1.68 67 toward the group Web postings1998 Schillewaert Attitudes Flemish Web users a Convenience Web site Web — 0.68 51 toward the advertising Web Summary of Evidence in the Literature 101Utopia R ✺❁❐❆
  8. 8. Table B.1—Continued 102 Primary Sample Type of Contact Response Follow-up ResponseYear Author Survey Topic Target Population Size Sample Mode Mode Mode Rate (%)1998 Schillewaert Attitudes Flemish Web users a Convenience E-mail Web — 31 125 toward the Web1997 Coomber Drug dealer Drug dealers a Convenience Mixed Web — N/A 80 practices worldwide1997 Kittleson Health Health educators 276 Census E-mail Fax E-mail N/A educator certification1997 Swoboda Future risks Internet users 8,859 Convenience E-mail Web — 25 for the planet and mankind1996 Bachman Total quality Business school 244 Random Mail Mail — 65.6 management deans and in higher chairpersons education1996 Bachman Total quality Business school 244 Census E-mail E-mail — 52.5 Conducting Research Surveys via E-Mail and the Web management deans and in higher chairpersons education1996 Comley Early adopters 3,700 names and 1,221 Convenience E-mail E-mail E-mail 9 of technology addresses purchased from Internet magazine in the UKUtopia R ✺❁❐❆
  9. 9. Table B.1—Continued Primary Sample Type of Contact Response Follow-up ResponseYear Author Survey Topic Target Population Size Sample Mode Mode Mode Rate (%)1996 Comley Early adopters 3,700 names and 1,779 Convenience Mail Mail — 18 of technology addresses purchased from Internet magazine in the UK1995 Kittleson Trivial Health educators in 153 Census Mail Mail — 76.5 questions for a small professional health association educators1995 Kittleson Trivial Health educators 153 Census E-mail E-mail — 28.1 questions for listed in an e-mail health directory educators1995 Mehta Internet Active U.S. users of 60 Random E-mail E-mail — 40 communi- BBS newsgroups cation1995 Mehta Internet Active U.S. users of 202 Random Mail E-mail — 45 communi- BBS newsgroups cation1995 Mehta Internet Active U.S. users of 107 Random Mail Mail Mail 83 communi- BBS newsgroups cation Summary of Evidence in the Literature 103Utopia R ✺❁❐❆
  10. 10. Table B.1—Continued 104 Primary Sample Type of Contact Response Follow-up ResponseYear Author Survey Topic Target Population Size Sample Mode Mode Mode Rate (%)1995 Mehta Internet International users 172 Random E-mail Mail + E-mail 64 communi- of BBS newsgroups e-mail + cation fax1995 Mehta Internet Active U.S. users of 122 Random E-mail Mail + E-mail 63 communi- BBS newsgroups e-mail + cation fax1995 Tse Business Administrative and 200 Census Mail Mail Mail 27 ethics teaching staff at Chinese University of Hong Kong with listed e-mail addresses1995 Tse Business Administrative and 200 Census E-mail E-mail — 6 ethics teaching staff at Chinese University of Hong Kong with Conducting Research Surveys via E-Mail and the Web listed e-mail addresses1995 Werner Presidential General population 1,200 Random E-mail E-mail — N/A approval in the U.S. rating1994 Schuldt Attitudes MIS and marketing 200 Census Mail Mail — 19.3 toward faculty in shareware membership directoriesUtopia R ✺❁❐❆
  11. 11. Table B.1—Continued Primary Sample Type of Contact Response Follow-up ResponseYear Author Survey Topic Target Population Size Sample Mode Mode Mode Rate (%)1994 Schuldt Attitudes MIS and marketing 218 Census E-mail E-mail — 56.5 toward faculty in shareware membership directories1992 Parker Expatriation Former AT&T 40 Census E-mail Mail — 38 and employees repatriation1992 Parker Expatriation Former AT&T 100 Census E-mail E-mail — 68 and employees repatriation1992 Walsh Scientific Subscribers to the 300 Random E-mail Mail + E-mail 76 activities Ocean Division of e-mail with SCIENCEnet computer networks Summary of Evidence in the Literature 105Utopia R ✺❁❐❆
  12. 12. Table B.1—Continued 106 Primary Sample Type of Contact Response Follow-up ResponseYear Author Survey Topic Target Population Size Sample Mode Mode Mode Rate (%)1992 Walsh Scientific Subscribers to the 104 Convenience Mixed Mail + — N/A activities Ocean Division of e-mail with SCIENCEnet computer networks1986 Kiesler Health and Recently active 75 Random E-mail E-mail Phone 67 personal computer mail character- users at Carnegie istics Mellon University1986 Kiesler Health and Recently active 75 Random Mail Mail Phone 75 personal computer mail character- users at Carnegie istics Mellon UniversityaNumber of responses.bTraditional and Web site advertising. Conducting Research Surveys via E-Mail and the WebN/A = Not available.— = Not applicable.Utopia R ✺❁❐❆

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