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Turkey and poultry meat production


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turkey and poultry meat production
By Merkhan Mahdi

Published in: Technology, Business
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Turkey and poultry meat production

  1. 1. Modern Commercial Breeds of Turkeys The most important modern commercial breeds for the production of turkey broilers in the world are as follows: -- 1. Nicholas breed (Nicholas), a breed of chicken turkey developed by a group of companies (Aviagen). This group also "involved in the production of chicken meat breeds such as the strain of Ross and Arbor Acre. the company producing strain of Nicholas and the production of two strains, namely: A - Nicholas 300 breed is characterized by broad open mind and the proportion of breast meat which is high and the marketing of females aged 18-week weight of 10.15 kg and males aged 22 weeks and weighed 18.15 kg
  2. 2. B - Nicholas 700 breed and features a high body weight in females up to the weight of 12.94 kg at the age of marketing (age 22 weeks) and the males to the weight of 23.25 kg at the age of 24 weeks. 2. Hybrid breed (Hybrid), a strain produced by companies (Euribrid group) and which produce strain (Hybro) of chicken meat, and Hisex for layer. 3. BUT (British united turkey).
  3. 3. As international companies specialized in the development and the development of modern breeds of chicken eggs and chicken meat. As well as specialized companies to develop new strains of turkeys. 1. Purchase specific pieces such as breast, legs , and wings. In the United States and European countries, consumers are focusing on the consumption of a piece of the chest to both low-fat and high rate of protein. It does not cause obesity, which afflicts so many people in the over-bloated. As well as a few by cholesterol, which causes the emergence of heart disease and hardening of the arteries. 2. Purchase carcass cuts (cooked), Smoked, or grilled. Now technology has entered the slaughter of cooking poultry and birds are slaughtered, cleaned, cut, cook and then freeze and polycystic shopping. 3. Applying (Debonning) technology mean separate meat from bones, as well as hashing technology and packaging (Canning) The development of strains of turkey and consumption of meat:
  4. 4. 1. We compare the evolution of body weights of turkey with chicken (Broiler) we notice for example that " turkey Nicholas 700 strain of weights up to very high" compared with the chicken meat at the age of 8 weeks. Turkey that age up to the weight of 3.84 kg for females and 4.79 kg for males and food conversion efficiencies of 1.66 kg feed eaten for kg body weight. 2. The weights achieved by high turkey makes Priority for rearing and the preference on broilers. One turkey weighed 23.25 kg will give the amount of meat equivalent to more than ten broilers meat. Stander Average Growth of Turkey Poult
  5. 5. 3. Higher turkey weight Marketer with high Dressing percent preferred to make the turkey meat production of sheep and cows. Dressing percentage in turkey up to 80-90%, 55% for sheep and 60% of cattle and about 73% in broilers 4. If we take into account the weights of the high proportion of turkey convalescence high turkey we notice that the turkey superior to all farm animal.
  6. 6. Type of animal Dressing % Percentage of meat weight to carcass weight Percentage of meat weight to live body weight Turkey 80-90 75 64 Broiler 75 68 51 Sheep 55 64 35 Cattle 50- 62 62 38 The proportion of convalescence percentage and dressing percentage
  7. 7. Turkey Poult for Meat Production Cycle Turkey breeders producing hatching eggs Hatching period Brooding period Day old turkey chicks Chicks 6-8 weeks of age marketing males At 22- 24 weeks marketing females At 18- 22 weeks Rearing period
  8. 8. Turkeys are not as difficult to raise as many people think. However, they do require special care to get them off to a good start. Sometimes they are a little slow in learning to eat and drink. Turkeys should be isolated from chickens and other poultry to prevent many diseases. It is important that turkey poults be kept warm and dry during the first few weeks after hatching; this time is called the brooding period. If you start with good stock and provide good feed, housing you can raise turkeys successfully. 1. Brooding Temperature 1st week 36 – 38 ºC 2nd week 32- 35 ºC 3rd week 28 – 32 ºC 4th week until marketing 24 - 28 ºC 2. Relative humidity The relative humidity rage at poult house is about 65 – 70 % Requirement of Poult Rearing
  9. 9. 3. Feeding of turkey chicks for meat production Finisher 2 Finisher 1 Grower 2 Grower 1 Starter Prestarter Rations 16 To marketing 12 – 16 9 – 12 6 – 9 2-6 1day – 2 W Age (weeks) 18 20 23 25 28 29 Protein % 2990 2990 2930 2890 2870 2870 Energy kcal/ kg Generally turkey needs rations with high level of protein for its body requirement because of their high growth rate.
  10. 10. 4. Ventilation Turkey chicks are sensitive to harmful gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from the incubators and ammonia gas emitted from the decomposition of waste in the bedding, 5. Litter After the building is thoroughly cleaned, disinfected, and dry, place about 4 inches (10.2 cm) of litter material on the floor. Good litter is absorbent, Lightweight and a good insulator. To reserve birds and keep it away from moisture and cooler on the ground and absorb moisture from fecal matter 6. Lighting For the 1st two weeks of brooding in all types of houses, the room should be lighted at 10 – 15 foot candle at poult level. After 2 weeks only dim light at 0.5 foot-candle is needed at night
  11. 11. 7. Floor Space It's important to provide adequate floor space for poults to avoid such problems as cannibalism. • For heavy varieties, provide 1 square foot of floor space per poult up to 6 weeks of age. • From 6 to 12 weeks, increase the floor space to 2 square feet. • From 12 to 16 weeks, allow a minimum of 3 square feet. • For light-type turkeys, floor space requirements may be reduced slightly.
  12. 12. Turkey Meat: Turkey meat has nutritional and sensorial properties. People prefer turkey meat because of its leanest nature. • The protein, fat, energy values of turkey meat are 24%, 6.6%, 162 Calories per 100 gm of meat. • Mineral like potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, zinc and sodium are present. • It is also rich in essential amino acids and vitamins like niacin, vitamin B6 and B12. • It is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and low in cholesterol.
  13. 13. a. Fryer-roaster turkey. A fryer-roaster turkey is a young immature turkey (usually under 16 weeks of age), that is tender-meat with soft, pliable, and flexible breastbone cartilage. b. Young turkey. A young turkey is a turkey (usually under 8 months of age) that is tender-meated with soft, and breastbone cartilage that is somewhat less flexible than that of a fryer roaster turkey. Turkey Carcass Classifications
  14. 14. c. Yearling turkey. A yearling turkey is a fully matured turkey (usually under15 months of age) that is reasonably tender-meated with reasonably smooth- textured skin. d. Old turkey or Mature turkey (hen or tom). A mature or old turkey is an old turkey of either sex (usually in excess of 15 months of age) with coarse skin and toughened flesh.