Superconductivity is a phenomenon of
exactly zero electrical resistance and
expulsion of magnetic fields occurring
in certain materials when cooled below
a characteristic critical temperature.
It was discovered by Dutch
physicist Heike Kamerlingh
Onnes on April 8,1911 in
In practical terms, a computer
processor or electric train track
equipped with a superconductor would
use very little electricity to perform
A superconductor with little or no magnetic field within it is
said to be in the Meissner state. The Meissner state breaks
down when the applied magnetic field is too large.
Superconductors can be divided into two classes according to
how this breakdown occurs.
There are thirty pure metals which exhibit zero
resistivity at low temperatures and have the property of
excluding magnetic fields from the interior of the
superconductor. They are called Type I
Eg.:- Tantarium(Ta), Lead(Pb), Lanthanium(La)
Superconductors made from alloys are called Type II
superconductors. Besides being mechanically harder than
Type I superconductors, they exhibit much higher critical
magnetic fields. Type II superconductors such as niobiumtitanium (NbTi) are used in the construction of high field
Eg.:- NbTi(Niobium-titanium), PbMoS(Leadmolybdenum)
The trick for creating a practical
superconductor lies in finding a
material which becomes
superconductive at room temperature.
So far, researchers have not
discovered any metal or composite
material which loses all of its
electrical resistance at high
1. Superconducting Magnet
A superconducting magnet is
an electromagnet made from coils
of superconducting wire. They must be
cooled to cryogenic temperatures during
2.Superconducting Radio Frequency
Superconducting radio frequency
(SRF) science and technology involves the
electrical superconductors to radio
frequency devices. The ultra-low electrical
resistivity of a superconducting material
allows an RF resonator to obtain an
extremely high quality factor, Q.
The resistance of Superconductivity is so
low, there is no current wastage when they are
used to conduct electricity.
When used in the process of Magnetic
Levitation, no Kinetic energy is wasted due to
friction from contact with the ground.
The power and cost efficiency happens due to
the negligible energy losses that occur in
It helps reduce the size and weight of
motors, generators and supporting equipment.
• Superconductivity is a quantum mechanical
• In these materials, the characteristics of
superconductivity appear when
the temperature T is lowered below a critical
• The value of this critical temperature varies from
material to material
• These magnets are some of the most
powerful electromagnets known.