Modern Commercial Breeds of Turkeys
The most important modern commercial breeds for the production
of turkey broilers in the world are as follows: --
1. Nicholas breed (Nicholas), a breed of chicken turkey
developed by a group of companies (Aviagen). This group also
"involved in the production of chicken meat breeds such as the
strain of Ross and Arbor Acre. the company producing strain of
Nicholas and the production of two strains, namely:
A - Nicholas 300 breed is characterized by broad open mind and
the proportion of breast meat which is high and the marketing of
females aged 18-week weight of 10.15 kg and males aged 22
weeks and weighed 18.15 kg
B - Nicholas 700 breed and features a high body weight in
females up to the weight of 12.94 kg at the age of marketing (age
22 weeks) and the males to the weight of 23.25 kg at the age of
2. Hybrid breed (Hybrid), a strain produced by companies
(Euribrid group) and which produce strain (Hybro) of chicken
meat, and Hisex for layer.
3. BUT (British united turkey).
As international companies specialized in the development and the
development of modern breeds of chicken eggs and chicken meat. As well as
specialized companies to develop new strains of turkeys.
1. Purchase specific pieces such as breast, legs , and wings. In the United
States and European countries, consumers are focusing on the consumption of
a piece of the chest to both low-fat and high rate of protein. It does not cause
obesity, which afflicts so many people in the over-bloated. As well as a few by
cholesterol, which causes the emergence of heart disease and hardening of the
2. Purchase carcass cuts (cooked), Smoked, or grilled. Now technology has
entered the slaughter of cooking poultry and birds are slaughtered, cleaned, cut,
cook and then freeze and polycystic shopping.
3. Applying (Debonning) technology mean separate meat from bones, as well
as hashing technology and packaging (Canning)
The development of strains of turkey and consumption of meat:
1. We compare the evolution of body weights of turkey with
chicken (Broiler) we notice for example that " turkey Nicholas 700
strain of weights up to very high" compared with the chicken meat
at the age of 8 weeks. Turkey that age up to the weight of 3.84 kg
for females and 4.79 kg for males and food conversion
efficiencies of 1.66 kg feed eaten for kg body weight.
2. The weights achieved by high turkey makes Priority for rearing
and the preference on broilers. One turkey weighed 23.25 kg will
give the amount of meat equivalent to more than ten broilers
Stander Average Growth of Turkey Poult
3. Higher turkey weight Marketer with high Dressing
percent preferred to make the turkey meat production
of sheep and cows. Dressing percentage in turkey up
to 80-90%, 55% for sheep and 60% of cattle and
about 73% in broilers
4. If we take into account the weights of the high
proportion of turkey convalescence high turkey we
notice that the turkey superior to all farm animal.
Type of animal Dressing %
Percentage of meat
weight to carcass
Percentage of meat
weight to live body
Turkey 80-90 75 64
Broiler 75 68 51
Sheep 55 64 35
Cattle 50- 62 62 38
The proportion of convalescence percentage and dressing percentage
Turkey Poult for Meat Production Cycle
Turkey breeders producing hatching eggs
Day old turkey chicks
Chicks 6-8 weeks of age
marketing males At 22- 24 weeks
At 18- 22 weeks
Turkeys are not as difficult to raise as many people think. However,
they do require special care to get them off to a good start. Sometimes they are
a little slow in learning to eat and drink. Turkeys should be isolated from
chickens and other poultry to prevent many diseases. It is important that turkey
poults be kept warm and dry during the first few weeks after hatching; this time
is called the brooding period. If you start with good stock and provide good
feed, housing you can raise turkeys successfully.
1. Brooding Temperature
1st week 36 – 38 ºC
2nd week 32- 35 ºC
3rd week 28 – 32 ºC
4th week until marketing 24 - 28 ºC
2. Relative humidity
The relative humidity rage at poult house is about 65 – 70 %
Requirement of Poult Rearing
3. Feeding of turkey chicks for meat production
Finisher 2 Finisher 1 Grower
Starter Prestarter Rations
12 – 16 9 – 12 6 – 9 2-6 1day – 2 W Age (weeks)
18 20 23 25 28 29 Protein %
2990 2990 2930 2890 2870 2870 Energy kcal/ kg
Generally turkey needs rations with high level of protein for its body requirement
because of their high growth rate.
Turkey chicks are sensitive to harmful gases such as carbon dioxide
(CO2) emitted from the incubators and ammonia gas emitted from the
decomposition of waste in the bedding,
After the building is thoroughly cleaned, disinfected, and dry, place
4 inches (10.2 cm) of litter material on the floor. Good litter is absorbent,
Lightweight and a good insulator. To reserve birds and keep it away from
moisture and cooler on the ground and absorb moisture from fecal matter
For the 1st two weeks of brooding in all types of houses, the room
should be lighted at 10 – 15 foot candle at poult level. After 2 weeks only
dim light at 0.5 foot-candle is needed at night
7. Floor Space
It's important to provide adequate floor space for poults to avoid such problems
• For heavy varieties, provide 1 square foot of floor space per poult up to 6
weeks of age.
• From 6 to 12 weeks, increase the floor space to 2 square feet.
• From 12 to 16 weeks, allow a minimum of 3 square feet.
• For light-type turkeys, floor space requirements may be reduced slightly.
Turkey meat has nutritional and sensorial properties. People
prefer turkey meat because of its leanest nature.
• The protein, fat, energy values of turkey meat are 24%, 6.6%,
162 Calories per 100 gm of meat.
• Mineral like potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium,
zinc and sodium are present.
• It is also rich in essential amino acids and vitamins like niacin,
vitamin B6 and B12.
• It is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and low in cholesterol.
a. Fryer-roaster turkey. A fryer-roaster turkey is a
young immature turkey (usually under 16 weeks of
age), that is tender-meat with soft, pliable, and flexible
b. Young turkey. A young turkey is a turkey (usually
under 8 months of age) that is tender-meated with soft,
and breastbone cartilage that is somewhat less flexible
than that of a fryer roaster turkey.
Turkey Carcass Classifications
c. Yearling turkey. A yearling turkey is a fully
matured turkey (usually under15 months of age) that
is reasonably tender-meated with reasonably smooth-
d. Old turkey or Mature turkey (hen or tom). A
mature or old turkey is an old turkey of either sex
(usually in excess of 15 months of age) with coarse
skin and toughened flesh.