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Horse vision2018

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Horse vision2018

  1. 1. National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  2. 2. WHY HORSES SPOOK IT’S ABOUT PERCEPTION National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  3. 3. THE REASONING BEHIND THE EQUINE FLIGHT INSTINCT Understanding the Fundamentals • Thought • Learning • Vision Process National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  4. 4. Lesson One  States of mind regarding the learning process  Equine priorities are a near constant  Equine vision is dissimilar to human vision  The thought process is not like humans  Fight or flight, revisited National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  5. 5. National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017 It is generally agreed upon there are only three states of mind (with minor variations) to a horse that affect not only his ability to learn but his behavior as well 1. Relaxed state 2. Alerted state 3. Survival state
  6. 6. EQUINE PRIORITIES ARE A NEAR CONSTANT #1: Am I safe? #2: Do I need food? #3: Where is the herd? #4: Can I rest? National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  7. 7. Horses have Monocular Vision Each eye sees independently of the other eye Each eye sees independently of the other eye Equine vision is very dissimilar to human vision National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  8. 8. When a horse looks forward, each eye sees independently of the other, and although has approximately 90 degrees of “crossover” it does not give the horse binocular vision due to the OPTIC CHIASMA operating at only 5% of the human chiasma National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  9. 9. Monocular vision seriously affects depth perception as we know it. Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions 1. Distances are perceived solely by a distance sensation 2. Depth of field (thickness) of an object is not perceived because of single line of sight National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  10. 10. COLOR PERCEPTION HORSES HAVE FEWER CONES (COLOR RECEPTORS) THAN HUMANS. THIS TYPE OF VISION, CALLED DICHROMATIC, CAUSES THE HORSE TO PERCEIVE COLORS AS YELLOWISH GREENS AND BLUISH PURPLES National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  11. 11. LIGHT PERCEPTION HORSES HAVE MORE RODS, LIGHT RECEPTORS, THAN HUMANS AND PERCEIVE LIGHT APPROXIMATELY 30% BRIGHTER THAN HUMANS National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  12. 12. National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  13. 13. Horses have trifocal vision, due to graduating gradients on the horses crystalline lens National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  14. 14. 18 inches to 5 feet for near vision 5 feet to 25 feet 25 feet to ~ for distant vision The horse’s vision is divided into three progressive quadrants similar to a “trifocal” lens. Middle area of the eye Bottom area of the eye Upper area of the eye National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  15. 15. These quadrants of vision are known as “Area of Focus” Middle area Bottom area Upper area National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  16. 16. If the horse head is positioned at a constant angle, the perception object distance and size is a relative constant. National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  17. 17. When the horse head is elevated or lowered, the ability to focus (visual perception) is altered. National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  18. 18. Central vision is that portion of the horses field of vision where images tend to be more sharp and are recognizable by the brain National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  19. 19. Peripheral vision is the area that extends approximately 120-140º off the side of the horse Peripheral vision reacts more to color, contrast, movement, or light Area of Peripheral Vision Area of Peripheral Vision Area of Focal Ability National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  20. 20. As humans, we think of vision in terms of the ability focus. However, another difference in equine vision is that structure of the equine eye is structured to detect motion instead of focus. As a prey animal with its eye set, it can detect this motion and most of their surroundings with only head movement National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  21. 21. National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  22. 22. As the object in the horses’ sight moves behind their area of focal ability (forward) and into peripheral vision (off to the side), their ability to focus is diminished. Not only is focus diminished, this lack of focus makes the object appear larger due to diffusion of light National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  23. 23. The “eye set” determines how far behind the horses vision functions. With the rider the “backward” field of vision angle is diminished Without the rider, rearward vision is increased Forward vision intersects in front of the horse in as little as 18 inches through “infinite distance”, depending on head position National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017 Decreased peripheral vision With the rider, rearward vision is decreased
  24. 24. THE THOUGHT PROCESS OF YOUR HORSE IS UNLIKE, BUT NOT ENTIRELY DISSIMILAR TO HUMANS National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  25. 25. Though the equine brain has two hemispheres (both left and right), the two sides of the brain are connected by a very underdeveloped Corpus Callosum. This basically means, not only is equine vision monocular, each side of the brain individually processes sensory information. In other words, each side “thinks” independently of the other. National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  26. 26. If danger is perceived on either side, the two sides of the brain have different priorities. The side that perceives the danger will calculate where the danger is, while the other “brain” detects the best escape route. DANGER!!!! Escape Route is 180 degrees in the opposite direction National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  27. 27. Escape Route is Behind and Right Escape Route is Forward and Right Escape Route is Behind and Left Escape Route is Forward and Left National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  28. 28. WHAT THIS MEANS TO YOU 1. How to set your hands and position 2. How to position your horse 3. How to maintain control 4. How to show your horse that the obstacle is NOT the enemy 5. How to leave the obstacle behind without “running away” National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  29. 29. Setting your Position  Obstacle; is it ahead or behind National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  30. 30. National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017 If the object is high, the horses head will lower to avoid it (duck) If the object is low, the horses head will elevate to avoid it National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  31. 31. Escape Route is Forward, Right and Low Escape Route is Forward, Right and High Escape Route is Backward, Right and Low Escape Route is Backward, Right and High National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  32. 32. HOW TO POSITION THE HORSE Move your horse so he can see the obstacle with both eyes National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017 Obstacle Remember the horse will break away from what they perceive as the source of distress
  33. 33. HOW TO MAINTAIN CONTROL  No matter which way the horse attempts to turn, always point him at the object. From that point, it doesn’t matter whether he backs away from the object or not, only that he face it.  BOTH EYES------ BOTH BRAINS National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  34. 34. SHOW YOUR HORSE THAT THE OBSTACLE IS NOT THE ENEMY  By steadily applying appropriate pressure until the job is complete, you will show your horse that the enemy is his own unwillingness; not that of the obstacle. Once the obstacle is complete, repeat until the horse is relaxed over the obstacle. National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  35. 35. HOW TO LEAVE THE OBSTACLE BEHIND WITHOUT “RUNNING AWAY” National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017 Once the horse has cleared the obstacle, sit up straight, bring your hands with you (maintaining appropriate pressure) and half halt as necessary.
  36. 36. Fight, Flight and Instinctual Drive Demonstrated in the Round Pen Fight and flight… revisited National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  37. 37. Middle of the eye is stop Movement is Back Movement is Forward National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  38. 38. Stepping slightly ahead for the stop, then… Movement is toward you when backing away from horse Movement is away from you when you are moving toward horse National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017
  39. 39. Stopped Speed is decreased Speed is increased National Mounted Police Services Copyright © 2017

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