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Optimising the Workplace
Reading University
MSc Course
Intelligent Buildings
January 2011
Kevin Reader
Introduction
■ Humans have not yet evolved to cope with working in large numbers in sealed
buildings deprived of fresh air...
Objectives of Optimisation
■ MAXIMUM OUTPUT at MINIMUM COST
■ Average organisation efficiency is < 50%
■ No stress = no ou...
Before Optimisation
Symptom Analysis - Videotron
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Back Pain
Neck etc Pain
Hand/Arm Pain
He...
After Optimisation
Symptom Analysis - Videotron
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Back Pain
Neck etc Pain
Hand/Arm Pain
Hea...
Before and after Optimisation
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Sick Days Work
Load
Staff
Leaving
Before
After
US Department of Labour Occupational Safety & Health - OSHA Web Site
What needs Optimising?
■ EVERYTHING!!
■ Why?
■ The mo...
IT Investment implications
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Yrs 60-73 Yrs 73-95
Productivity
Increase %
IT Investment %
GDP
US La...
Optimising the workplace – List of organisations
■ British Rail
■ Amex
■ MOD
■ Mortgage Corporation
■ Nortel
■ Holiday Inn...
Optimising the workplace – Background of research
■ Reading University
■ Warwick University
■ Surrey University
■ Montpeli...
Optimising the workplace – Health implications
■ Cancer
■ Alzheimer's
■ Asthma
■ Sperm Count Decline
■ Fertility Decline
■...
■ Headaches
■ Coughs/sneezes
■ Dry, itchy, tired eyes
■ Blocked, runny nose
■ Tiredness, fatigue
■ Rashes, itches, dry ski...
Optimising the workplace – Stress
■ Deadlines
■ Insecurity
■ Criticism
■ Relationships
■ JOB STRESS + BIOLOGICAL STRESS
■ ...
Optimising the workplace – Ergonomics
■ Lumbar support seating
■ Poor desk design
■ Poor work habits
■ Pelvic Support
■ He...
Optimising the workplace – Electro Magnetic Radiation
■ Ultra Violet, Infra Red
■ Microwaves, Radio Frequencies
■ VLF, ELF...
Optimising the workplace – Lighting
■ Glare
■ Colour Balance
■ Flicker
■ Too much
■ Too little
■ Daylight Full Spectrum li...
Optimising the workplace – Air Quality
■ Hot, cold, dry, humid, stuffy
■ Positive Ions & carbon
■ Skin cells (3-5 litres p...
Optimising the workplace – Plants
■ Humidity
■ CO2 levels
■ Oxygen levels
■ Volatile Organic Compounds
■ NASA Plants
■ Hyd...
Optimising the workplace – Plants = Productivity & Health
■ In a study conducted by Dr. Virginia Lahr of Washington State ...
Optimising the workplace – Acoustics
■ Distracting speech
■ Telephone ringing
■ Excessive vibration
■ Machine and cable hu...
■ Airborne Particulates & fungi
■ Microbes & Bacteria
■ Nylon Fibres & Static
■ Anti Static & Anti fungal
■ Anti bacterial...
Optimising the workplace – Keyboards
■ Bacteria
■ Discarded food
■ MRSA & Super Bugs
■ Flu Virus
■ Eating regimes (Away fr...
Optimising the workplace – Flat Panel displays
■ 72% less visual stress symptoms
■ No flicker
■ Less glare
■ Lower EMR
■ L...
Optimising the workplace – Colour
■ Bland & Boring
■ Colour deprivation
■ Depressing
■ Mixed Tonal values
■ Psychological ...
Optimising the workplace – Work Pace
■ Rest breaks
■ Exercises - Workpace
■ Eye Exercises
■ Activity Centres
■ Relaxation ...
Optimising the workplace – Stress controlled
■ Humanise the workplace
■ Create outdoors => indoors
■ Control of own space
...
Optimising the workplace – Productivity & Measurement
■ Short Interval Scheduling
■ Productivity Indices
■ Activity Sampli...
45.0%
50.0%
55.0%
60.0%
65.0%
70.0%
75.0%
80.0%
85.0%
90.0%
95.0%
100.0%
105.0%
110.0%
CALLS PER DAY 100.0% 103.7% 103.6% ...
Optimising the workplace – Benefits
■ Higher Productivity (+ 20%)
■ Fewer errors
■ Fewer stress symptoms ( - 80%)
■ Less a...
Optimising the workplace – Walsall Council
The new office space is excellent; Our staff have really embraced the change. P...
Optimising the workplace – EC Harris HQ
■ Staff attrition down by 20%
■ Revenue growth up by 17.4%
■ Net margin 23% improv...
Thank You
Healthy Workplace Slides 2011
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Healthy Workplace Slides 2011

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Healthy Workplace Slides 2011

  1. 1. Optimising the Workplace Reading University MSc Course Intelligent Buildings January 2011 Kevin Reader
  2. 2. Introduction ■ Humans have not yet evolved to cope with working in large numbers in sealed buildings deprived of fresh air and natural light – Man made materials & electronic smog – Minimal physical activity – Maximum mental, visual & aural activity ■ The result is an undetected epidemic of so called sick building syndrome – High sickness absence levels – Poor personal productivity – Voluntary wastage ■ These symptoms have been attributed to – Lack of job security – Management bullying – Racial & social tensions – The Government ■ Recent research however shows that 60-70% of this problem can be found in the office environment
  3. 3. Objectives of Optimisation ■ MAXIMUM OUTPUT at MINIMUM COST ■ Average organisation efficiency is < 50% ■ No stress = no output ■ Excess stress = high activity + low output + high fatigue ■ High fatigue = high cost of manpower machines and space ■ Low stress+ high concentration = maximum output & minimum cost Employees do not assess a workplace in terms of space efficiency, real estate costs or scientific data on the ergonomics, sound levels, light and air quality etc but on how it feels to work in it John Jukes Westra 2008
  4. 4. Before Optimisation Symptom Analysis - Videotron 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Back Pain Neck etc Pain Hand/Arm Pain Headaches Tiredness Nose runny Throat sore/dry Eyes dry/itchy Cough Irritability Cold/flu Skin rash/itch Wheeziness % of Staff Before
  5. 5. After Optimisation Symptom Analysis - Videotron 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Back Pain Neck etc Pain Hand/Arm Pain Headaches Tiredness Nose runny Throat sore/dry Eyes dry/itchy Cough Irritability Cold/flu Skin rash/itch Wheeziness % of Staff After
  6. 6. Before and after Optimisation 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Sick Days Work Load Staff Leaving Before After
  7. 7. US Department of Labour Occupational Safety & Health - OSHA Web Site What needs Optimising? ■ EVERYTHING!! ■ Why? ■ The modern office is a minefield of unsuspected sources of biological stress ■ “The synergic effect of multiple stressors can result in decreased productivity, absenteeism and high turnover.” ■ “Prolonged exposure may lead to hypertension, coronary heart disease. ulcers, alcoholism and mental illness.”
  8. 8. IT Investment implications 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Yrs 60-73 Yrs 73-95 Productivity Increase % IT Investment % GDP US Labour Productivity & IT Investment (Scientific American)
  9. 9. Optimising the workplace – List of organisations ■ British Rail ■ Amex ■ MOD ■ Mortgage Corporation ■ Nortel ■ Holiday Inns ■ Kent Ambulance ■ British Telecom ■ Herts Constabulary ■ BBC ■ Walsall Council ■ British Airways ■ British Gas ■ Cable & Wireless ■ British Petroleum ■ Southampton Health Authority ■ Pfizer ■ Family Medicine ■ Penguin Books ■ Sun Newspaper ■ Sandwell Council
  10. 10. Optimising the workplace – Background of research ■ Reading University ■ Warwick University ■ Surrey University ■ Montpelier University ■ Dusseldorf University ■ Kitasau University ■ Cromwell Hospital ■ University College London ■ NASA ■ Washington State University
  11. 11. Optimising the workplace – Health implications ■ Cancer ■ Alzheimer's ■ Asthma ■ Sperm Count Decline ■ Fertility Decline ■ Parkinson's Disease ■ Heart Attack ■ Detached Retina ■ Computer Death Syndrome The growth in diseases like cancer in developed societies can be partly attributed to the increases in technology within offices and home environments Thomas Saunders author of “The Boiled Frog Syndrome”
  12. 12. ■ Headaches ■ Coughs/sneezes ■ Dry, itchy, tired eyes ■ Blocked, runny nose ■ Tiredness, fatigue ■ Rashes, itches, dry skin ■ Cold/flu like symptoms ■ Dry throat ■ Sore Throat ■ Wheeziness ■ Back, leg pain ■ Neck pain ■ Shoulder pain ■ Arms, elbow pain ■ Hands/finger pain ■ Concentration problems ■ Memory problems ■ Pessimistic/depressed ■ Tense/ irritable ■ Sleeping difficulties Optimising the workplace – Symptoms
  13. 13. Optimising the workplace – Stress ■ Deadlines ■ Insecurity ■ Criticism ■ Relationships ■ JOB STRESS + BIOLOGICAL STRESS ■ =TOTAL STRESS There is more information within a daily newspaper than the average person would have experienced in their entire lifetime in the 17th century
  14. 14. Optimising the workplace – Ergonomics ■ Lumbar support seating ■ Poor desk design ■ Poor work habits ■ Pelvic Support ■ Height adjustability ■ Training ■ Workpace On July 3rd, 1997, California adopted the first legal standard to regulate ergonomic compliance in the workplace
  15. 15. Optimising the workplace – Electro Magnetic Radiation ■ Ultra Violet, Infra Red ■ Microwaves, Radio Frequencies ■ VLF, ELF, Static. ■ VDU Shields, Ionisers, ■ Tecno AO antennae ■ Anti static chairs & carpets ■ Flat Panel Displays ■ Microwave screening Radiation from computers, mobile phones, microwave ovens and other electrical appliances has increased by 600% since 1980
  16. 16. Optimising the workplace – Lighting ■ Glare ■ Colour Balance ■ Flicker ■ Too much ■ Too little ■ Daylight Full Spectrum light ■ Polarised light ■ Electronic Ballast ■ Personal control 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Std Lighting Full Spectrum Daylight 380 449 495 570 625 700 Controls are extremely important in office-lighting design . . . Manual controls that give workers control over their individual work environments, increase user satisfaction and acceptance Nancy Clanton University of Colorado
  17. 17. Optimising the workplace – Air Quality ■ Hot, cold, dry, humid, stuffy ■ Positive Ions & carbon ■ Skin cells (3-5 litres per person yearly) ■ Volatile Organic Compounds ■ Bacteria, microbes, fungi ■ Carbon Dioxide ■ Negative ions ■ Hepa filtration ■ Humidity & plants ■ Individual climate control The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that indoor air can be two- to five-times more polluted than the air outdoors
  18. 18. Optimising the workplace – Plants ■ Humidity ■ CO2 levels ■ Oxygen levels ■ Volatile Organic Compounds ■ NASA Plants ■ Hydroponics ■ 2 sqm leaf surface per person ■ Water features ■ Miniature Rainforests NASA research has consistently shown that living green and flowering plants can remove several toxic chemicals from the air in building interiors
  19. 19. Optimising the workplace – Plants = Productivity & Health ■ In a study conducted by Dr. Virginia Lahr of Washington State University, Pullman, Wash., subject reaction times to a computer program were 12% faster when plants were present Blood pressure readings taken during the same study showed that visual exposure to plant settings could produce significant recovery from stress within five minutes ■ Dr. Bill Wolverton, a NASA research scientist, believes that NASA's findings about indoor plants have some down-to-earth applications for cleaning dirty indoor air. He estimates that 15 to 20 Golden Pothos and Spider Plants can clean and refresh the air in the average 1,800 square foot area ■ In the initial NASA studies over a dozen varieties of common interior plants were placed in sealed, plexiglas chambers. Formaldehyde, a toxic chemical with the greatest exposure on humans, was introduced. Within 24 hours, the plants - Philodendron, Spider Plant and Golden Pothos - removed 80% of the formaldehyde molecules from the chamber NASA research identifies the most effective pollution fighters are plants
  20. 20. Optimising the workplace – Acoustics ■ Distracting speech ■ Telephone ringing ■ Excessive vibration ■ Machine and cable hum ■ Reflected sound ■ Sound masking ■ Sound absorption ■ Sound cancelling In open-plan offices, the noise floor is usually so low that conversations are intelligible from up to 15.2 metres. Sound masking can reduce this to less than 2 - 4 metres
  21. 21. ■ Airborne Particulates & fungi ■ Microbes & Bacteria ■ Nylon Fibres & Static ■ Anti Static & Anti fungal ■ Anti bacterial & Anti microbial ■ Continuous filament ■ Sound absorbent Optimising the workplace – Carpets & Fabrics The World Health Organization stated that the presence of dust with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 am or smaller (PM10) can damage your health Over 50% of particles in the workplace fall into this category
  22. 22. Optimising the workplace – Keyboards ■ Bacteria ■ Discarded food ■ MRSA & Super Bugs ■ Flu Virus ■ Eating regimes (Away from desk) ■ Cleaning procedures ■ Keyboard covers ■ Washing hands One keyboard was so dirty that a microbiologist ordered it to be removed, quarantined and cleaned. It had 150 times the acceptable limit for bacteria and was five times as filthy as a typical lavatory seat Gary Noskin at Chicago's North Western Memorial Hospital
  23. 23. Optimising the workplace – Flat Panel displays ■ 72% less visual stress symptoms ■ No flicker ■ Less glare ■ Lower EMR ■ Less space ■ Less power ■ Less heat load Visual search error frequency is 22% less when reading from an LCD than a CRT Professor Alan Hedge Dept. Design & Environmental Analysis, Cornell University
  24. 24. Optimising the workplace – Colour ■ Bland & Boring ■ Colour deprivation ■ Depressing ■ Mixed Tonal values ■ Psychological effects ■ Balance ■ Lighting ■ Adventurous ■ Stimulating At the University of Iowa, Hawkeye Coach Hayden Fry had the locker room used by visiting teams painted pink, on the basis of research that showed pink surroundings have the effect of reducing aggression
  25. 25. Optimising the workplace – Work Pace ■ Rest breaks ■ Exercises - Workpace ■ Eye Exercises ■ Activity Centres ■ Relaxation Training ■ Keyboard Training Li Jianjun, Labour Union V. chairman of China mobile, Beijing, said, “We have more than 2-thousand employees and their pressure at work is rather heavy. We encourage them to exercise at work to help release that pressure”
  26. 26. Optimising the workplace – Stress controlled ■ Humanise the workplace ■ Create outdoors => indoors ■ Control of own space ■ Individual climate control – light, air & sound ■ Treat staff as athletes ■ Maximum performance requires maximum support ■ Total calm + total focus = optimum output per person The negative impact of the indoor environment on health and productivity is its low energy content. High energy environments exist in nature in golf courses, beaches, mountains, rivers and forests. Creating a high energy indoor environment is simply to copy nature John Jukes Westra 2008
  27. 27. Optimising the workplace – Productivity & Measurement ■ Short Interval Scheduling ■ Productivity Indices ■ Activity Sampling ■ Zero Based Budgeting ■ Work Measurement ■ Reaction Timing ■ Visual Acuity ■ Error Rate Sampling ■ Stress Symptom Scoring ■ Visual Acuity - flicker fusion ■ Skin Temperature ■ Skin Resistance ■ Heart Rate ■ Reaction Timing ■ Brain Wave Pattern In a study conducted by Dr. Virginia Lahr of Washington State University, Pullman, Wash., subject reaction times to a computer program were 12% faster when plants were present
  28. 28. 45.0% 50.0% 55.0% 60.0% 65.0% 70.0% 75.0% 80.0% 85.0% 90.0% 95.0% 100.0% 105.0% 110.0% CALLS PER DAY 100.0% 103.7% 103.6% 104.1% 104.0% 104.0% 102.7% 101.3% 102.2% 105.4% 106.40% HANDLING TIME 100.0% 98.9% 98.7% 98.0% 97.4% 96.9% 97.3% 98.6% 99.3% 99.1% 98.70% SICK DAYS 100.0% 81.7% 73.6% 56.1% 49.5% 49.9% 53.4% 55.7% 60.5% 58.1% 51.20% Base June- Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun (Severe Air Conditioning problems) Optimising the workplace – Productivity & Measurement BT Kingstanding pilot project showing productivity indicators demonstrating the combined effect of polarized lighting, air ionization and EMR protection over a 3 month moving average (Rise in sick days due to failure to change A/C filters as scheduled)
  29. 29. Optimising the workplace – Benefits ■ Higher Productivity (+ 20%) ■ Fewer errors ■ Fewer stress symptoms ( - 80%) ■ Less absence ■ Higher morale ■ Better staff, management ■ Improved customer relations Optimising the environment at Walsall Councils recent Model Office project, reduced absenteeism by over 50%, improved productivity by over 25% and increased customer satisfaction from 35 to 85% with a ROI of 12 months Completion of Model Office Project Phase 2 Completion of Model Office Project Phase 1
  30. 30. Optimising the workplace – Walsall Council The new office space is excellent; Our staff have really embraced the change. People are even saying they don’t want to go home Sharon Carter Walsall Council
  31. 31. Optimising the workplace – EC Harris HQ ■ Staff attrition down by 20% ■ Revenue growth up by 17.4% ■ Net margin 23% improvement ■ Staff satisfaction with the environment up 20% ■ Staff satisfaction with facilities up 14%
  32. 32. Thank You

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