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Kfir Bloch
The Art of 

Decomposing Monoliths
Head of Backend Engineering @ Wix
@kfirondev
To microservice or not to microservice
Wix in Numbers
Over
72M users
(website builders)
Static storage is
>2PB of Data
3 data centers +
3 clouds
(Google, Amazon, Azure)
2B HTTP
requests/day
1,000 people
work at Wix
@kfirondev
Wix R&D
●  Scala
●  React
●  Angular
~350 engineers in 3 locations (Tel Aviv, Dnipropetrovsk & Vilnius)
●  TDD
●  Continuous delivery
@kfirondev
Wix and Microservices
In the past 3 years we migrated to a Microservices architecture. It helps us:
•  Scale our software
•  Scale our people
•  Meet product and marketing life cycle
•  Embrace ownership and maintain a “startup-ish” culture
~150
different services
@kfirondev
@kfirondev
Microservices is the 

new black
@kfirondev
In computing, microservices is a software architecture style in which complex
applications are composed of small, independent processes communicating
with each other using language-agnostic APIs.
These services are small, highly decoupled and focus on doing a small task,
facilitating a modular approach to system-building.
@kfirondev
Microservices characteristics
Protocol
Circuit 
Breaker
SOA
Service
Discovery
Cascading
Failure
Replaceable
Units
Service
Graph
Scalable
Units
Documentation
www.maplecityrubber.com@kfirondev
But I will talk about:
When (and when NOT) to decompose
your monolith
@kfirondev
Why do you think it is important to
know when to decompose?
@kfirondev
Sometimes less is more
Microservices have trade-offs
@kfirondev
Each I/O hop
is a failure point
Partial deployment
Strong interfaces between
services are harder to refactor
Ops complexity
End-to-end testing
is challenging
@kfirondev
Mitigations
●  I/O hops are failure points
○  Proper HTTP configurations (timeouts, async, etc.)
○  Retry mechanism
○  Idempotent API
○  Circuit breakers
○  Monitoring
○  Eventual consistency when needed
@kfirondev
Mitigations
●  Partial deployment
○  Feature toggle mechanism

@kfirondev
Mitigations
●  Ops complexity
○  Automation
○  Developers own the Ops
@kfirondev
Mitigations
●  Strong interface – hard to refactor
○  Backward / forward compatibility
○  Strong build system - dependency
○  Proper contact tests
@kfirondev
There is no way to
avoid the additional risk


Another service == Another failure point
@kfirondev
Once we accept our limits, we go beyond them.
- Albert Einstein
@kfirondev
To microservice

or not to microservice?
@kfirondev
Decompose to gain resource
isolation for high availability
01
File Upload
Client
Web File
Storage
Items (CRUD) Items
DB
Items Catalog
Service
Network
problem
@kfirondev
Server
threads are
busy on I/O
Server cannot
accept any
more requests
Client cannot
perform critical
missions like
deleting an item
Different APIs have different SLAs
●  Some are near real time & some are not
●  Some are eventually consistent
●  Some are not critical and can fail
●  Some should respond within X ms
@kfirondev
Decompose to avoid competition
on shared resources
@kfirondev
File Upload
Client
Web File
Storage
Items (CRUD) Items
DB
Items Catalog
Service
@kfirondev
File Upload
Client
Web File
Storage
Items (CRUD) Items
DB
Items Service
Files Service
@kfirondev
Decompose by 

different life cycles
02
4 PM Deploy – Items catalog feature
BI Storage
Items (CRUD) Items
DB
Items Catalog
Service
Coupons
@kfirondev
5 PM Deploy – Coupon feature
6 PM Deploy – Coupon feature
9 PM Deploy – Coupon feature
12 AM Rollback – Due to bug in items catalog
THE COMPANY LOSES MONEY
Items (CRUD) Items
DB
Items Catalog
Service
Coupons
@kfirondev
B1
Storage
B1
Storage
Items (CRUD) Items
DB
Coupons
Service
Items Catalog
Service
@kfirondev
03
Decompose to 

reuse and share logic
Google
Items
DB
Items Catalog
Service
Geo
Geo
(3rd party)
Geo
DB
Geo
User Management
Service
Geo
User
DB
Items
DB
Geo
User Management
Service
User
DB
@kfirondev
Google
Items
DB
Items Catalog
Service
Geo
(3rd party)
Geo
DB
Geo
User Management
Service
User
DB
Geo Service
Fetch GeoFetch Geo
@kfirondev
Google
Items
DB
Items Catalog
Service
Geo
Geo
(3rd party)
Geo
DB
Geo
User Management
Service
Geo
User
DB
@kfirondev
WILL FAIL AT SOME POINT
Common mistake to avoid
Each service must have its own DB

@kfirondev
DB
Service A
An example when not to
decompose
Extract
Cookie Info
DB
Service B
Extract
Cookie Info
@kfirondev
Microservices are deployable artifacts
that have Ops or I/O dependencies
@kfirondev
Tested code that is CPU-bound is more
secure and consistent

@kfirondev
04
Decompose to have 

single team responsibility
Did you know that 90%
of R&D projects fail?


○  Because of content
○  Because of bugs
○  Because of time to market
Do you know how to
reduce it to 70%?

○  3-5 developers on 1 team
○  3-5 months per project

@kfirondev
@kfirondev
Decompose to support organization
scalability
Large teams cannot efficiently
handle a large code base
@kfirondev
Small teams embrace responsibility
and accountability
Decomposition helps your culture
remain startup-ish
when your size is corporate-ish
@kfirondev
Decomposition allows each small
team to have ownership of a service
@kfirondev
Wix Org chart - “Guilds & Gangs”
@kfirondev
Microservices is the only way to
support this HR methodology
01
Resource Isolation 

by service level
Decompose to avoid
competition of shared 
resources
02
Different release
cycles
Decompose to meet
your product’s life cycle
strategy
03
Reuse and share
logic
Decompose to share
logic with
dependencies
04
Develop & maintain by
a single team

Decompose to meet
your HR needs
@kfirondev
When to break the monolith
Microservices start from a monolith
and should be created with caution
@kfirondev
From monolith to microservices: 
Practices to start with
Make changes gradually
www.livbit.com@kfirondev
@kfirondev
Don’t start with
your most critical service
Confidence is built slowly
Use proper monitoring from day one
www.capacitysolutionsplatform.com
@kfirondev
Talk about failures and their causes
The secret of getting ahead is getting started.
- Mark Twain
@kfirondev
Q&A
linkedin/in/blochkfir
 github.com/kfiron@kfirondev
kfirb@wix.com
Kfir Bloch
Thank You
Wix Engineering Blog
http://engineering.wix.com/
We are hiring
http://jobs.wix.com
Kfir Bloch @kfirondev
email
jobs@wix.com

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The art of decomposing monoliths

Editor's Notes

  1. Good morning Kiev I have been working as a developer for the past 17 year Past 5 years In this talk I will share with you the aspects of when to break your monolith and how to mitigate the risks You may contact me on my twitter
  2. And this is wix what you see what you get editor. A friend described Wix as powerpoint for the web.
  3. Just to let you undesrstand the scale of Wix
  4. We have around 350 engineers in 3 locations, the major one in TLV. We have growing location in Dnipo And Vilnlius These are the major stacks and methodology the we have being using
  5. Back in 2010 we had a monolith we suffered from many problems which stopped us for being agile And in the past 4 years we moved towards microservices, which helped us: Read from the slide Monolith to microserce
  6. This is bird eye view with will give you a sense of what we are doing Of course that we don’t have here 150 services, as we speak this list is keep growing
  7. Microservices is the trend, eveyone wants to be there and needs to be there
  8. However, microservices does not nsasarili small
  9. Microservices has many aspects, I am not going to speak about them. It is not part of my talk, but I will be around and would to disucus any of this items, or you can tweet me
  10. Don’t rush and decompose your monolith to small pieces before you undesratnds that ->
  11. You may don't want them?
  12. Failure point: DNS. Uncertainty, you don’t what will happen Ops Building the orchestration is hard, when you have one server you just install it once Partial – Sometimes small feature is developed in few services, so it is hard to handle Ops complexity – in the back days when we had a monolith all we need to di is to install single server which is the same Strong interface – Now we live in a worlds when any change of interface is complex. In the monolith env we just refactor. Now we can break our users.. Mmm Testing is different – now we need to run in our test suite all of the 150 services?
  13. Configure your http connection, connection pooling, Retry? How many, whith delay? Exponential? Itempotanece? Folt tollerant? Proper monitoring tool?? Eventual consisten
  14. Let’s you deploy wiyhout the feature and open it only when all servers are up
  15. Culture when the developers care about the ops Developers are not only coders
  16. Backward and forward compatability Build system with proper tests that covers when you break the interface
  17. So we have trade offs, we know how to mitigate. BUT Read! Remember: even if doing the best things, when we go IO we live in uncertainty environment
  18. Now, let’s take advantage of the limits
  19. Soooo, to be or not to be
  20. In this use case we have an online shop items catalog with 2 APIs Items – add/del Load files – images for my producs So we have network issue to the external file storage…
  21. SLA is product definition, we as a developer does not define SLA We use SLA definition to know when to decouple our services Each API has different importance: payment transaction is different from bi logging and different from search capability Some need to be addressed immediately, some eventual consistent,
  22. This is the most canonical use case to decompose our micro services
  23. So the solution will be to have another service If the files service need to be enriched with meta data from the catalog it can depend on it.
  24. So the solution will be to have another service If the files service need to be enriched with meta data from the catalog it can depend on it.
  25. So, our catalog server has some coupons functionliy The team is spending 50% of the time doing critical logic which helps the company to increase the income Also we have risk for catalog because of deplpyment of coupon
  26. Now we can deploy them idenpendently In Wix we have 20K deployments in year
  27. Now we can deploy them idenpendently In Wix we have 20K deployments in year
  28. Share logic is what we are mostly doing as software developer, this is what we paid for
  29. So our items catalog service also have GEO capability. A piece of logic which resolve the user country/city by the IP. Also maps is possible. This piece of logic have some cache in the database Now the user management service also need to resolve the geo.. So let’s decompose
  30. Great, now we have runtime depdedency from both services
  31. Common mistake to avoid When many services uses the same DB it is hard to manage Better to have runtime dependency This is the most impotant principle we adopt when we broke Wix into microservices How to do monitor such thing? If
  32. Now let’s have another case when two services need to deserialize and decrypt the user cookie No, we should not decompose it to another micro service. because
  33. The IO hop that you pay just for read the cookie is much more expensive than the logic
  34. Yes, service decompozition helps your org to scale by people
  35. Large code base is hard to maintain by many people. Small code base + small team is easy, even from the task and the way they divided by the team It also makes your people feels owner, the are part from small group. They have target and customers which are the other services. It is like company
  36. In the end we want to have startupish environment. We want that culture. We don’t want to be corporate even if we are.
  37. So it goes top down, we break the teams when we decompose the services. If we still have big team, we continue to deompose
  38. Lets recap the motivation to break our monolith: Source isolation, know your SLA / importance of the API Lifecycle, know the needs of you fequency of deployments Reuse logic which hace Ops dependency Break to small teams
  39. In reality we don’t do full microservices
  40. I would like to give you some tips to manage your risks
  41. Always have fallback. When you introduce new service and you alredy have your ligic in your monolith, transfer the traffic gradually Be able to turn it of at any time In Wix we had mailing service, we broke it, we had ft bla bla bla
  42. If you don’t want to lose your job, don’t’ start with the most important project Suggestion system for similar products This will give you the confidence on your mi
  43. Talk about the new service, use the term, let people use it, let your managers use it. Take the time, show the success, communicate In Wix when we started we had many failure and we had many rollbacks, but in the end people got the confidence
  44. We monitor both business transactions and hardware low level Newreiic Anodot Graphite Take metrics and investigate them Do bug hunts – It will educae your people
  45. Post mortem
  46. You need to start from something