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Towards Inclusive Housing Policy; Khartoum Case Study

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The presentation highlights the fundamental challenges facing the urban poor of Khartoum city to access adequate housing, through examining the urbanization process and the viability of current policies to deal with challenge of accessing adequate housing in the context of informality. It develops a shift policy necessary to increase the accessibility of urban poor to adequate housing.

Towards Inclusive Housing Policy; Khartoum Case Study

  1. 1. Khartoum case study Khalafalla Omer Architect and Urban Planner TOWARDS INCLUSIVE HOUSING POLICY Member of: Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI)
  2. 2. - Urbanization; The challenges and opportunities TOWARD INCLUSIVE HOUSING POLICY - Current Housing Policy; The rise and fall of systems and legislations - Slums & Adequate Housing; The contradiction of definitions - Why Urban Poor Are Excluded from Accessing Adequate Housing - Affordable Adequate housing through slum upgrading - Before and after; The outcome of slum upgrading
  3. 3. Urban growth of Khartoum city 1954 - 2014 Khartoumurbanpopulation(Million) 0M 1M 2M 3M 4M 5M 6M 1954 1964 1974 1984 1994 2004 2014 7 3.63 2.91 1.34 0.78 0.460.26 U R B A N G R O W T H Source: Blanchon, D. and Garaefe, O. (2012). 'Radical Political Ecology and Water in Khartoum', Cairn International, pp. 35-50, [Online]. Available at: http://www.cairn-int.info (Accessed: 8 October 2016). Urban growth rate = 12% per annum
  4. 4. 68.9% 31.1% Khartoum City Other cities 70.0% 30.0% IDPs Others Push forces:- 1- Civil War 1956 - 1972 & 1983 - 2005 Million IDPs forced displaced to urban centers 2- Natural disasters Thousands affected people followed to urban centers 3- Rural mass exudes Thousands farmers followed to urban centers because of depression of rural ecosystem Pull forces:- 1- Higher education opportunities 20 out of 40 universities in Sudan are located in Khartoum Rate of urban population in Sudan cities 2016 Khartoum urban population = 5,260 M 2016 D R I V E R O F U R B A N I Z AT I O N Source: Eltayeb, G. (2002). The Case of Khartoum, Sudan. Case Report. University of Khartoum
  5. 5. U R B A N S P R AW L Source: Eltayeb, G. (2002). The Case of Khartoum, Sudan. Case Report. University of Khartoum Khartoumurbanarea(Km2) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 1955 1970 1980 1998 802 228 3017 - High rate of urban growth - Abundance of flat lands - Availability of cheap building material (mud) - Government policy of land allocation to different community sectors Reasons behind urban sprawls Urban sprawl of Khartoum city 1955- 1998 Khartoum Map Expansion between 1898-1995
  6. 6. U R B A N E X PA N S I O N 1 9 5 6 - 2 0 0 8 Source: UN HABITAT, (2008). The State of African Cities Report 2008. Nairobi, Kenya. - High rate of urban growth - Abundance of flat lands - Availability of cheap building material (mud) - Government policy of land allocation to different community sectors Urban Sprawl 250 times in area Urban Growth 114 times in population - Civil wars - Rural-urban immigration - Natural disaster - desertification and famine - Natural growth
  7. 7. A L S A F WA P U B L I C H O U S I N G Source: UN HABITAT, (2008). The State of African Cities Report 2008. Nairobi, Kenya. L I N K T O C I T Y ! ?
  8. 8. Urban growth of Khartoum T H E M I S U N D E R S TA N D I N G O F U R B A N I Z AT I O N A M O N G P O L I C Y M A K E R S Source: Alnilin. (2014). Dividing Khartoum state; the roots of the problem. Available at: http://www.alnilin.com/1235411.htm/amp, (Accessed: 15 July 2017). “In order to deal with the obstacles arise from migration to Khartoum; we have to upgrade periphery states” Abdel Hamid Musa Kasha, Governor of White Nile state
  9. 9. Urban growth of Khartoum T H E M I S U N D E R S TA N D I N G O F U R B A N I Z AT I O N A M O N G P O L I C Y M A K E R S Source: Assayha. (2017). Rural-urban migration; problems of production reduction .Available at: https://assayha.net/play.php?catsmktba=1993, (Accessed: 15 July 2017). "We will would develop a recommendations to put an end to the rural-urban migration by facilitating the return of IDPs to their areas of origin” Ahmed Sameer Gasim, The President of production and livelihood committee in The National Dialogue Conference
  10. 10. Urban growth of Khartoum T H E M I S U N D E R S TA N D I N G O F U R B A N I Z AT I O N A M O N G P O L I C Y M A K E R S Source: Hajooj Kuka: Arman on poverty (2010) YouTube video, added by hajooj kuka [Online]. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8P1YenoAOQ (Accessed: 15 July 2017). "The new policies should develop the social and public services of rural areas because the city becomes a storage of people" Yasir Arman, Secretary General of SPLM-N
  11. 11. Urban growth of Khartoum T H E U N D E R S TA N D I N G O F U R B A N I Z AT I O N A M O N G P O L I C Y M A K E R S Source: Al Rakoba Newspaper. (2017). Mayada Swar El-Dahab, the administrator of return expatriate of KSA taking about state strategic vision to accommodate the returnees. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8P1YenoAOQ (Accessed: 15 August 2017). "We have to facilitate the access to housing among the return expatriates of KSA" Dr. Mayada Swar El-Dahab, Mayor of Khartoum State
  12. 12. Urban growth of Khartoum T H E U N D E R S TA N D I N G O F U R B A N I Z AT I O N A M O N G P O L I C Y M A K E R S Source: Hajooj Kuka: Arman on poverty (2010) YouTube video, added by hajooj kuka [Online]. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8P1YenoAOQ (Accessed: 15 July 2017). "Urbanization is opportunity for urban development " Wael Al-Ashhab, Head of UN-HABITAT Country Program
  13. 13. U R B A N P R O V I S I O N S Source: Humanitarian Policy Group, (2011). Citi Limits: Urbanization and Vulnerability in Sudan, Khartoum case study. London, UK. Khartoum Map Classes of Neighborhoods
  14. 14. I D P C A M P S Source: Humanitarian Policy Group, (2011). Citi Limits: Urbanization and Vulnerability in Sudan, Khartoum case study. London, UK.
  15. 15. Source: Beckedorf, A. (2012). Denying Access to Water?, Moral values and commercialization policies in Khartoum governmental water management. Working Paper. University of Bayreuth. A C C E S S T O WAT E R S U P P LY N E T W O R K 65.0% 35.0% No access Have access Khartoum urban population and access to water supply network 2016 Khartoum Map Water supply network
  16. 16. Source: Beckedorf, A. (2012). Denying Access to Water?, Moral values and commercialization policies in Khartoum governmental water management. Working Paper. University of Bayreuth. A C C E S S T O WAT E R S U P P LY N E T W O R K
  17. 17. S L U M D E F I N I T I O N - U N H A B I TAT Definition of slums UN-HABITAT defines a slum household as a group of individuals living under the same roof in an urban area who lack one or more of the following: 1. Durable housing of a permanent nature that protects against extreme climate conditions. 2. Sufficient living space which means not more than three people sharing the same room. 3. Easy access to safe water in sufficient amounts at an affordable price. 4. Access to adequate sanitation in the form of a private or public toilet shared by a reasonable number of people. 5. Security of tenure that prevents forced evictions. Source: UN HABITAT, (2007). State of The World's Cities 2006/7. Nairobi, Kenya.
  18. 18. A D E Q U AT E H O U S I N G - U N H A B I TAT Source: UN HABITAT, (2007). State of The World's Cities 2006/7. Nairobi, Kenya. 1. Security of Tenure: The degree of tenure has to protect the occupiers from forced eviction. 2. Availability of Infrastructure: Safe drinking water, adequate sanitation, lighting and energy 3. Accessibility: Disadvantages people and marginalized groups accessibility to housing to be considered. 4. Affordability: Housing is to be affordable for without threaten the enjoyment of other basic needs 5. Location: Housing to be linked with the accessibility of other social services, such as health centers, schools, employment areas, market and public spaces. As well to be out of polluted zones. 6. Habitability: Housing to include adequate space and protection against threats and climate change hazards. 7. Culture Adequacy: Housing to take into consideration the respect of culture identity. Housing Adequacy Measurements
  19. 19. K H A RT O U M S L U M S Source: UN HABITAT, (2014). The State of African, Re-imagining sustainable urban transitions. Nairobi, Kenya. 65.0% 35.0% No access Have access 54.0% 46.0% No access Have access Access to water supply Access to electricity 18.0% 82.0% No access Have access Access to improved sanitation 10.4% 89.6% Living in slums Formal living Slum households 80.0% 20.0% No secured land tenure Secured land tenure Slum households with no secured land tenure 28.2% 71.8%Face 2-3 shelter deprivation Face one shelter deprivation Slum households face 2-3 shelter deprivation
  20. 20. Source: OCHA (2013). Sudan: Hundreds of Thousands Affected by Heavy Rains and Floods. Report. OCHA. F L O O D D I S A S T E R S - K H A RT O U M 18,300 Destroyed houses 18,200 Damaged houses 60,000 Affected people
  21. 21. Source: OCHA (2013). Sudan: Hundreds of Thousands Affected by Heavy Rains and Floods. Report. OCHA. F L O O D D I S A S T E R S Sudan Map Flood urban disaster
  22. 22. Source: UN-Habitat Worldwide: Edgar Pieterse - How can we transcend slum urbanism in Africa? (2014) YouTube video, added by un-habitat worldwide [Online]. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=quhfgiZBfeA (Accessed: 10 July 2017). S L U M U R B A N I S M A C R O S S A F R I C A Sudan Map Flood urban disaster
  23. 23. Source: UN-Habitat Worldwide: Edgar Pieterse - How can we transcend slum urbanism in Africa? (2014) YouTube video, added by un-habitat worldwide [Online]. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=quhfgiZBfeA (Accessed: 10 July 2017). T H E L O G I C O F S L U M S Sudan Map Flood urban disaster
  24. 24. Source: UN-Habitat Worldwide: Edgar Pieterse - How can we transcend slum urbanism in Africa? (2014) YouTube video, added by un-habitat worldwide [Online]. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=quhfgiZBfeA (Accessed: 10 July 2017). P U B L I C H O U S I N G F I N A N C E P O L I C Y Source: CAHF (2016). Housing Finance in Africa; a review of some of Africa’s housing finance markets [Online]. Available at: http://housingfinanceafrica.org/app/uploads/CAHF_Housing-Finance-in-Africa-Yearbook- 2016.09.pdf?x77297 (Accessed: 27 July 2017). - 50% down payment - 10 years mortgage term - Repayment installments not to exceed 33% of applicant monthly income - Annual Salary of minimum 2,420 $ - Formal Employment - Settled in Khartoum for more than 8 years Financial requirements to access delivered public housing Eligibility criteria to access delivered public housing
  25. 25. L E N D I N G P O L I C Y I N A F R I C A N C O U N T R I E S Source: CAHF (2016). Housing Finance in Africa; a review of some of Africa’s housing finance markets [Online]. Available at: http://housingfinanceafrica.org/app/uploads/CAHF_Housing-Finance-in-Africa-Yearbook- 2016.09.pdf?x77297 (Accessed: 27 July 2017).
  26. 26. H O U S E H O L D S I N C O M E A N D H O U S I N G A F F O R D A B I L I T Y Source: CAHF (2016). Housing Finance in Africa; a review of some of Africa’s housing finance markets [Online]. Available at: http://housingfinanceafrica.org/app/uploads/CAHF_Housing-Finance-in-Africa-Yearbook- 2016.09.pdf?x77297 (Accessed: 27 July 2017).
  27. 27. Source: UN-Habitat Worldwide: Edgar Pieterse - How can we transcend slum urbanism in Africa? (2014) YouTube video, added by un-habitat worldwide [Online]. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=quhfgiZBfeA (Accessed: 10 July 2017). T H E E X C L U S I O N O F U R B A N P O O R - Most of them work in informal sectors - 6o% of employers in Sudan work in informal sector - They earn less than 2,400 $ per year - Many of them are newcomers to Khartoum - Many of them lack sufficient collateral for downpayment - Many of them lives in informal land - Many rely on remittance to cover they expenditures WHY URBAN POOR ARE NOT ABLE TO ACCESS ADEQUATE HOUSING Source: CAHF (2016). Housing Finance in Africa; a review of some of Africa’s housing finance markets [Online]. Available at: http://housingfinanceafrica.org/app/uploads/CAHF_Housing-Finance-in-Africa-Yearbook- 2016.09.pdf?x77297 (Accessed: 27 July 2017).
  28. 28. Source: UN-Habitat Worldwide: Edgar Pieterse - How can we transcend slum urbanism in Africa? (2014) YouTube video, added by un-habitat worldwide [Online]. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=quhfgiZBfeA (Accessed: 10 July 2017). W H Y F O R M A L B A N K I N G FA I L T O W O R K W I T H T H E U R B A N P O O R ? 1. Lack of solid collateral 2. Lack of stable and verifiable income 3. Lack of adequate banking regulations 4. Low profit margins & high administrative costs 5. Lack of knowledge on how to develop financial products that are affordable by the poor Source: Stein, A. (2017) ‘Planning with households for housing improvements’, PLAN72072: Best Practice Case Studies in Urban Development Planning in Cities of the South. University of Manchester. Unpublished.
  29. 29. W H Y F O R M A L B A N K I N G FA I L T O W O R K W I T H T H E U R B A N P O O R ? 6. Mortgage lending too complicated 7. Lack of mutual trust: poor people do not go to where the poor live 8. Housing subsidies usually reach middle income families that have:- - Good connection - Good knowledge of subsidy system - Capacity of payment Source: Stein, A. (2017) ‘Planning with households for housing improvements’, PLAN72072: Best Practice Case Studies in Urban Development Planning in Cities of the South. University of Manchester. Unpublished.
  30. 30. W H AT W O R K S F O R U R B A N P O O R - R E C O N I G I T I O N O F I N F O R M A L I T Y 1) Recognition of land occupancy rights even if they have not a legal land public document. 2) Recognition of their informal income by investigating the collective average monthly amount generated by all household members 3) Creating partnership with urban poor in housing construction process Source: Stein, A. (2017) ‘Planning with households for housing improvements’, PLAN72072: Best Practice Case Studies in Urban Development Planning in Cities of the South. University of Manchester. Unpublished.
  31. 31. W H AT W O R K S F O R U R B A N P O O R - D O I N G M O R E W I T H L E S S 1) Provision and maintenance of basic services and infrastructure 2) Slum upgrading through incremental methods 3) Small loans for business activities 4) Community participation 5) Institutional development (Local governments + MFIs + CBOs). Source: Stein, A. (2017) ‘Planning with households for housing improvements’, PLAN72072: Best Practice Case Studies in Urban Development Planning in Cities of the South. University of Manchester. Unpublished.
  32. 32. Source: Stein, A. (2017) ‘Planning with households for housing improvements’, PLAN72072: Best Practice Case Studies in Urban Development Planning in Cities of the South. University of Manchester. Unpublished. T Y P E S O F S L U M U P G R A D I N G 1) Construction or substitution of • Walls • Roofs 2) Improvement of floors 3) Construction/improvement sanitary solutions 4) Construction/improvement of additional rooms 5) Construction/improvement of kitchens 6) Connection to service networks 7) Risk mitigation works: • Protection Walls • Perimeter fences and defence bars (windows + doors) • Improvement of terrain conditions 8) Beautification of elevations
  33. 33. Source: Stein, A. (2017) ‘Planning with households for housing improvements’, PLAN72072: Best Practice Case Studies in Urban Development Planning in Cities of the South. University of Manchester. Unpublished. T O W A R D B E T T E R H O U S I N G P O L I C Y 1) Credit lines or administrative arrangements between government and Micro-financial Institutions (MFI) 2) Small and repetitive loans from MFI to families + technical assistance; 3) Market rate interest rates 4) Different type of collateral 5) Short periods of repayment 2-5 years (24-60 months)
  34. 34. Source: Stein, A. (2017) ‘Planning with households for housing improvements’, PLAN72072: Best Practice Case Studies in Urban Development Planning in Cities of the South. University of Manchester. Unpublished. H O U S I N G L O A N : A F F O R D A B I L I T Y A N A L Y S I S
  35. 35. Source: Stein, A. (2017) ‘Planning with households for housing improvements’, PLAN72072: Best Practice Case Studies in Urban Development Planning in Cities of the South. University of Manchester. Unpublished. S O C I A L D I M E N S I O N O F S L U M U P G R A D I N G
  36. 36. Source: Stein, A. (2017) ‘Planning with households for housing improvements’, PLAN72072: Best Practice Case Studies in Urban Development Planning in Cities of the South. University of Manchester. Unpublished. P A R T I C I P A T O R Y H O U S I N G P L A T F O R M G O V E R N M E N T M U N I C I P A L I T YM F IU R B A N P O O R C O M M U N I T Y BASIC SERVICES AND INFRASTRUCTUR E FOR (POOR NEIGHBOURHOO DS) ENUMERATION, MAPPING AND CONSTRUCTION SLUM UPGRADING FINANCE THAT WORKS FOR URBAN POOR HOUSHOLDS
  37. 37. Source: Google Images B E F O R E & A F T E R
  38. 38. Source: Google Images B E F O R E & A F T E R
  39. 39. Source: Google Images B E F O R E & A F T E R
  40. 40. Source: Google Images B E F O R E & A F T E R
  41. 41. T H A N K Y O U

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