Components of Food


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This is a ppt about the different components of food. Carbohydrates,fats,minerals,fibers,proteins,vitamins etc.

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Components of Food

  1. 1. By Khan Imran
  2. 2. Components of Food  The food that we eat consists of different nutrients or components. Every time you bite into a juicy apple, a pastry, or any other foodstuff, one or more of these components enter your body. There are six main components present in food: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals , and fibres. These components fulfill different needs of the body.
  3. 3. Carbohydrates  Just like a fuel makes a car run, carbohydrates provide energy to your body, which keeps it going throughout the day.  There are two major types of carbohydrates in food: sugar and starch.
  4. 4. Sugar  Sugar is also called simple carbohydrate.  E.g. Fruits, honey, and table sugar. Starch  Starch is also called complex carbohydrate.  Plants store energy in the form of starch.  When we eat plant products containing starch, our digestive system breaks down into glucose.
  5. 5. Fats  Fats too provide us energy.  They are of two types: saturated and unsaturated. Saturated Fats  Saturated Fats are normally solid at room temperature .  E.g. Butter Unsaturated Fats  Unsaturated Fats are mostly liquid at room temperature.  E.g. Vegetable Oil
  6. 6.  Though fats are essential for our body, eating too much fats can be harmful. Excess body fat leads to a condition called obesity, which is harmful to our body.  Junk foods are considered harmful due to their high fat or sugar content and poor nutritional value.
  7. 7. Proteins  Proteins are needed by our body for muscle-building and repairing worn-out tissues. Our muscles, organs and even blood are made up of mostly proteins!  Proteins in our diet come from both animals and plants sources. Meat, fish, eggs and milk are animal sources of proteins. Pulses, soya beans, grams, and nuts are some plant sources of proteins.
  8. 8. Vitamins  Vitamins are needed for the normal functioning of our body. They help in keeping our eyes, bones, teeth and gums healthy. Some vitamins can be produced by our body, but most have to be supplied through food.  There 13 vitamins, each of which has a specific function in our body. Vitamins are of two types: fat-soluble and water-soluble.
  9. 9. Fat –Soluble Vitamins  Vitamins A, D, E and K are fat –soluble vitamins. These are stored in the fat tissues of our body and are only used when the body needs them. Our body prepares vitamin D in the presence of sunlight. Water–Soluble Vitamins  Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and folic acid (together known as vitamin B complex) and vitamin C are watersoluble vitamins. Since water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body, these need to be regularly supplied through food.  Lack of vitamins in the body can cause deficiency diseases.
  10. 10. Fat–Soluble Vitamins
  11. 11. Water–Soluble Vitamins
  12. 12. Minerals  Minerals perform important functions such as formation of bones, teeth, and blood cells and maintaining a normal heartbeat.
  13. 13.  Macrominerals Macrominerals (macro means large) are needed by the body in larger amounts as compared to trace minerals. Calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium are examples of Macrominerals.  Traceminerals Traceminerals are needed by the body in very small amounts. Iron, zinc, copper, and iodine are examples of trace minerals.
  14. 14. Fibres  The fibres that we eat are known as dietary fibres or roughage. Fibres come from plants. Interestingly, dietary fibres do not provide any nutrient to our body and cannot be digested by our body. Yet, they form an important part of our diet. Fibres add bulk to our food. Our intestine uses fibres to help solid wastes pass out of the body.  Fibres are of two types: soluble and insoluble.
  15. 15.  Soluble Fibres Soluble fibres are soluble in water. Soluble fibres help in blood circulation. Apple, strawberry, peach, and rice are rich in soluble fibres.  Insoluble Fibres Insoluble fibres are insoluble in water. Lack of insoluble fibres in the diet causes the stool to become hard and difficult to pass. This condition is called constipation.
  16. 16. Water  Water is needed by our body for good health. Almost     70% of our weight is water. Water is needed by our body for several reasons. Water helps to transport substances inside our body. Water helps our body to absorb nutrients from food. It helps to regulate our body temperature. It is needed for various chemical reactions that take place inside our body during digestion, excretion, etc.
  17. 17.  Our body loses a lot of water as sweat and urine. Some water also goes out of the body during respiration. Thus, we need to replenish the water or else it can lead to a condition called dehydration.  Though we also get water from the food we eat, yet one should try and drink at lest 8-10 glasses of water every day. Milk, fruits, vegetables, and juices are good sources of water.