The Main IdeaIn 1933 Franklin Delano Roosevelt became president of a suffering nation. He quickly sought to address the country’s needs, with mixed results.
A Political Partnership Franklin Roosevelt Eleanor Roosevelt Appealing blend of “Eyes and ears” of her cheerfulness, optimism, and husband confidence Directed efforts to solve An effective communicator several major social issues (ex. fireside chats) (ex. lynching of African Americans) A reform-minded Democrat Wrote her own newspaper Believed the government column could solve economic and social problems Had the trust and affection of many Americans
IX. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt Creates model for the active first lady Activist, especially for Blacks and women Real concern for the poor FDR’s “eyes and legs” Reputation for being constantly on the go
Franklin Roosevelt as President Banking Crisis Hundred Days Beyond the Hundred Days• Temporarily • Critical period of closed all the government • FDR and nation’s banks to activity Congress passed stop panic and • Roosevelt pushed important large-scale Congress to put legislation after withdrawals most of his New the Hundred Days• Passed the Deal into • Created the Civil Emergency practice. Works Banking Act • The New Deal Administration• Glass-Steagall Act promised relief, • Passed the Indian created the FDIC recovery and Reorganization reforms. Act
• FDR gatheredinformation frommany economicexperts, known as theBrain Trust, on howto fight thedepression.
• Roosevelt declared a “bank holiday”, closing every bank inthe nation for eight days.
Fireside Chats• FDR gave radio speeches to the nation, which becameknown as fireside chats. FDR’s first fireside chat on the bank crisis. (March 12, 1933)
Fireside chat #15 On National Defense, May 26, 1940
• Congress thenpassed theEmergency Banking R, which only allowedbanks to open if theyhad enough funds topay their depositors.FDR signing theEmergency BankingRelief Act into law.
The New Deal• FDR developed manynew bills that createdprograms to help end theGreat Depression.• These programs wereknown as the New Deal.
II. plans for I. Relief for the economic unemployed Recovery The New Deal had three major goals:3 R’s III. Reforms to prevent another depression
The New Deal Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Helped unemployed young men 18 to 25 years old Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA) Helped farmers by paying them not to grow crops National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) Helped business by requiring that businesses in the same industry cooperate with each other to set prices and output Federal Securities Act Helped investors, restored confidence in the markets Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Helped build dams and other projects along the Tennessee River and its tributaries
CCC Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC—spring, 1933) Tree Army Male 18-25 Unmarried Physically fit $30 month (keep $5) Run by Army
Worker During BridgeConstructionStaatsburg, NY Elm Tree Camp Euclid, OH September, 1936
AAA Agr. Adj Act Part of Alphabet Soup Paid farmers to not grow things Controlled what was grown and at what price Schechter Poultry v. US Unconstitutional
National Industrial Recovery Act National Recovery Administration (NRA —1933) National recovery administration Sets prices of goods and output Unconstitutional
SSA 1935 Social Security Act Bi-monthly payments Myth of poor being lazy exposed 13 weeks of unemployment insurance Pension fund for retired people over 65 Funds also for disabled and single parent families Response to more radical schemes
WPA 1935-1943 Works Progress Administration 8 million Americans Constructed or repaired Schools Hospitals Airfields Culture FWp- fed. Writers Proj. FTP- Fed. Theater Proj. FAP-Fed. Arts Proj.
Workers covering the stream in Cain Park, Cleveland Park, OHEdward Laning andassistants at work on hismural “The Role of theImmigrant in the IndustrialDevelopment of America” –New York, NY
Art of the Great Depression Painters and sculptors fashioned works depicting the struggles of the working class. Authors and playwrights focused on the plight of the rural and urban poor. Writer John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath Songwriter Woody Guthrie celebrated the lives of ordinary people. Writer James Agee’s Let Us Now Praise Famous Men Photographers Dorothea Lange recorded images of jobless people and the rural poor. Walker Evans depicted the lives of sharecroppers in the Lower South.
FDIC Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. Protects deposits Exists today 100,000, now 250k
Ms. Lydia Lobsiger, the firstperson to be paid for depositsin an insured closed bank.
Perhaps the most ambitious undertaking of the New Deal, the TVA was a comprehensive federal agency created in 1933 for the economic development of the Tennessee River watershed. The TVA built twenty dams to control flooding, generate hydroelectrical power, increase agricultural production, and revitalize the Tennessee Valley region. The TVA also provided jobs, low-cost housing, reforestation and other services.
Building Big Ridge Dam Lights for the Barnyard (TN) (TN)
REA- 1935 Rural electrification Administration Only 10% of farms had electricity Too expensive for private companies Dams used to create cheap electricity in isolated regions
FLSA- 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act (1938) --minimum wage: 40 cents --prohibition of child labor --maximum work week of 40 hours
NLRA National Labor Relations Act. AKA- Wagner Act. Union member have the right to: Strike Collectively bargain Closed shops Creates NLRB(oard) to enforce its provisions.
The New Deal Revives Organized LaborThe Wagner act allowed the creation of the CIOThe Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) was born in 1935. John L. Lewis led this group to break away from the American Federation of Labor (AFL). The United Auto Workers (a division of the CIO) launched a successful sit-down strike in 1936.
Trouble for the New DealRadical Reactions to the New Deal• Believed the New Deal did not go far enough in reforming the economy• Wanted a complete overhaul of capitalism• Huey P. Long, Father Charles Coughlin, Dr. Francis TownsendConservative Reactions to the New Deal• Attacked the New Deal as a radical break with traditional American ideals• Thought the New Deal would drive the country to destruction.• American Liberty League
Leading Critics of the New Deal Huey P. Long (senator from Louisiana) Believed Roosevelt’s policies were too friendly to banks and businessmen (started the Share Our Wealth Society) Father Charles Coughlin (the “radio priest”) Believed Roosevelt was not doing enough to curb the power of bankers and financial leaders Dr. Francis Townsend Criticized the New Deal for not doing enough for older Americans (wanted pensions for people over 60) The American Liberty League Believed that the New Deal went too far and was anti-business Opposition from the courts Critics of the New Deal feared that it gave the president too much power over other branches of government. Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States United States v. Butler
The Court-Packing Plan Roosevelt’s Plan The Result Gave the president power to Plan did not pass; however, appoint many new judges the Supreme Court made and expand the Supreme some rulings that favored Court by up to six judges New Deal legislation. Roosevelt argued that Supreme Court upheld a changes were needed to minimum wage law in make the courts more Washington state. efficient. Court ruled in favor of a key Most observers saw plan as element of the Wagner Act. effort to “pack” the court with friendly justices. Court declared Social Security plan to be constitutional.
XVI. Roosevelt’s Second Term(1937-1941) Election of 1936 FDR vs. Alf Landon (R-Kan) Biggest landslide since 1820 The “Roosevelt Recession” of 1937-1938 Harsh CIO strikes
The Election of 1936 Roosevelt His Critics The Results• Passed the Rural • Republicans argued • A tremendous Electrification Act, that the New Deal victory for which provided was overly Roosevelt electricity to bureaucratic and • Alf Landon carried millions of farmers was creating a only two states.• Showcased his planned economy. • The Union Party achievements: • American Liberty candidate polled unemployment cut League tried to less than 2 percent in half, income and stop Roosevelt’s of the popular business earnings attack on big vote. were up, New Deal business. programs provided • The Democrats • Republican Alf hope and help again gained seats Landon did not in both houses.• Spoke out against pose a serious big business threat.
Economic Downturn of 1937The Nation’s Economy• 1937 witnessed an economic downturn that began with a sharp drop in the stock market. By the end of the year, about 2 million Americans had lost their jobs.• Roosevelt had hoped to cut back on government spending, for he feared the growing federal budget deficit.• As unemployment rose during 1937 and 1938, the government spent large sums of money to help the unemployed.Economic Theory• British economist John Maynard Keynes argued that deficit spending could provide jobs and stimulate the economy.• The economy did begin to rebound in the summer of 1938.
New Roles for Women Women Roosevelt promoted and recognized women. Frances Perkins – Secretary of Labor – was the first woman to head an executive office. Ruth Bryan Owen served as minister to Denmark. Roosevelt appointed women to such posts as director of the U.S. Mint and assistant secretary of the Treasury. Women served as leaders in several New Deal agencies. Still, women faced challenges and discrimination. Lower wages Less opportunities Hostility in the workplace
New Roles for African Americans Roosevelt’s administration also appointed many African Americans. William Hastie became the first black federal judge. A group of African Americans hired to fill government posts were known as the Black Cabinet, and they served as unofficial advisors to the president. The Black Cabinet met under the leadership of Mary McLeod Bethune, director of Negro Affairs in the National Youth Administration. Still, African Americans continued to face tremendous hardships during the 1930s. Severe discrimination Thousands of African American sharecroppers and tenant farmers were not helped by New Deal programs. Southern Democrats in Congress opposed efforts to aid African Americans. Many African American switch from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party during the 1930s.
The Impact of the New Deal The New Deal promised relief, recovery, and reform. Relief programs put billions of dollars into the pockets of poor Americans. The New Deal was less successful in delivering economic recovery. New Deal reforms were successful and long-lasting. The New Deal changed the link between the American people and their government. Roosevelt believed that government could help businesses and individuals achieve a greater level of economic security. The New Deal required a much bigger government. Americans now began to look regularly to government for help.
The Impact of the New Deal Relief Recovery Reform• Millions of • Not as successful • More successful Americans at economic and long-lasting enjoyed some recovery • FDIC restored form of help. • Unemployment public confidence• Direct relief or remained high. in the nation’s jobs that • Some critics banks. provided a argued that • SEC restored steady paycheck Roosevelt public confidence• Programs such needed the in stock markets. as Social support of big • New Deal left Security and business. thousands of unemployment • Other critics said roadways, insurance that the New bridges, dams, became a fixture Deal didn’t spend public buildings, of government. enough money. and works of art.
Limits of the New DealRelief programs gave aid to millions of people, but they werenot meant to be a permanent solution to joblessness. Also,they did not provide jobs to everyone who needed one.The level of government assistance varied by state. Forexample, a family needing assistance in Massachusetts mightreceive $60 per month, while a family in Arkansas might get $8.New Deal programs permitted discrimination against AfricanAmericans, Hispanic Americans, women, and others.
The End of the New Deal • Setbacks such as the court-packing fight and the 1937 economic downturn gave power to anti-New Deal senators. Weakening • Opposition in Congress made passing New Deal Support legislation more difficult. Only one piece passed in 1938: the Fair Labor Standards Act (which set up a minimum wage). • Roosevelt tried to influence voters in the South during 1938 the congressional elections of 1938; however his candidates lost. Elections • The Republicans made gains in the both houses. • Roosevelt lacked the congressional support he needed to pass New Deal laws. • The New Deal ended in 1938. After the New Deal • Americans turned their attention to the start of WWII.