CEMENT
 INTRODUCTION






Cement is a binder,a substance that sets and
hardends independenly,and can bind other
materials to...




Hydraulic cements (e.g., Portland cement)
harden because of hydration, a chemical
reaction between the anhydrous cem...
 HISTORY




The word cement has come from the roman word
‘opus caementicium’
1824-Portland Cement Invented
Joseph Asp...
 3000

BC-Egyptian Pyramids

 The Egyptians were
using early forms of
concrete over 5000
years ago to build
pyramids. Th...
 300 BC - 476 AD,Roman Architecture


The ancient Romans
used a material that is
remarkably close to
modern cement to bu...
 CHEMISTRY


Cement is hydraulic material which develops
strength when it reacts with water.
 It is inorganic material ...


The calcium oxide is then spent mixing it to water
to make slaked lime:
 CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2
 Once the water in exces...


Conversely, the chemistry ruling the action of the
hydraulic cement is the hydration. Hydraulic
cements (such as the Po...
 CO2 EMISSIONS


The amount of CO2 emitted by the cement
industry is nearly 900 kg of CO2 for every 1000 kg
of cement pr...
 MANUFACTURING OF CEMENT


Mixing and Crushing of raw materials



Wet process
Semi dry process
Dry process






Bu...
1. Wet process
•

In this process the kiln feed enters the kiln in the
form of a slurry with a moisture content of 30-40%....
2. Semi dry process:
•

In this process all raw materials are ground in dry
state and the resultant powder is pelletized i...
3. Dry process:
•

In this process all raw materials are ground in dry
state and the resultant powder is fed into kiln in
...
 CEMENT RAW MATERIALS


In manufacture cement five types of raw
materials are required:
1. Calcareous raw materials
2. A...
1.Calcareous raw materials:
•
1.
2.
3.
4.

Calcareous raw materials contributing mainly
calcium carbonate.
Limestone
Chalk...
2. Argillaceous raw materials:
•
1.
2.
3.
4.

Argillaceous raw material is used as supply source
of silica,alumina and iro...
3. Ferrous raw materials:
As argillaceous materials can’t supply of sufficient
Fe2O3,Ferrous raw material is used.
1. Iron...
4. Siliceous raw material:
•

In case where orgillaceous raw material supplying
insufficient Sio2 component,siliceous raw
...
5. Gypsum
1.
2.
3.


1.
2.
3.

Natural Gypsum (It is available in nature)
Synthetic or Chemical Gypsum (It is a by-produc...
 TYPES

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

As per ASTM there are 8 types of cement
and they are:
Type – I&IA*
Type – II&IIA*
Type – III&III...


What is ASTM ?

•

ASTM means American Society for testing and
materials
It is an international organization which has ...

1.
2.


1.
2.
3.
4.

What are the various cement ?
Portland cement
Blended cement

Portland cement:
Ordinary Portland C...

•

Blended cement:

Blended cements are produced by intimately and
uniformly intergriding or blending portland cement
an...

1.
2.
3.

Examples for Blended cements
Portland blast furnace slag
Portland fly ash cement
Portland masonry cement
 APPLICATIONS OF CEMENT


Type -1



Types -1 is a general purpose of portland cement
suitable for all uses where the s...


Type -II



Type -II portland cement is used where precoution
against moderate sulfate attack is important.it can
be u...


Type -III



Type -III is a high early strength portland cement
that provides high strength at an early period
usually...


Type -IV



Type-IV is a low heat of hydration cement for use
where the rate and amount of heat generated
must be mini...


Type -V



Type V portland cement is a sulfate resisting
cement.it is used only in concrete exposed to
sever sulfate a...


APPLICATION OF AIR ENTRAINING
PORTLAND CEMENTS

•

Type IA,IIA,IIIA.

•

Small quantities of air entraining materials s...
 USES OF CEMENT


Production of concrete
 Construction purpose
•
•
•
•



Building (Floors,beams,columns,roofing)
Tran...
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cement

  1. 1. CEMENT
  2. 2.  INTRODUCTION    Cement is a binder,a substance that sets and hardends independenly,and can bind other materials together. Cement is a bonding agent obtained by buring a mixture of limestone and clay together to form clinker,then pulverizing the clinker with gypsum. Cements used in construction can be characterized as being either hydraulic or nonhydraulic.
  3. 3.   Hydraulic cements (e.g., Portland cement) harden because of hydration, a chemical reaction between the anhydrous cement powder and water. Thus, they can harden underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather. The chemical reaction results in hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water. Non-hydraulic cements do not harden underwater; for example, slaked limes harden by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide.
  4. 4.  HISTORY    The word cement has come from the roman word ‘opus caementicium’ 1824-Portland Cement Invented Joseph Aspdin,a british stonemason,invented portland cement way back in 1824.With this invention,Aspdin laid the foundation of today’s cement industry.
  5. 5.  3000 BC-Egyptian Pyramids  The Egyptians were using early forms of concrete over 5000 years ago to build pyramids. They mixed mud and straw to form bricks and used gypsum and lime to make mortars.
  6. 6.  300 BC - 476 AD,Roman Architecture  The ancient Romans used a material that is remarkably close to modern cement to build many of their architectural marvels, such as the Colosseum, and the Pantheon. The Romans also used animal products in their cement as an early form of admixtures.
  7. 7.  CHEMISTRY  Cement is hydraulic material which develops strength when it reacts with water.  It is inorganic material which consists of oxides of calcium,silicon,iron,aluminum.  Non-hydraulic cement such as slaked limes (calcium hydroxide mixed with water), harden due to the reaction of carbonation in presence of the carbon dioxide naturally present in the air. Calcium oxide is produced by lime calcination at temperatures above 825 °C (1,517 °F) for about 10 hours at atmospheric pressure:  CaCO3 → CaO + CO2
  8. 8.  The calcium oxide is then spent mixing it to water to make slaked lime:  CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2  Once the water in excess from the slaked lime is completely evaporated (this process is technically called setting), the carbonation starts:  Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O  This reaction takes a significant amount of time because the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the air is small. The reaction of carbonation requires the air be in contact with the dry cement, hence, for this reason the slaked lime is a nonhydraulic cement and cannot be used under water.
  9. 9.  Conversely, the chemistry ruling the action of the hydraulic cement is the hydration. Hydraulic cements (such as the Portland cement) are made of a mixture of silicates and oxides, the four main components being: 1. Belite (2CaO·SiO2); 2. Alite (3CaO·SiO2); 3. Celite (3CaO·Al2O3); 4. Brownmillerite (4CaO·Al2O3·Fe2O3).
  10. 10.  CO2 EMISSIONS  The amount of CO2 emitted by the cement industry is nearly 900 kg of CO2 for every 1000 kg of cement produced. In the European union the specific energy consumption for the production of cement clinker has been reduced by approximately 30% since the 1970s. This reduction in primary energy requirements is equivalent to approximately 11 million tonnes of coal per year with corresponding benefits in reduction of CO2 emissions.
  11. 11.  MANUFACTURING OF CEMENT  Mixing and Crushing of raw materials  Wet process Semi dry process Dry process    Burning  Grinding
  12. 12. 1. Wet process • In this process the kiln feed enters the kiln in the form of a slurry with a moisture content of 30-40%.  Advantage with this process: 1. 2.  1. Uniform quality product can be produced. Dust emission can be reduced. Disadvantages with this process Fuel and power consumptions are very high.
  13. 13. 2. Semi dry process: • In this process all raw materials are ground in dry state and the resultant powder is pelletized into small nodules by means of 10-15% of water addition,then nodules are fed into kiln.  Advantage with this process: 1.  1. Fuel consumption is lower than the consumption of fuel in wet process. Disadvantage with this process: Fuel consumption is higher than the consumption of fuel in dry process.
  14. 14. 3. Dry process: • In this process all raw materials are ground in dry state and the resultant powder is fed into kiln in powder form.  Advantage with this process: 1. 2. 3. Fuel consumption is lower than the consumption of fuel in wet and semi dry process. Throughput of kilm is higher than the throughput of wet and semi dry process kiln. Unit cost of product can be reduced.
  15. 15.  CEMENT RAW MATERIALS  In manufacture cement five types of raw materials are required: 1. Calcareous raw materials 2. Argillaceous raw materials 3. Siliceous raw materials 4. Ferrous raw materials 5. Gypsum raw materials
  16. 16. 1.Calcareous raw materials: • 1. 2. 3. 4. Calcareous raw materials contributing mainly calcium carbonate. Limestone Chalk Marbles Seashells
  17. 17. 2. Argillaceous raw materials: • 1. 2. 3. 4. Argillaceous raw material is used as supply source of silica,alumina and iron. Shale Clay Bauxite Soil
  18. 18. 3. Ferrous raw materials: As argillaceous materials can’t supply of sufficient Fe2O3,Ferrous raw material is used. 1. Iron ore (>60% Fe2O3) 2. Laterite (High grade >45%,low grade <45%) 3. Copper slag (Around 50% Fe2O3) 4. Furnace dust •
  19. 19. 4. Siliceous raw material: • In case where orgillaceous raw material supplying insufficient Sio2 component,siliceous raw materials is used: 1. Silica sand (>85% silica) 2. Clay stone (>70%silica) 3. Granite (>85% silica)
  20. 20. 5. Gypsum 1. 2. 3.  1. 2. 3. Natural Gypsum (It is available in nature) Synthetic or Chemical Gypsum (It is a by-product in chemical/fertilizer industry) Marine Gypsum (It is available in sea shores) Gypsum is available in the mature in three forms: Gypsum di-hydrate (CaSo4.2H2O) Gypsum hemi-hydrate (CaSo4.1/2H2O) Gypsum anhydrite ( CaSo4.O.H2O)
  21. 21.  TYPES  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. As per ASTM there are 8 types of cement and they are: Type – I&IA* Type – II&IIA* Type – III&IIIA* Type – IV* Type – V*
  22. 22.  What is ASTM ? • ASTM means American Society for testing and materials It is an international organization which has been in operation for over a century The organization is specialized in developing standard for various materials • •
  23. 23.  1. 2.  1. 2. 3. 4. What are the various cement ? Portland cement Blended cement Portland cement: Ordinary Portland Cement Portland White Cement Portland Oil Well Cement Portland High Alumina Cement
  24. 24.  • Blended cement: Blended cements are produced by intimately and uniformly intergriding or blending portland cement and two or more types of fine materials such as: 1. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (It is a by product in steel industry) 2. Fly ash (By product in thermal power plants) 3. Silica fume (By product in ferrosilicon alloys) 4. Volcanic ash (Volcanic eruption) 5. Calcined clay (Burnt clag) 6. Limestone (Naturally available)
  25. 25.  1. 2. 3. Examples for Blended cements Portland blast furnace slag Portland fly ash cement Portland masonry cement
  26. 26.  APPLICATIONS OF CEMENT  Type -1  Types -1 is a general purpose of portland cement suitable for all uses where the special properties of other types are not required.It can be used for …… pavements,sidewalks,reinforced concrete buildings,bridges,railway structures,tk s,reservoirs,culverts,sewers,water pipes. 
  27. 27.  Type -II  Type -II portland cement is used where precoution against moderate sulfate attack is important.it can be used for….. Drainage structures,large piers,heavy retain walls. 
  28. 28.  Type -III  Type -III is a high early strength portland cement that provides high strength at an early period usually a week or less. It is used when forms to be removed as soon as possible or when the structure must be put into service quickly. 
  29. 29.  Type -IV  Type-IV is a low heat of hydration cement for use where the rate and amount of heat generated must be minimized. It is intended for use in massive concrete structures,such as large dams. 
  30. 30.  Type -V  Type V portland cement is a sulfate resisting cement.it is used only in concrete exposed to sever sulfate action. C3a content,generally 5% or less,is requires when high sulfate resistance is needed. 
  31. 31.  APPLICATION OF AIR ENTRAINING PORTLAND CEMENTS • Type IA,IIA,IIIA. • Small quantities of air entraining materials such as,organic substances are inter ground with the clinker.The purpose of entraining materials addition are: To resist freeze thraw action (Air entraining materials create and well distribute the tiny air bubbles in concrete).The air bubbles provide space for freezing water to expand without damaging the concrete. 1.
  32. 32.  USES OF CEMENT  Production of concrete  Construction purpose • • • •  Building (Floors,beams,columns,roofing) Transport (Roads,pathwayes,crossing,bridge) Water (Pipes,drains,canals) Agriculture (Irrigation,housing) The most important uses of cement are as an ingredient in the production of mortar in masonry, and of concrete, a combination of cement and an aggregate to form a strong building material that is durable in the face of normal environ mental effects.

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