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Sustainable Architecture Design


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Presentation from JAOO 09 Australia on how to design software architectures to maxmise sustainable outcomes by limiting power and resource usage. Uses the Virtualisation Maturity Model (see Architecture Journal edition 18).

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Sustainable Architecture Design

  1. 1. Sustainable Architecture Design Kevin Francis Object Consulting
  2. 2. What this is all about ...
  3. 3. Agenda  The case for Sustainable Architecture Design  Finding improvements through design  Finding improvements through development  Finding improvements through architecture  The virtualisation maturity model  Conclusion
  4. 4. Where does the carbon come from? Carbon Emissions Energy Other
  5. 5. Who’s bad? 6 5 4 Airline Industry 3 IT Industry 2 IT Industry 1 Airline Industry 0 % of Carbon Growth Emmissions
  6. 6. Life cycle emissions of a computer
  7. 7. Facts  Power costs for each server are now greater than the cost of the server – Google.  Running a computer is worth 4x the CO2 emissions of building it, each year.  Building a computer is 10x less effective on CO2 emissions than white goods.
  8. 8. The wake-up call
  9. 9. So where are we now?  Architecture is directly related to power consumption  This stuff matters now and will matter more and more  Applications have never been designed efficiently until now  It isn’t that hard – we just haven’t thought about it before
  10. 10. Design
  11. 11. Finding improvements through design  Inefficient processes  Wasted travel: • Reduce deliveries and flights • Enable telecommuting • An exponential effect...  Wasted paperwork  Unnecessary filing  Build the total cost of operations into the business case  Design systems to remove inefficiencies
  12. 12. Development
  13. 13. Support the OS and hardware  Don’t stop sleep mode.  Restore gracefully from sleep mode.  Don’t hog the network, disk or processor – allow for graceful power-down  Even support wake-up on interrupt  Principle: Support power saving mode:
  14. 14. Data matters too  Disks need power  Online data needs disks  Principle: Store as little data as possible.  Principle: Include data archiving in application design.
  15. 15. Code efficiency matters  CPU cycles = power  Use multi-threading!  Applications need to play together nicely  The Windows 7 example!  Principle: Design, develop, and test to maximize the efficiency of code
  16. 16. Architecture The Virtualisation Maturity Model
  17. 17. Let’s be friends   The power realities of CPU usage and hardware  Step 1: Consolidate applications by function  Step 2: Consolidate applications by server  Step 3: Consolidate shared services  Enterprise Architecture does save money!  Component reuse does have a real purpose after all.
  18. 18. Level 1 - Principles  Principle: Develop a plan to rationalize your applications and platform portfolio first.  Principle: Consolidate applications together onto a minimum number of servers.
  19. 19. The Case for Virtualisation  Virtualisation can save hardware on paper.  In real life it is more complicated...  Perform consolidation first!  Carefully design the virtual environment.  Move consolidated machines to virtual servers.  Group applications by: • Usage • Availability by time • Availability by business need
  20. 20. Level 2: Principles  Principle: Consolidate before virtualisation.  Principle: Virtualise for efficiency, not for the sake of it.
  21. 21. The Brighter Shade of Green: The Cloud  Clouds come in many flavours: • Software as a Service (SaaS) • Software + Services (S+S) • Cloud Platforms  Clouds come in shades of green: • Virtualised platforms (Amazon) • Cloud Platforms (Azure and Google)
  22. 22. Making sure your Cloud has a Green Lining  Things to look for: • Compute platforms are better than virtualised • Match need to platform: architecture • Select vendor by green credentials: data centre location, power sources  The rest of the model still applies to Cloud  What isn’t Green: • “Private Clouds” • Local Hosting
  23. 23. Level 3: Principles  Principle: Use SaaS for commodity services  Principle: Re-use S+S Services where possible  Principle: Don’t virtualise new applications  Principle: Pragmatically move applications to the Cloud  Principle: Choose cloud vendors by green credentials
  24. 24. The Virtualisation Maturity Model
  25. 25. Q & (hopefully) A Object Consulting operates a Sustainability Practices with solutions including Sustainable Architecture Design Kevin Francis