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CET Seminar final ppt.pptx

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CET Seminar final ppt.pptx

  1. 1. Understanding the concept of Non-Ideality
  2. 2. Outline Non-Ideal Solution Types of Non-Ideal Solution Application of Non-Ideal Solution Azeotropes Types of Azeotropes Application of Azeotropes
  3. 3. Non-Ideal solution It is the solution in which solute and solvent molecules interact with one another with different forces than the forces interaction between the similar molecules.
  4. 4. Raoult’s law Non ideal solution do not obeys the Raoult’s law. •Raoult’s law 𝑃𝐴 = 𝑃𝐴 𝑂 𝜘𝐴 𝑃𝐴 𝑂 = Partial vapour pressure of components in its pure solvent = Partial vapour pressure of components 𝑃𝐴
  5. 5. Non-Ideal solution There are two main situations that can cause non-ideal solutions to form 1.Non-ideal solutions can form when forces of attraction between dissimilar molecules are weaker than between similar molecules. 2. Non-ideal solutions can also form when intermolecular forces between dissimilar molecules are larger than those between similar molecules.
  6. 6. Types of Non-Ideal solution 1)Non-ideal solution showing positive deviation from raoult’s law. 2)Non-ideal solution showing positive deviation from raoult’slaw.
  7. 7. Positive Deviation •Positive deviation from raoult's law occurred when Vapour pressure of the components is greater than what Raoult's law expected. •The enthalpy of mixing is positive Δmix H > 0. •The volume of mixing is expand Δmix V> 0.
  8. 8. •Examples 1)Acetone and Benzene 2)Ethanol and Water Acetone and Ethanol
  9. 9. Negative Deviation •Negative deviation from raoult's law occurred when Vapour pressure of the components is less than what Raoult's law expected. •The enthalpy of mixing is positive Δmix H < 0. •The volume of mixing is expand Δmix V< 0.
  10. 10. •Examples 1)Chloroform and Benzene 2)Acetone and Aniline 3)Nitric acid and water
  11. 11. Application of non-ideal solution
  12. 12. Azeotropic Solution •Azeotropes are mixtures of at least two liquids that exhibit the same concentration at the liquid phase and vapour phase. •Azeotropes do not follow Raoult’s Law. It means these mixtures are not ideal solutions and show deviation from Raoult’s Law. •In these mixtures, components exhibit the same mole fraction in the liquid phase and vapour phase.
  13. 13. •Solute and solvent both are in a liquid state in the azeotropic mixture. •Separation of constituents of an azeotropic mixture by fractional distillation is not possible.
  14. 14. Causes of Azeotrope Azeotropes can form only when a mixture deviates from Raoult's law, the equality of compositions in liquid phase and vapor phases, in vapour-liquid equilibrium and Dalton's law the equality of pressures for total pressure being equal to the sum of the partial pressures in real mixtures.
  15. 15. Types of Azeotropic solution •Positive azeotrope or minimum boiling azeotrope •Negative azeotrope or maximum boiling azeotrope •Heterogeneous azeotrope •Homogeneous azeotrope •Binary azeotrope •Ternary azeotrope
  16. 16. ● Those azeotropic mixtures which show large positive deviation from Raoult’s law at specific composition are called positive azeotropes. ● Ethanol – Water (89.4 % Ethanol ) at 351.4 k  Positive azeotrope or minimum boiling azeotrope
  17. 17. ● Those azeotropic mixtures which show large negative deviation from Raoult's Law at specific composition are called negative azeotropes. ● HCl - Water System (11.1% HCl ) at 383k  Negative azeotrope or maximum boiling azeotrope
  18. 18. •Heterogeneous azeotrope Heterogeneous azeotropes are incompletely miscible and form two liquid phases. Positive or Negative: A positive azeotrope or minimum-boiling azeotrope forms when the boiling point of the mixture is lower than that of any of its constituents. •Homogeneous azeotrope If the constituents of a mixture are completely miscible in all proportions with each other, the type of azeotrope is called a homogeneous azeotrope. For example, any amount of ethanol can be mixed with any amount of water to form a homogeneous solution.
  19. 19. •Binary azeotrope A binary azeotrope is an azeotropic mixture containing two constituents. A mixture of 95% ethanol and 5% water is an example of a binary azeotrope. •Ternary azeotrope Azeotropes consisting of three constituents are called ternary azeotropes
  20. 20. Application of azeotropic solution •Azeotropes are used as standards in testing gas chromatographs, detectors, and columns. •Azeotropes are used for the separation of constituents of zeotropic mixtures.
  21. 21. Thank You..!

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