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Ions & periodicity

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Ions & periodicity

  1. 1. 1 Periodic Trend of Ionic Charges 18 2 13 14 15 16 17 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12+1 +/- 4 tend to have +2 -2 +3 -1 -3 more than one option +3 + 3 or + 4
  2. 2. Trends when atoms form IonsEmpirical Observation“when forming ions, elements tend to lose or gainelectrons to be more like the nearest noble gas”
  3. 3. Trends when atoms form IonsEmpirical Observation“when forming ions, elements tend to lose or gainelectrons to be more like the nearest noble gas”Metals tend to lose e-’s
  4. 4. Trends when atoms form IonsEmpirical Observation“when forming ions, elements tend to lose or gainelectrons to be more like the nearest noble gas”Metals tend to lose e-’s Nonmetals tend to gain e-’s
  5. 5. Atomic RadiusDefinition: Half the distanceacross a neutral atom
  6. 6. Atomic Radius Definition: Half the distance across a neutral atomRadius decreases across a period
  7. 7. Atomic Radius Definition: Half the distance across a neutral atomRadius decreases across a period  The electrons are pulled in tighter as the # of protons increases
  8. 8. Atomic Radius Definition: Half the distance across a neutral atomRadius decreases across a period  The electrons are pulled in tighter as the # of protons increasesRadius increases down a group
  9. 9. Atomic Radius Definition: Half the distance across a neutral atomRadius decreases across a period  The electrons are pulled in tighter as the # of protons increasesRadius increases down a group  Each row on the periodic table adds a “shell” or energy level to the atom. This makes atoms larger with each added shell, just like an onion
  10. 10. Atomic Radius of Diatomic Molecules
  11. 11. Relative Size of Atoms
  12. 12. Ionic Radius Definition: Half the distance across an IonCationsAnions
  13. 13. Ionic Radius Definition: Half the distance across an Ion  Positively charged ions formed whenCations an atom of a metal loses one or more electronsAnions
  14. 14. Ionic Radius Definition: Half the distance across an Ion  Positively charged ions formed whenCations an atom of a metal loses one or more electrons  Smaller than the neutral atomAnions
  15. 15. Ionic Radius Definition: Half the distance across an Ion  Positively charged ions formed whenCations an atom of a metal loses one or more electrons  Smaller than the neutral atom  Negatively charged ions formed when nonmetal atoms gain oneAnions or more electrons
  16. 16. Ionic Radius Definition: Half the distance across an Ion  Positively charged ions formed whenCations an atom of a metal loses one or more electrons  Smaller than the neutral atom  Negatively charged ions formed when nonmetal atoms gain oneAnions or more electrons  Larger than the neutral atom
  17. 17. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size
  18. 18. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals
  19. 19. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size MetalsGroup 1
  20. 20. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Group 1 Li152Na186 K227
  21. 21. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Group 1 e Li152Na186 K227
  22. 22. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Group 1 e Li Li+152 60Na186 K227
  23. 23. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Group 1 e Li Li+152 60 eNa186 K227
  24. 24. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Group 1 e Li Li+152 60 e Na+Na 95186 K227
  25. 25. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Group 1 e Li Li+152 60 e Na+Na 95186 e K227
  26. 26. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Group 1 e Li Li+152 60 e Na+Na 95186 e K+ K 133227
  27. 27. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Group 1 Group 13 e Li Li+152 60 e e e e Na+ Al3+Na Al 95 143 50186 e K+ K 133227
  28. 28. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Group 1 Group 13 e Li Li+152 60 e e e e Na+ Al3+Na Al 95 143 50186 e K+ K 133227Cations are smaller than parent atoms
  29. 29. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Nonmetals Group 1 Group 13 e Li Li+152 60 e e e e Na+ Al3+Na Al 95 143 50186 e K+ K 133227Cations are smaller than parent atoms
  30. 30. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Nonmetals Group 1 Group 13 Group 17 e Li Li+152 60 e e e e Na+ Al3+Na Al 95 143 50186 e K+ K 133227Cations are smaller than parent atoms
  31. 31. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Nonmetals Group 1 Group 13 Group 17 e Li Li+ F152 60 64 e e e e Na+ Al3+Na Al Cl 95 143 50 99186 e K+ K Br 114 133227Cations are smaller than parent atoms
  32. 32. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Nonmetals Group 1 Group 13 Group 17 e e Li Li+ F F-152 60 64 e 136 e e e Na+ Al3+Na Al Cl 95 143 50 99186 e K+ K Br 114 133227Cations are smaller than parent atoms
  33. 33. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Nonmetals Group 1 Group 13 Group 17 e e Li Li+ F F-152 60 64 e 136 e e e e Na+ Al3+Na Al Cl Cl- 95 143 50 99186 181 e K+ K Br 114 133227Cations are smaller than parent atoms
  34. 34. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Nonmetals Group 1 Group 13 Group 17 e e Li Li+ F F-152 60 64 e 136 e e e e Na+ Al3+Na Al Cl Cl- 95 143 50 99186 181 e e K+ K Br Br- 114 133 195227Cations are smaller than parent atoms
  35. 35. Trends in Atomic and Ionic Size Metals Nonmetals Group 1 Group 13 Group 17 e e Li Li+ F F-152 60 64 e 136 e e e e Na+ Al3+Na Al Cl Cl- 95 143 50 99186 181 e e K+ K Br Br- 114 133 195227Cations are smaller than parent atoms Anions are larger than parent atoms
  36. 36. Periodic Properties
  37. 37. Periodic Properties• How does the size of an atom change when electrons are added or removed?
  38. 38. Periodic Properties• How does the size of an atom change when electrons are added or removed? As an Atom loses1 or more electrons(becomes positive), it loses an orbit or energy level andtherefore, its radius decreases.
  39. 39. Periodic Properties• How does the size of an atom change when electrons are added or removed?
  40. 40. Periodic Properties• How does the size of an atom change when electrons are added or removed? As an Atom gains1 or more electrons(negative), it fills its outermost energy level, therefore, its radius increases.
  41. 41. Electron ShieldingCORE electrons arecloser to the nucleusand therefore have astronger attraction tothe positive nucleus.This “shields”valence electronsfrom feeling asstrong of a pull fromthe positive nucleus.
  42. 42. Effective Nuclear Charge
  43. 43. Effective Nuclear Charge • In atoms with many electrons, electrons are both attracted to the nucleus and repelled by other electrons.
  44. 44. Effective Nuclear Charge • In atoms with many electrons, electrons are both attracted to the nucleus and repelled by other electrons. • Opposite charges attract. Like charges repel.
  45. 45. Effective Nuclear Charge • In atoms with many electrons, electrons are both attracted to the nucleus and repelled by other electrons. • Opposite charges attract. Like charges repel. • The nuclear charge that an electron experiences depends on how close it is to the nucleus and how many other electrons are around it.
  46. 46. Effective Nuclear Charge
  47. 47. Isoelectronic SeriesEXAMPLES:1. Na+ = 10 e Ne = 10 e F- = 10 e2. P-3 = 18 e Ca+2 = 18 e Ar = 18 e
  48. 48. Isoelectronic Series •Atoms and Ions with the SAME # of electronsEXAMPLES:1. Na+ = 10 e Ne = 10 e F- = 10 e2. P-3 = 18 e Ca+2 = 18 e Ar = 18 e
  49. 49. ElectronegativityDefinition: The ability of an atom to attract or holdonto electrons
  50. 50. ElectronegativityDefinition: The ability of an atom to attract or holdonto electrons o Electronegativity INCREASES across a period
  51. 51. ElectronegativityDefinition: The ability of an atom to attract or holdonto electrons o Electronegativity INCREASES across a period o WHY? As the atomic radius decreases, electrons get closer to the atom’s nucleus
  52. 52. ElectronegativityDefinition: The ability of an atom to attract or holdonto electrons o Electronegativity INCREASES across a period o WHY? As the atomic radius decreases, electrons get closer to the atom’s nucleus o Electronegativity tends to DECREASE down a group
  53. 53. ElectronegativityDefinition: The ability of an atom to attract or holdonto electrons o Electronegativity INCREASES across a period o WHY? As the atomic radius decreases, electrons get closer to the atom’s nucleus o Electronegativity tends to DECREASE down a group o WHY? As the atomic radius increases, electrons are farther from the atom’s nucleus
  54. 54. Periodic Trend:Electronegativity
  55. 55. Ionization Energy
  56. 56. Ionization Energy• Amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom.
  57. 57. Ionization Energy• Amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom. First ionization energy is that energy required to remove first electron.
  58. 58. Ionization Energy• Amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom. First ionization energy is that energy required to remove first electron. Second ionization energy is that energy required to remove second electron, etc.
  59. 59. Trends in First Ionization Energies
  60. 60. Trends in First Ionization Energies • Down a GROUP, ionization energy decreases • For atoms in the same group, Zeff is essentially the same, but the valence electrons are farther from the nucleus. • Across a PERIOD, ionization energy increases

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