Introduction to Robotics   Prof A S Rao Robotics & CAD/CAM Laboratory  Mechanical Engineering Department  VEERMATA JIJABAI...
Outline <ul><li>What is Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>Robot Coordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Laws of Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>...
What is Robotics: <ul><li>Robotics is an interdisciplinary subject that benefits from mechanical engineering, electrical a...
What is a Robot : <ul><li>When we compare a crane attached to a utility or towing vehicle and robot manipulator which  app...
What is a Robot : Definition : <ul><li>The Automatic progrmmable machines which does the required  job  through various pr...
Classification of Robots: <ul><li>Drive Technology  </li></ul><ul><li>Work Envelope/Coordinate Geometry </li></ul><ul><li>...
I. Drive Technology: <ul><li>Motors are part of any robot system they produce spatial displacement and control axis motion...
1. Electrical drive technology: <ul><li>Most Robotic manipulators today use electric drives in the form of either D.C.Serv...
2. Hydraulic drive technology: <ul><li>Robotic manipulator which uses oil/liquid/gel as a drive technology. We use it for ...
3. Pneumatic drive technology: It is used as  at the gripper for manipulating delicate objects,  e.g. used in glass indust...
II. Work Envelope/Coordinate Geometry : Work Envelope is defined as locus of points in 3 Dimensional space that can be rea...
III. Motion Control Methods : <ul><li>Point to Point motion :  The discrete points are specified, the tool moves in a sequ...
Robot Components : <ul><li>Main components are : </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulator :  Main body (Links, Joints etc) </li></ul>...
Degree of Freedom (DOF) : <ul><li>The no. of independent movements a robot can perform in 3D space. (or) Direction in whic...
Robot Joints :  <ul><li>Robots may have types of joints like,  </li></ul><ul><li>Linear (Prismatic):  Either hydraulic or ...
Robot  Coordinates :  <ul><li>Robot configurations are specified by a succession of  </li></ul><ul><li>P’s, R’s or S’s lik...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Robot motions are accomplished in 3 coordinate frames like, </li></ul><ul><li>World Reference Frame :  Defined by ...
 
Programming Modes :  <ul><li>Commonly used Programming Modes : </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Setup:  In this mode operator se...
Robot  Characteristics : <ul><li>Payload :  It  is the weight a robot can carry with out losing accuracy, Typical values 6...
Robot WorkSpace : <ul><li>Depending on their configuration and size of their links and joints robot can reach a collection...
Robot Languages : <ul><li>Many robot languages are based on Cobol, Basic, C and Fortran etc </li></ul><ul><li>Other langua...
Robot Applications : <ul><li>Machine Loading </li></ul><ul><li>Pick and Place operations </li></ul><ul><li>Welding </li></...
Text  Books : <ul><li>Fundamentals of Robotics - T.C. Manjunath </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics and Control - R.K.Mittal/I J Na...
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Industrial Robotics Chap 01 Fundamentals

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Industrial Robotics Chap 01 Fundamentals

  1. 1. Introduction to Robotics Prof A S Rao Robotics & CAD/CAM Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Department VEERMATA JIJABAI TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE MUMBAI-400019
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>What is Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>Robot Coordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Laws of Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>Robot Reference Frames </li></ul><ul><li>What is a Robot </li></ul><ul><li>Programming Modes </li></ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Robot Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Robot Components </li></ul><ul><li>Robot Workspace </li></ul><ul><li>Robot DOF </li></ul><ul><li>Robot languages </li></ul><ul><li>Robot Joints </li></ul><ul><li>Robot Applications </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Robotics: <ul><li>Robotics is an interdisciplinary subject that benefits from mechanical engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, computer science, biology and many other disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics is defined as that branch of engineering which deals with the study of different types of robots, their simulations, their designs, their constructions, operations, performance etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics is a form of Industrial Automation and is a technology with a future and a technology for the future </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is a Robot : <ul><li>When we compare a crane attached to a utility or towing vehicle and robot manipulator which appears to be very similar because : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both posses a number of links attached serially to each other with joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In both the systems, the hand of the manipulator can be moved in space and be placed in any desired location with in the workspace of the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each one is controlled by a central controller which controls the actuators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However one is called a robot and the other a manipulator (i.e. a crane) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fundamental difference between the two is that the crane is controlled by a human who operates and controls the actuators, whereas a robot manipulator is controlled by a computer that runs a program. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is a Robot : Definition : <ul><li>The Automatic progrmmable machines which does the required job through various programmed motions </li></ul><ul><li>According to RIA: A robot is a reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to move various objects, tools, materials or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of variety of tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Law of Japan states that a robot is “All purpose machine equipped with a memory device (for handling) capable of replacing human labour for the automatic performance of tasks” </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Schilling defines a robot as “a software controlled mechanical device that uses sensors to guide one or more of its end effectors through various programmed motions in a work space in order to manipulate physical objects” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Classification of Robots: <ul><li>Drive Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Work Envelope/Coordinate Geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Motion Control Methods </li></ul>
  7. 7. I. Drive Technology: <ul><li>Motors are part of any robot system they produce spatial displacement and control axis motions of the robot. Based on power used to drive the joints of the robot the 3 drive technologies are : </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical drive technology </li></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic drive technology </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumatic drive technology </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1. Electrical drive technology: <ul><li>Most Robotic manipulators today use electric drives in the form of either D.C.Servomotors or D.C.Stepped motors </li></ul><ul><li>D.C.Servomotors : More controllability for precision work (neat/precise) </li></ul><ul><li>D.C.Stepped motors : Load carrying capacity is large </li></ul><ul><li>Applications : </li></ul><ul><li>PCB Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>IC manufacture, etc </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2. Hydraulic drive technology: <ul><li>Robotic manipulator which uses oil/liquid/gel as a drive technology. We use it for very heavy load carrying capacity purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation : Cleanliness will not be maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: </li></ul><ul><li>In steel industry for carrying molten steel </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile industry </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3. Pneumatic drive technology: It is used as at the gripper for manipulating delicate objects, e.g. used in glass industry. The robot operates from compressed air and they are activated tools. Limitation: Built in compliance of air, i.e. air can be compressed, creates noise while operation. Application: Used in pick and place operations in glass industry
  11. 11. II. Work Envelope/Coordinate Geometry : Work Envelope is defined as locus of points in 3 Dimensional space that can be reached by the wrist of robot. It consists of Rotary/Revolute motion about an axis and Translation motion along an axis (i.e. linear/sliding/prismatic/translate)
  12. 12. III. Motion Control Methods : <ul><li>Point to Point motion : The discrete points are specified, the tool moves in a sequence of discrete points in the workspace. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous or Controlled path motion : The end effector must follow a prescribed path in 3D space and speed of motion along the path may vary </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : PTP : Spot welding, Loading & Unloading, Pick and Place, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>CP : Spray painting, Arc welding, Grinding, etc. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Robot Components : <ul><li>Main components are : </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulator : Main body (Links, Joints etc) </li></ul><ul><li>End effector : Welding Torch, Paint spray gun etc </li></ul><ul><li>Actuators : servo motors,stepper motors,cylinders etc </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors : Vision, Touch, Speech synthesizers etc </li></ul><ul><li>Controller : receives data from PC and controls the actuators </li></ul><ul><li>Processor: calculates motions of joints@speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Software : OS, Appliaction s/w </li></ul>
  14. 14. Degree of Freedom (DOF) : <ul><li>The no. of independent movements a robot can perform in 3D space. (or) Direction in which a robot moves when a particular joint is activated </li></ul><ul><li>To fully place the object in space and also orientate it as desired we need to have six DOF. </li></ul><ul><li>A system with seven DOF does not have unique solution i.e Robot mounted on conveyor belt or mobile platform </li></ul><ul><li>In 3.5 DoF, 3 DoF are along X,Y,Z axes, and 1/2 DoF for not fully controlled movement like fully extended or retracted position of pneumatic cylinder </li></ul>
  15. 15. Robot Joints : <ul><li>Robots may have types of joints like, </li></ul><ul><li>Linear (Prismatic): Either hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder, used in Gantry, cylindrical or similar configurations </li></ul><ul><li>Rotary (Revolute) : Most such joints electrically driven either by servomotors or stepper motors </li></ul><ul><li>Spherical : They posses multiple DOF ,difficult to control they are not commonly used except in research work. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Robot Coordinates : <ul><li>Robot configurations are specified by a succession of </li></ul><ul><li>P’s, R’s or S’s like “3P3R” </li></ul><ul><li>Cartesian/Rectangular/Gantry (3P) : 3 linear joints </li></ul><ul><li>Cylindrical (R2P) : 2 prismatic and 1 revolute joints </li></ul><ul><li>Spherical (2RP) : 1 prismatic and 2 revolute joints </li></ul><ul><li>Articulated/anthropomorphic (3R) : All revolute joints, similar to a human’s arm, common for Industrial robots </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm (SCARA) : 2 revolute joints, 1 prismatic (vertical) they are very common in assembly operations </li></ul>
  17. 24. <ul><li>Robot motions are accomplished in 3 coordinate frames like, </li></ul><ul><li>World Reference Frame : Defined by X,Y,Z Axes motions simultaneously, this is universal coordinate frame. </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Reference Frame : Only one joint moves at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Reference Frame : Defined by X’,Y’,Z’ Axes motions simultaneously attached to the hand defines the motions of the hand relative to this local frame. This is very useful in robotic programming. </li></ul>Robot Reference Frames :
  18. 26. Programming Modes : <ul><li>Commonly used Programming Modes : </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Setup: In this mode operator sets up switches and hard stops along with devices like PLC’s </li></ul><ul><li>Lead Through or Teach Mode : In this mode the robot joints are moved with a teach pendant, point to point mode </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously Walk -Through Mode : In this mode the robot joints are moved simultaneously with a program, it’s a continuous mode, for example painting robots </li></ul>
  19. 27. Robot Characteristics : <ul><li>Payload : It is the weight a robot can carry with out losing accuracy, Typical values 6.6 lbs of 86 lbs Fanuc Robot LR mate. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach : Reach is the a maximum distance a robot can reach with in its work envelope (reaching dexterous points) </li></ul><ul><li>Precision (Validity) : It is defined as how accurately a specified point can be reached. Typical value 0.001 inch (resolution of robot) </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatability (Variability) : It is defined as how accurately the same position can be reached. Typical value 0.001 inch range for 100 runs (say) </li></ul>
  20. 28. Robot WorkSpace : <ul><li>Depending on their configuration and size of their links and joints robot can reach a collection of points called a WorkSpace </li></ul><ul><li>Shape of WS depends on each robot characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>WS may be found by moving each joint through its range of motions </li></ul><ul><li>Typical WS are Cartesian,Cylindrical, Spherical,Articulated etc </li></ul>
  21. 29. Robot Languages : <ul><li>Many robot languages are based on Cobol, Basic, C and Fortran etc </li></ul><ul><li>Other languages are unique and at different level from machine level to high level languages. </li></ul><ul><li>High level languages are either interpreter based or compiler based </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreter based languages execute one line of the program at time such as VAL ® and AML ® , so debugging is easier </li></ul><ul><li>Compiler based languages execute whole program at time such as AL ® and so debugging is difficult </li></ul>
  22. 30. Robot Applications : <ul><li>Machine Loading </li></ul><ul><li>Pick and Place operations </li></ul><ul><li>Welding </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection and testing </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly operations </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing like drilling, deburring, cutting etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>Medical applications </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous environments </li></ul><ul><li>Underwater,space, and remote locations </li></ul>
  23. 31. Text Books : <ul><li>Fundamentals of Robotics - T.C. Manjunath </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics and Control - R.K.Mittal/I J Nagrath </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Robotics - Saeed B. Niku </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Robotics - John J CRAIG </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics - Ashitava Ghosal </li></ul>Reference Books :

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