ENBE Final Project Report

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ENBE Final Project Report

  1. 1. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 1 A Future Town Proposal Report Peaceville Pang Khai Shuen 0318423 ENBE PROJECT 2 FNBE APRIL INTAKE 2014
  2. 2. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 2 Content: 1. Introduction 3 2. The Town (and the City) 4 3. Investigation & Data Collection: Ancient and old cities/town 5 – 7 4. Investigation & Data Collection: The present towns/cities 8 – 12 5. Investigation & Data Collection: The future and better township 13 - 14 6. Peaceville 15 - 19 7. References list 20 8. Plans
  3. 3. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 3 1.Introduction In this last assignment of ENBE, we are given the task to propose a new city located in Malaysia as a mayor. The purpose of this city is to accommodate the over population of the region. Also, the requirements of this town include the population should be between 80,000 and 200,000, the size should be around 15km2 – 30km2. It is also stated in the brief that we should choose one type of grid system to design the town. In order to complete this assignment, what we need to do first is the get a strong concept on cities and towns. How they are formed and what keeps them together. We also need to explore the vital elements that are needed for a town to be sustainable and to prosper. Also, since the main function of the city is to solve the ‘over-crowded’ issue, more attention should be put on how to make this town capable to accommodate more people.
  4. 4. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 4 2.The Town (and the City) 2.1 The Town Definition A town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. 2.2 The City Definition A relatively large and permanent human settlement with particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law. Some refer city as a place ‘continuously built up’. 2.3 How towns are formed: Sustainability In the medieval age, towns usually form near the river as it is a good water source. It can also be formed at intersection point or important points of trade routes. Another reason is the advance in agricultural technology that can provide food for more people, so more villagers can stay together without facing the shortage of food. When more people gather, some form of hierarchy starts to form and tend to stay on that way until a catastrophe happens. 2.4 How cities are formed: Urbanization Cities usually develop from a town because of specialization. One part of the town may do one thing better than another part of a town, so it is logically better for each part to the town to specialize on what they do best. This creates districts in a town which soon makes it a city. That is also why in cities we have business districts that concentrates on the economic sector of the city. Also, cities form because people from outside the city move into the city in search of jobs, usually in factories. This process is called ‘urbanization’. 2.5 What makes a good town? For a town to be a good town it has to be self-sufficient. This means the economy should not be based on resources than can run out very easily like logging. Instead it should be based on manufacturing (factories) or even better, tourism. These activities can provide a steady income for the locals. A good town also needs to have a good sense of community like having a decent school and university or social events. Having a regional hospital and a government industry in the town also provides stability and also steady income to the town. Another aspect of a good town is that it has enough jobs that can keep the younger generations there. This in turn can keep the economy going.
  5. 5. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 5 3.Investigation & Data Collection: Ancient Towns / Cities 3.1 How ancient cities/towns form: Ancient towns and cities share a particular trait in common – it is near a river. All of the four largest ancient civilizations – Mesopotamia, Indus River Valley, Yellow River Valley, and the Tigris-Euphrates (ancient Egypt) – prosper because of the rivers. This is mainly because of a few reasons: First, water was the most convenient mode of transport, especially for long distances. Second, rivers were the only source of drinkable water. Third, rivers were also the source of protein (fish). So, when more and more people gather at the same stretch of river to build settlements, they interact with each other and thus formed villages, which later expands to a town. 3.2 Case-study: Mohenjo-Daro (Indus River Valley civilization) & Anyang (Yellow River Valley civilization) 3.2.1 Mohenjo-Daro – Indus River Valley Civilization The Indus River Valley Civilization started about 2500 B.C.E. along the south-western part of the Indus River. The largest city was Mohenjo- Daro, in present day Pakistan, and settlements stretched all along the river. Natural borders consisted of mountains and the Arabian Sea, sheltering the civilization from attack and disease. Water from the river fertilized and irrigated crops. Proximity to the river allowed boats to become a viable transportation option. The development of widespread irrigation systems allowed the indigenous population to provide food for themselves. Wheat and barley were primary crops, however rye, peas, cotton, and rice were also grown. Domestication of animals also served as an important tool for cultivation and as a source of food.
  6. 6. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 6 Mohenjo-Daro was one of the largest settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization. It has a planned layout based on a street grid of rectilinear buildings. The city is divided into Citadel and lower city. The Citadel is known as the city centre. It houses public baths, a large residential structure designed to house about 5,000 citizens, and two large assembly halls. The Lower city is full of high walls and neighbourhood. The streets here are also well planned, separating public and private areas well. Mohenjo-Daro has no city walls but is fortified with guard posts. The first urban sanitization system is also found here. All houses has access to water and drainage facilities. The main feature of Mohenjo-Daro is the Great Bath. It is a public swimming pool measuring 12m x 7m x 2.4m. It may have been used for religious or spiritual ceremonies.
  7. 7. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 7 3.2.2 Anyang – Yellow River Valley Civilization The Yellow River Valley Civilization began around 4000 B.C. in China, around the Yellow River. The river stretched all the way from Mongolia to the Pacific Ocean. China is surrounded by mountain ranges and river valleys, which make it hard for people to travel and trade their crops and live stocks, so they have to mostly rely on their food. The river provides fertilized soil for plantation of corps. The Shang King ruled from the capital city of Anyang. His kingdom was divided into different territories that were ruled by aristocratic warlords (military leaders). Anyang, located in Henan Province in northern China, served as a capital of the Shang dynasty. The city is divided into two parts by a city wall. The inner part of the city consists of the castle, temple and administrative centre of the civilization. The King and people with high statuses live inside the walls, while the outer perimeter of the walls is surrounded by farms and farmers’ homes. 3.3 Conclusion These two ancient cities has provided me with a good example of how a simple structure of a city/town can form. First of all there must be a source of energy (food). Next, there are specific regions for different activities that take place around the city/town. This is called specialization. In Mohenjo-Daro, systemized drainage system straight, planned roads are the main features that make the city special. In Anyang’s case, there is a city wall that defines clearly the region of the city, which are the inner region (administrative region) and outer region (economical region). These properties are useful in planning a town with high efficiency.
  8. 8. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 8 4.Investigation & Data Collection: Present Towns / Cities 4.1 How modern cities/town form: The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, and the development of machine tools. It also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal. This revolution led to the creation of factories in several countries. The factory system contributed to the growth of urban areas, as large numbers of workers migrated into the cities in search of work in the factories. 4.2 Case-study: Copenhagen, Denmark – The Finger Plan Copenhagen is the capital and most populated city of Denmark. With a population about 2 million, it is known for its prestige as a green city. This city is planned with The Finger Plan. This is is an urban plan from 1947 which provides a strategy for the development of Copenhagen. 4.2.1 The Principles The public should have easy access to infrastructural facilities such as green spaces, bike paths, commuter trains and motorways. People should have the possibility to enjoy forests and lakes, agricultural landscapes, rivers, streams and fjords and still benefit from the close proximity to the city centre. The form of the Five Finger Plan makes traffic and transportation of people and goods a much easier task.
  9. 9. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 9 4.2.2 The Goals Urbanisation shall take place in the slender regions of the ‘fingers’, while green wedges of undeveloped land will remain between the ‘fingers’. This way of development will also make way for easy transportation etc. rails and inhabitant can live in close proximity to green spaces. 4.3 Case study: Amsterdam, Netherlands Amsterdam is the capital of Netherlands and is known for its unique history and canal formations. Although it has existed for hundreds of years, its first major expansion was formed in the first decade of the 17th century. Because the city was literally full after the Golden Age started, it was decided to build a canal ring around the old city and move the defense wall outward (over 1km eastwards and almost 1km to the west). The canal ring was built in two phases, one starting in 1610 and one starting in 1660.
  10. 10. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 10 The city expanded again in the 1800s to overcome overpopulation as the city’s economy started growing rapidly in the 19th century. The major expansion in this period was the 1876 Plan-Kalff, as shown below: The next large expansions were undertaken between 1920 and 1940, consisting of Plan Zuid (South), designed by Berlage, and Plan West. These developments included a lot of Amsterdam School architecture. Plan Zuid:
  11. 11. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 11 Plan West: After WWII, several big urban plans have been realized. Much of it, realized between 1951 and 1966 was the execution of the General Extension Plan of 1935. Most of these developments are based on early modernist ideals.
  12. 12. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 12 The Bijlmermeer was built just before 1970 and is considered one of the most radical post-war plans in The Netherlands. Part of it has already been demolished because it turned out to be not as utopian as planned. 4.4 Conclusion After the Industrial Revolution, numerous cities around the world have started to bloom into a multi-purpose mega-metropolis. These new towns have precisely-planned segment in the city as to where any activity should happen. This not only makes city activities much more efficient, it also decreases the time needed for citizens to commute from one point to another in the town/city. Besides, it also allows sufficient space for further planning and placement of green features in the city.
  13. 13. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 13 5. Investigation & Data Collection: Future Towns / Cities 5.1 Case-study: Skolkovo, Russia Skolkovo is a modern Russian center of research and development the construction of which will be started in the year of 2012. Skolkovo will embrace a university campus, an industrial zone and a cluster of research laboratories. It will also have a vast number of various facilities needed for scientists and white collars to organize their work and life on-site. 15.2 thousand people will live in the oasis of 400 hectares, 7 thousands of employees will be coming here for working. The centre will focus on four priority activities starting with the letter E: ecology, ergonomics, efficiency and economy. 120 billion rubles will be invested in the construction of Innograd. Though scientists are to move in 2015, the conception of the project is ready by now. Meet the winners for the Skolkovo Innovation Center and those whose projects failed to be accepted. The finalist was represented by AREP. The concept is based on the principle of flexibility making Innograd capable of adapting to the changes in the strategies related to the long-term of the project development. The central parkway of Innograd embraces municipal buildings on the right and residential apartments on the left. The Mall connects the research center with the train station of Innograd. The waste recycling process utilities are right on the territory of the town. Different sources for energy recycling like sun batteries or geothermal sources will be widely used. The central parkway of Innograd embraces municipal buildings on the right and residential apartment on the left. Next is the principal square with a cluster of congress buildings and the
  14. 14. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 14 theater. The concept rests on the lack of private property as the apartments will be rented for the period from 1 day to 10 years. External transport is one of the main problems. According to the conception offered, Innograd will have to use the Mozhaisk road which is overloaded as it is. One will be able to reach the town by trains (Belarusian and Kiev railway stations) and even planes (Vnukovo airport). Inside the town walking, using bicycles and public transport will be widely adopted. Ecologic transportation and usage of biogas as transport fuel are promoted.
  15. 15. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 15 6. PEACEVILLE Peaceville is a new town located in Johor. With an area measuring 8km x 3km, this new town is able to accommodate more than 160 000 citizens. Location: Johor, Malaysia
  16. 16. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 16 Tanjung Pelepas Sungai Pulai
  17. 17. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 17 Why is it there? Sungai Pulai is near to The Port of Tanjung Pelepas (Pelabuhan Tanjung Pelepas) which is one of the major ports of Malaysia. This location is very strategic as Peaceville is able to serve the needs of the port with its industrial sectors. The port also provides a steady foothold for the town to expand and grow in line with the port, similar to Port Klang. Aim: To provide a non-compact area for the citizens to live in with sufficient public amenities and efficient transport. Basic Information: - Area : approx. 24km - Population: 160, 128 - Religion: All religions in Malaysia - Height form sea level: 100m – 50m - Economy: Industrial, Tourism, Agriculture. Important considerations when planning the town: - Energy efficient. - Efficient transport system. - Suitable population density. - Reachable public services. - Activities concentrated by the river. Sustainable/Green approaches: - Public transports work on electricity and solar power. - Collection of waste to produce biomass energy. - Less usage of cars = less emission of CO2 - TES (Thermal Energy Storage) system reduces peak electric demand and stores the cooling energy during off-peak period. - Daylighting System – bring daylight into dark spaces in homes. - LED streetlamps. - Indoor Air Filtration System Transport & Transportation Links: Main transport: Water Taxi Reason: As there is a river flowing through the town, a water taxi will be the best mode of transport especially for long distances. This is because the energy needed to operate a water taxi is significantly smaller than a land vehicle, thus we can opt for electricity and solar power/biomass to operate the water taxis. Also, all important areas of the town are located by the river, therefore it is the fastest way to get there.
  18. 18. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 18 Secondary Transport: Electric Trains Reason: The water taxi has as limited range as it can only travel by water. To get further inland, I need a public transport that produces the least noise and waste. The railway extends only in the middle of the town to the left (to be showed in map), as the higher and medium class areas rarely depend on public transports and there is a possibility that the railway may decrease the land value in the area. This train system also has supporting lines that can facilitate inland areas without jeopardising the main line. Transport Hub Reason: In the middle of the town, close to the government sector, I placed a transport hub that connects the electric rail line, the water taxi station, and also a cross-country line. Accommodations and other facilities can be provided for travellers. Type of grid system used: I am doing a square grid. It is the easiest to reproduce when hand drawn, and can easily be divided into smaller parts for detail plans. I also need an organic shape for my town sections, therefore a square grid is already sufficient to estimate the areas covered by each sector. How will the river benefit the residents? - Efficient mode of transport. - A vista for local parks. - An element for tourist attraction. - Minute power generation for the town. Low Head Hydro Power along Linear Park: - Creates hydro energy with low tidal flow. - Does NOT need a dam! - A source of renewable energy that has minimal impact on the environment! 1) Gravitation Water Vortex Power Plant - Estimated power output: ~150kW - No regulation system necessary. - Small fishes are able to pass the turbine. - Fish can pass the plant in both directions. 2) Kinetic Pavements - Installed along the pedestrian walkway. - Produces ~8 Watt per footstep. - Powers LED Street lamps along the Main Road. - No extra space needed. - No harmful wastes produces.
  19. 19. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 19 3) Solar Power Roof - Installed on all small buildings along Linear Park. - Powers the small buildings themselves. - Water Taxi stations utilize solar power to charge water taxis. Main Road = Linear Park = River - Renewable source of electricity. - Green strip of the town. - Separates the main road from the river = AVOIDING DIRECT POLLUTION
  20. 20. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 20 7.Reference Links http://geography.about.com/library/faq/blqzcitytown.htm https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070525034216AAd6OCJ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/city https://au.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110118115756AADj4EI http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_did_towns_and_cities_begin_to_grow_in_medieval _Europe?#slide=29 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City http://www.econport.org/content/handbook/Urbanecon/exist.html http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1583419 http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/habitat/units/un02pg01.asp http://www.rivervalleycivilizations.com/indus.php http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution http://englishrussia.com/2011/05/18/town-of-the-future/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_of_Tanjung_Pelepas http://www.ptp.com.my/
  21. 21. ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Better Livable Town Representation Pang Khai Shuen | 0318423 | Mr Lee Cherng Yih | FNBE APR 2014 | Taylor’s University 21 PLANS (Please flip cautiously)

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