1.What are conventional and non-conventional
2.What is hydro electricity?
3.What are hydro power plants?
4.Basic working principles of a hydro power plant
5.Advantages of hydro power plants
6.Examples of some famous hydro power plants
7.What is solar energy?
8.What is a solar cooker?
9. Mechanism of a solar cooker
•Conventional energy sourcesare typically
fully developed, nonrenewableresources.
•Their uses are practiced for a long time.
•These resources are exhaustible in nature.
•They cause environmental threats.
•For example: Coal, Petroleum, naturalgas
• Non-conventional sourcesmay be functional but
are still undergoing development and use
•Their uses are comparatively more recent.
•These resources are generally non-exhaustiblein
•They are environmental friendly.
For example: Wind power, Tidalpower, Ocean
CONVENTIONAL RESOURCES NON-CONVENTIONALRESOURCES
• Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated
by hydropower the production of electrical power through the
use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
•It is the most widely used form of renewable energy,
accounting for 20 percent of global electricity generation.
•Hydroelectricity eliminates the flue gas emissions from fossil
fuel combustion, including pollutants such as sulfur
dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, dust, and mercury in
the coal. Hydroelectricity also avoids the hazards of coal
mining and the indirect health effects of coal emissions.
Power plants are defined asthe place where power is generated from a given source, so here the
source is hydro and that’s why we calledit a hydro powerplant.
•The different parts of a hydro power plant are:
Hydropowerplantsharnesswater'senergy andusesimplemechanics toconvert thatenergy intoelectricity. Hydropower plantsareactuallybased
ona rathersimple concept--waterflowingthroughadamturnsaturbine,which turnsagenerator.The theoryis tobuild adam on alargeriver that
hasalarge dropin elevation (therearenotmanyhydroelectricplantsin Kansasor Florida). Thedamstoreslots ofwaterbehindit in thereservoir.
Nearthe bottomofthe damwallthereisthe waterintake.Gravitycausesitto fallthroughthepenstockinside thedam. At theend ofthepenstock
thereisaturbinepropeller, whichis turnedbythe moving water.Theshaftfromthe turbinegoesupinto thegenerator,whichproducesthepower.
Powerlines areconnectedto thegeneratorthatcarryelectricity toyourhomeandmine.The watercontinuespastthe propellerthroughthetailrace
intothe river pastthedam.
"A hydraulicturbineconvertsthe energy offlowing waterinto mechanicalenergy. A hydroelectricgeneratorconvertsthis mechanicalenergy into
electricity. The operationofageneratoris basedon theprinciplesdiscoveredbyFaraday.He foundthatwhen amagnetis movedpasta conductor,it
causeselectricitytoflow.In alargegenerator,electromagnetsaremadebycirculating directcurrentthroughloopsofwire woundaroundstacksof
magneticsteellaminations.Thesearecalled field poles, andaremountedon theperimeter ofthe rotor.The rotoris attachedtothe turbineshaft,and
rotatesatafixedspeed.Whenthe rotorturns,it causesthefield poles (the electromagnets)tomovepasttheconductorsmountedin thestator.This,
in turn,causeselectricity toflowanda voltagetodevelop atthe generatoroutputterminals."
There's anothertypeofhydropowerplant,called thepumped-storage plant.In a conventionalhydropowerplant,the waterfromthe reservoirflows
Pumped storage is a method of keeping water in
reserve for peak period power demands by
pumping water that has already flowed through the
turbines back up a storage pool above the
powerplant at a time when customer demand for
energy is low, such as during the middle of the
night. The water is then allowed to flow back
through the turbine-generators at times when
demand is high and a heavy load is placed on the
Hydropower is fueled by water, so it's a clean fuel source, meaning it
won't pollute the air like power plants that burn fossil fuels, such as
coal or natural gas. Hydroelectric power is a domestic source of
energy, allowing each state to produce their own energy without being
reliant on international fuel sources.
•Hydroelectricity promotes guaranteed energy and price stability
•Hydroelectricity makes it feasible to utilize other renewable sources.
•Hydroelectricity means clean and cheap energy for today and for
Examples of 10 famous hydro power plants in India:
1) Tehri Dam(Uttarakhand)
2) Koyna hydroelectric dam (western ghats)
3) Srisailam dam (andhra)
4) Nathpa jhakri (himachal Pradesh)
5) Sardar sarovar (Gujarat)
6) Bhakra nangal dam (himachal Pradesh)
7) Indra sagar dam (mp)
8) Nagarjuna sagar dam (ap)
9) Idukki dam(Kerala)
10) Hirakud dam (odisha)
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the
Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving
technologies such as solar heating, solar thermal
energy, solar architecture and artificial
It is an important source of renewable energy and its
technologies are broadly characterized as
either passive solar or active solar depending on how
they capture and distribute solar energy or convert
it into solar power.
What is a solar cooker?
A solar cooker is a device which uses the energy of direct sunlight to heat,
cook or pasteurize food or drink. Many solar cookers currently in use are
relatively inexpensive, low-tech devices, although some are as powerful or as
expensive as traditional stoves, and advanced, large-scale solar cookers can
cook for hundreds of people. Because they use no fuel and cost nothing to
operate, many nonprofit organizations are promoting their use worldwide in
order to help reduce fuel costs (especially where monetary reciprocity is low)
and air pollution, and to slow down the deforestation and desertification caused
by gathering firewood for cooking. Solar cooking is a form of outdoor
cooking and is often used in situations where minimal fuel consumption is
important, or the danger of accidental fires is high, and the health and
environmental consequences of alternatives are severe.
Many types of solar cookers exist, including curved concentrator solar cookers,
solar ovens, and panel cookers, among others.
Mechanism of a solar cooker
• Solar cooking is done by means of the suns UV rays.
• A solar cooker lets the UV light rays in and then converts them to
longer infrared light rays that cannot escape. Infrared radiation has the
right energy to make the water, fat and protein molecules in food vibrate
vigorously and heat up.
• It is not the sun’s heat that cooks the food, nor is it the outside ambient
temperature, though this can somewhat affect the rate or time required to
cook, but rather it is the suns rays that are converted to heat energy that
cook the food; and this heat energy is then retained by the pot and the
food by the means of a covering or lid.
• There are three main types of solar cookers;
1. Solar Panel cooker
2. Solar Parabolic cooker
3. Solar Box cooker
SOLAR BOX COOKER
• This type of cooker uses a mirror, a glass sheet and a dark
coloured cooking pot.
• The mirror is used for reflecting the sun’s UV rays and
concentrating them to a small region.
• The glass sheet prevents the escape of heat just like a
• The dark colour of the cooking pot helps in maximum
absorption of heat.