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English basics punctuation


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A few basic rules of punctuation

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English basics punctuation

  1. 1. English Basics Punctuation
  2. 2. Capitals A capital letter is normally used in writing: For the first letter of the first word at the beginning of a sentence For the first letter of proper nouns (Kevin), countries (Hungary), cities (Birmingham), and titles (the Champion). For the first letter of the names of days (Tuesday), months (February), festivals (Dwali). For the first letter of houses, ships, streets, newspapers, books, play-titles (King Street). For a person‟s initials (K.G.Baxter). For the word I. For the first letter of a sentence inside inverted commas. At the beginning of each line of a poem.
  3. 3. Commas Commas are used in a sentence to mark a pause (He hit the ball, not a run was scored). “And” may take the place of a comma (In my pocket I have a penny, a penknife and a handkerchief).
  4. 4. Full stops A full stop is used at the end of a sentence, unless the sentence calls for a question mark (?) or an exclamation mark (!). It is also used after initials (K.G.Baxter) and after abbreviations (Feb. 2nd).
  5. 5. Exclamation marks An exclamation mark is used after expressions of surprise, motion, fear and delight: Oh! Ah! Look! Hurrah! What a superb goal Giggs scored at Highbury! I did not know you were here! How fierce she looks!
  6. 6. Question marks A question mark is always placed at the end of a question. What are you doing? But a question mark is not used in: I asked them what they were doing.
  7. 7. Apostrophes An apostrophe is a mark (‘ ) used to indicate. the possessive case the omission of a letter or letters If the word does not end in s, add „s: The book of the boy – the boy‟s book The book of the children – the children‟s books If the word ends in s and is singular, add „s: The book of Charles – Charles‟s book If the word ends is s and is plural, add „: The book of the girls – the girls books Link
  8. 8. Quotation marks (inverted commas) Words quoted are put into quotation marks. The boy said, “He has the book”. Note the comma before the quotation mark and that since the words inside the marks form a sentence, the first letter is a capital letter. Titles are put into quotation marks: I have read “David Copperfield”. Link
  9. 9. The Semicolon (or semi-colon) is simply a break in a sentence that is stronger than a comma but not as final as a full stop. They are especially useful for separating items in a list or linking two closely related statements. are met: I watched that new film about Giraffes; I didn‟t like it. I did not catch the bus home; instead, I decided to walk. Jonny Thunder thought his new song was the band‟s best yet; however, all the other band members disagreed.
  10. 10. The Colon The colon is used to provide a pause before introducing related information. There are three cities in the West Midlands: Birmingham, Coventry and Wolverhampton. There are many things we can see in the night sky: stars, planets, the moon and even comets. We had to organise a gig: so many people wanted to see the band. After a few weeks together, Sarah came to her conclusion: Robert wasn‟t exciting enough for her.
  11. 11. Hyphen The sign (-) used to join words to indicate that they have a combined meaning or that they are linked in the grammar of a sentence