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Vol 84 [dominant seventh workout]

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Vol 84 [dominant seventh workout]

  1. 1. VOLUME» 84 ‘/ __AM ‘ ‘ r—r. ~.. w~ ‘ F-.4.. , . r; ;W, «.mv ymwus«- : Iwn~JmaIN : ,.—a; .maN. w-r. r~«m- ; E N ‘ ‘ l l N V 1 N V l ‘ l N ‘ E ‘ l N z Hwwcix“ ! .3 . N l l N N“ . . 1 ~ W . ~ Nma. .. ,7 rw-»«~—~—- M H, N N N r. ... ... ... N 1, l 1 E J» _ g N W L i 3 3 N l t N P| ay-A-Long Book and 2 CD Set For ALL Musicians
  2. 2. CONTENTS Symbols Representing Chordslscales . ... ... ... ... . . . 2 Wann-Up Exercises: Legend . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 2 CONCERT KEY lnstfllmeflts ------------------------ -- 23 Introduction . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 3 35 instruments ----------------------------------------------- --25 Altered Tones . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 5 Eb '"5"'“"'°"t‘ """"""""""""""""""""""""""" " 27 Non-Resolving Dominants . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 7 cycIeBé‘s: c(i: 'eE: '"s"“'"°'“’ """"""""""""""""" "29 Blues Scales . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 7 CONCERT KEY mstmmems ________________________ "31 Warm-Up Exercises . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 8 Bb Instruments _______________________________________________ "36 Circle or Cycle of Fourths . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 8 Eb Instruments _______________________________________________ __ 38 Bebop scale """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" " 9 BASS CLEF Instruments . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . .40 Lydian Dominant Scale . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 10 Bebop scale paflems: Diminished Whole-Tone Scale . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 10 1-R5315 CLEF instruments _________________________ __45 Diminished Scale . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 10 3Ass CLEF instruments ______________________________ _.47 Minor Chord Substitutes for Dominants . ... ... ... .. 11 Jazz Phrases — Typical 2 and 4 Bar Phrases: II/ V7lI In Twelve Keys . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 11 TREBLE CLEF Instruments . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..49 Chromaticism . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 12 BASS CLEF Instruments . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . .51 Dominant 7th Tree of Scale Choices . ... ... ... ... .. . . 13 Jill Phfases - TYPl03| 4 and 3 33" “"3595: Piano Voicings . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 14 TREBLE CLEF '"3“'“'“°'“3 ------------------------- --53 Bass Lines . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 15 _ _ §ASs CLEF '"‘t"“"'°“t‘ """""""" "_ """""" "55 Major’ Dominant and Minor scales: Dimmzisged Whole-Tone Scale Phrases. ars Each — Treble 8. Bass clef . ... ... ... ... ... . . . 57 TREBLE CLEF Instruments . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..16 4 Bars Each _ Treble a‘ Bass clef . ... ... ... ... ... . H 58 BASS CLEF'ln. struments . -.. ._ . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 18 Diminished scale Phrases: Wh°'°‘T°"°' D'"""'sh°d' D'""""h°d wh°'°'T°"° 4 Bars Each - Treble a. Bass Clef . ... ... ... ... ... . . . 59 and Half-Diminished Scales: Typical 8 Ba, phrases: TREBLE CLEF Instruments . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 17 TREBLE CLEF mstmmems _________________________ "60 BA53 CLEF '"5t| '"m°"t9 ------------------------------ --19 Bb Instruments . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . .61 Nomenclature . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 20 Eb Instruments . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . .62 Scale Syllabus . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 21 BASS CLEF Instruments . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . .63 PLAY-A-LONG TRACKS: Play-A-Long Track Suggestions . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 64 Q Concert Key Instrument Chord Progressions and Songs . ... . ... .. 69 @ Bb Instrument Chord Progressions and Songs . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . . . 80 @Eb Instrument Chord Progressions and Songs . . . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 91 $ Bass Clef Instrument Chord Progressions and Songs . ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . 102 Graphics and Engraving by DAVID SILBERMAN Published by JAMEY AEBERSOLD JAZZ, INC. P. O. Box 1244 New Albany, IN 47151-1 244 http: I/www. jazzbooks. com c/ -a copyright 0 1999 by Jamey Aebersold Jazz, Inc. All Rights Reserved Printed in U. s.A. international Copyright secured All copyrights used by permission No portion of this book may be reproduced in any way without express permission from the publisher. 1
  3. 3. SYMBOLS REPRESENTING CHORDS AND SCALES Each symbol represents both a scale gn_d a chord. Scales are referred to as being horizontal. Qhords are vertical. Chords are derived from the scale by taking every other note and stacking them on top of one another. Traditional chords are built in thirds, intervals of either major or minor thirds. This is called tertian harmony. A minor third equals three half-steps and a major third equals four half-steps. Each symbol represents both a scale and a chord. Western music is comprised of scales gm chords. C MAJOR CHORD - VERHCAL s F G A B(3D E F(3A B c 4 5 6 7 1 9 1o 11 12 13 14 15 CHORD TONES ——-—> 5 7 9 11 c A c- HORIZONTAL NOTE: Throughout this book a 3 indicates music for treble clef concert instruments—piano, guitar, flute, violin, harmonica and other C instruments. A ® indicates music for trumpet, comet, clarinet, tenor and soprano sax. A ® indicates music for alto and baritone sax. A @ indicates music for bass, trom- bone and any other bass clef instrument. LEGEND: A = major scale/ chord. Can also mean major 7th. 7 = Lower the 7th of the scale. C7 = C dominant 7th — = minor 0 = half-diminished + = Raise 1/2 step. Also, it can mean to raise the 5th of the chord/ scale, which can indicate a whole tone scale. ll = Raise 1/2 step. I: = when in front of a number it means to lower that note 1/2 step (C759) - = Lower 1/2 step when followed by a number (C7-9) o = diminished chord or scale -A = minor 3rd/ major 7th. Example: C-A (CDEI-FGABC) +9 = When found in Aebersold books, it means the diminished whole tone scale v is the first choice scale (HWHWWWW). L9 = when found in Aebersold books, it means the diminished scale is the first choice (HWHWHWHW). -3 = minor third interval, equals 3 half-steps. H = half-step W = whole-step
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION The dominant 7th chord/ scale is a good example of music imitating life. As life is composed of tension and release (pain/ pleasure, happiness/ sadness, conflict/ resolution, yin/ yang) so is modern western harmony. When you take a major chord/ scale and lower its seventh scale tone by ‘/2 step, you suddenly create a chord with a sound that seeks to resolve somewhere. This is because the lowered 7th is now a tritone (three whole-steps) away from the third. Because tritone intervals traditionally create tension that want to resolve up or down, the dominant 7th is an inherently unstable sound. As in most chords, the third and seventh chord/ scale tones are the most important in relaying its quality. Triads built on each degree/ tone of the C Major scale 7th Chords Dom, 7th 3" 3 3 6 7 I 3rd 7th 3rd 7th The most common (and most natural) chord for a dominant 7th to resolve to is a chord whose root is up a perfect fourth from its own. For example, the G7 chord above wants to resolve to a C chord. It doesn't matter if the resolving chord (C) is major, minor, half-diminished, or another dominant 7th. As long as the root moves up a perfect fourth, the harmony seems to full-fill its intended function — tension and release. In common practice, the chord of resolution could be major, minor, dom. 7th or half-dimin- ished, but for the purpose of clarity, we’ll make the C chord a major chord in the example below: G7 C G7 C | >7 Anytime you have one chord following another, you have created a chord “progression. ” The G7 to C progression above is known as a "V7/I" progression. This is the most commonly used progression in all of Western music, followed by the II/ V7/I progression (see Volumes 3 and 16 of the Aebersold Play-A- Long series for detailed analysis of the II/ V7/I progression). In this case, G7 is the “V7” chord and C major is the "I" chord. It can also be referred to as a “dominant to tonic” progression/ relationship because the root of G7 (the dominant) is the fifth of the scale beginning on note C (the tonic). 3
  5. 5. C 9 C . 9 u. _ 9 ° 0 Q _ . .9 u 9 ° 0 o 0 3 E 9 D 9 0 J 9 0 “E 0 U 0 T L’ "— ‘D’ 9 ° 9 D 9 G7 scale built on 5th note of a major scale. G7 scale bum on 5", note 0, . map, Walt When playing a G7 to C chord progression, we quickly realize the strongest resolution is between the 7th note of the G7 (F) to the 3rd note of the C major (E). This is the strongest and most common resolution in the V7/I progression. The reason the note F has strong and natural release to the E is because: A. The F (7th note of the G7 chord) has inherently more tension than any other note in the G7, as explained above, so its resolution to a chord tone of the next chord gives the greatest “re- lease. ” B. The ‘/2 step distance between the F and E offers a smooth resolution to the next chord. The second strongest resolution between the G7 and C major chords is the 3rd note of the G7 chordl scale (B) to the root of the C major chord/ scale (C). Again, the distance between the B and C is a ‘/2 step, giving us a smooth, natural resolution. ' When a soloist emphasizes roots, 3rds and 7ths, the listener can easily tell what key is being outlined or implied and where the musical line or phrase is going harmonically. Professional jazz musicians as well as early musicians such as Bach and Beethoven knew this all important aspect of our harmony and thus emphasized those notes in their compositions and their improvised solos. V7 to I forms an impor- tant part of our musical heritage and language. It's a prominent musical building block. When we sing, we tend to emphasize these notes naturally. Jazz musicians have always experimented with harmony and early on reached the stage where domi- nant 7th chord/ scales didn’t necessarily have to resolve up a perfect 4th. For instance, a G7 chord which normally resolves to C might resolve anywhere - to Ab7, Bb7, F-7, Eb or any other chord/ scale. The traditional rules were broken long ago although musicians play hundreds of songs with chord progressions containing the traditional V7 to I chord movement and this still provides plenty of excite- ment and challenge both melodically and harmonically. This play-a—| ong set provides a variety of root sequences. Many of the recorded tracks go through all twelve keys. The first twelve tracks are static with each track staying in one key. I recommend playingl practicing/ improvising with several or all of the first twelve tracks first. This will allow your fingers and mind to become well acquainted with the sound of each note of the scale and its relation to the other notes in the scale. Pay particular attention to the sound of the 3rd and the 7th of each scale. As stated earlier, those two notes best express the dominant 7th sound quality. The way you treat these two notes will, in part, be the measure or standard of your musicianship that others hear. Harmonically, it will represent a large part of your musical personality. The exercises, patterns and jazz licks or phrases that I've written in this book are for becoming better acquainted with the dominant 7th chord/ scales. They represent musical ideas that have been practiced and played by the pros and amateurs alike. They are part and parcel of the overall jazz language. I encourage you to make up your own original musical ideas, too. Write them in a book or make your own recording.
  6. 6. Jazz musicians have a huge vocabulary of motifs, licks, patterns and ideas from which to choose. Every idea or phrase they play may not be their original. Each player amasses a library of playable ideas and these ideas come from various sources such as your imagination, teachers, recordings, live concerts or books. Some are two measures in length, some are four, six or eight, etc. All are memo- rized. Memory is the most important element in improvising and is used constantly. To memorize a jazz tune, memorize the original melody and do so in the key which it is most often played. Memorize the actual chord/ scale progression. Then memorize each individual scale and chord. For example, memorize the melody and actual chord progression to the song Indiana which is in this book. Memorize everything and leave your books at home! Listening to recorded versions of songs speeds up the memorization process. Our mind gets a musical image of what the song can sound like and this seems to stir our musical imagination and helps us keep our place. Jazz demands you use your imagination and it is creativity in its purest sense. ALTERED TONES of the DOMINANT SCALE The dominant 7th chord has always lent itself to experimentation. Since the 3rd and 7th are the two important anchor tones of the chord/ scale, jazz musicians have enjoyed altering other tones of the scale in order to add even more tension. By altering certain tones of the dominant 7th scale more tension is added. The second note, often called the 9th, may be raised ‘/2 step and also lowered ‘/2 step to make two altered tones. We call these the flat 9 (b9) and the raised or sharp 9 (+9, #9) (+ and # both mean to raise the note ‘/2 step). When a b9 appears in a scale the #9 is also present and visa versa. These two notes are often called pretty notes, altered notes, blue notes or high tension notes. They create tension and want to resolve, usually by half-step either up or down when the dominant 7th chord resolves. T= Tenslon R= Release C7 1- 1- EA C7 T FA C7 1- V7 " 1 v7 ' “IA V7 $77" ' I The diminished whole-tone scale as well as the diminished scale (the one which begins with a half-step, H W H W H W H W ) both contain a b9 and a #9. Both scales are used as substitute scales for a dominant 7th chord/ scale, especially when the V7 is going to resolve traditionally, to a chord whose root lies up a perfect 4th. The idea in any approach to improvising over any musical sequence is not how much tension you can create, but how you resolve that tension to the next chord. More tension gives more opportunities for release. The two most used altered dominant scales are the diminished whole-tone scale and the dimin- ished scale. The dim. whole-tone scale (H W H W W W W ) has been called by various names. Some of them are: Pomeroy scale (named by me after Herb Pomeroy who taught at Berklee School of Music for many years and was a leader in jazz education), altered scale, and Super Locrian scale. The diminished scale that is used as a substitute for dominants is the diminished scale that begins with a 5
  7. 7. half-step (H W H W H W H W ). This is not to be confused with the diminished scale that begins with a whole-step (W H W H W H W H) and is used over diminished chords and scales (C°7). I use the symbol C7+9 to denote dim. whole tone. I use C7b9 to denote the diminished scale beginning with a half-step. (Dim. whole-tone) . C7+9 (Dim. whole-tone) T°"3'°" Tension C-[+9 T°"3i°” l, _Q o 35-/ » 5., .. fif £2 ‘ u 51$”? !- —o lg! #0 ‘3’ :3? la 1 1 be ‘ll: 3 iii :5 ‘L7 1 F 1 39 C7b9 D‘ I C7b9(DTim'? caI°) T°"si°" (im. _sca e) Tension ension O ‘J; D 9 110- 0 Note: The Scale Syllabus lists various scales that may be used to enhance or add flavor or tension to the dominant 7th chord/ scale. Some have more tension than others. The scales at the top of each column have less tension than the ones further down the column. See the Scale Syllabus on pages 21 8. 22. The Nomenclature page 20 is helpful in determining what scale goes with what chord symbol. Professional improvisers have the skills to pick and choose what altered dominant chord/ scale sound they want to use at any point in their sole. Their choices are usually based on their ability to execute flawlessly the musical ideas they have in their mind at the moment. But, if they don’t practice in all 12 keys, many may find it easier playing altered tones over more common keys, such as G7 to C, than the less common keys, such as F#7 to B. The “Dominant 7th Tree of Scale Choices" on page 13 lists the primary altered scales and lists them in order of dissonance. Altered dominants are an important part of the improviser’s musical notescape. We practice the altered dominant scales just like we work on majors and minors. As they become more and more familiar to us, we tend to incorporate them, gradually, into our own personal musical vocabulary. This naturally gives more options and variety to one's solos. Using altered dominants can radically change your harmonic personality. An accomplished improviser will use the various altered scales interchangeably. They tend to add variety to the overall tension and release process. Master musicians will reach the stage where they can effortlessly play any of the 12 notes in the chromatic scale over a dominant 7th chord and make them sound natural and beautiful. This takes time. It is similar to learning a new language. The new altered notes will begin to sound natural to you little by little and constant usage makes them sound like you were born playing them. The bebop scale would be another good choice. The bebop scale is a dominant 7th scale with one added tone, the major 7th. The scale for the C7 chord would be C, D, E, F, G, A, Bb, B, C, the added tone being B natural. There is one rule to follow when using any bebop scale and that is to play the added note (B natural in this case) on the up-beat. If you place it on a down-beat it will sound like a wrong note. Make sure your musical lines allow the added tone to naturally fall on the up-beat. The up- beat placement gives it less emphasis, and this is how musicians in this century have treated it. See the Bebop Scale section for more information. Also, play the various bebop examples. The whole-tone scale is another substitute scale which is often used to color the dominant 7th sound. It is a six note scale and in the key of C looks like this: C, D, E, F#, G#, Bb, C. This scale is used over a C7 chord and works best when the C7 resolves to the key of F. There are only two different whole- tone scales. 6
  8. 8. C7 Whole-tone C74-4 Lydian dominant C7 Bebop NON-RESOLVING DOMINANTS When a dominant 7th chord/ scale does not resolve to a chord up a perfect 4th, the jazz musician must then take into account the musical context of that V7 chord/ scale. If it is part of a jazz or pop song you may want to play the scale in its natural, pure, or unaltered form. Or, one option is to raise the 4th note a half-step which would then give you a Iydian dominant scale sound (see the previous musical ex- ample). Raising the 4th has been a favorite altered note of all types of American Pop music. The natural 4th is a high-tension note and tends to demand resolution to the 3rd. By raising the 4th it becomes a viable note in the chord/ scale and doesn't need to necessarily resolve. When playing vertically (up and down chords), the regular 4th of dominant 7th scales tends to sound unnatural. By raising it a half-step it becomes a favorite note to emphasize. Many tunes will end with the raised 4th in the final chord. it’s part of the jazz SOUND. The raised 4th is also called #11 or +11. SUBSTITUTING the BLUES SCALE over DOMINANTS If the song is a blues, funk, fusion, R&B (Rhythm and Blues) or rock song, you’ll most likely superim- pose the blues scale because the nature of the beat and feel will suggest this scale sound. The blues scale incorporates notes that don’t necessarily conform to the basic dominant 7th chord/ scale, but by repeated playing and listening, those very notes have become the sound of the blues. They clash harmonically but we've grown accustomed to that sound and call it the blues. People often use words like “funky, ” “down-home, ” “earthy, ” to describe the feeling of the blues scale in use. Blues Scales - TREBLE CLEF -6- I _ . :’. jl—C‘j!7.frIt-til ' jrZ'L. LiT-'V! Z.'L'ju T "
  9. 9. WARM-UP EXERCISES l have written out 28 warm-up exercises that can be played with the concert C7 recorded track (track 1, CD #1). Transposed parts are also written out for Bb, Eb and Bass clef instruments—these are all found on pages 23, 25, 27 and 29 respectively. These exercises are designed to allow you to become familiar with the sound of the V7 scale and chord. After practicing and becoming comfortable with the exercises in the original key, try transposing some of the exercises and play them with tracks #2 thru #12. THE CIRCLE or CYCLE of FOURTHS Since the dominant 7th chord/ scale naturally wants to resolve to a chord whose root is up a 4th, I've included five tracks of dominants that follow the root progression called the Circle or Cycle. They are #13,14,15,19 and 21. Practicing the scales, chords, and ideas in general via the cycle has been a common practice routine for jazz musicians and is highly recommended. it is a disciplined way of working through all twelve keys. Plus, many bass root movements to jau and pop songs move through sections of the cycle. NOTE: Be sure to look over the Cycle Exercises (listed in treble and bass clef—see pages 31-44). They can be played with various recorded tracks on the CDs. Play through them and pick several that catch your ear. Learn them in all twelve keys. Recorded tracks utilizing the CIRCLE are #13, 14, 15 and 19. Fifths Fourths C major (D Dorian minor) G major (A Dorian minor) F major (G Dorian minor) BL major (C Dorian minor) F) major (F Dorian minor) AL major (BL Dorian minor) D major (E5 Dorian minor) G! » major (AL Dorian minor) Cl: major (Db Dorian minor)
  10. 10. V THE BEBOP CALE The bebop scale is an interesting scale sound. By adding one note to any major, minor, dominant 7th, or half-diminished scale, you create an eight-tone scale. The note you add is a very important note and it is almost always played on the up-beat, never on the down-beat. The note we are going to add is a non-scale tone and will sound strange if you accent it by placing it on a down-beat. So, be sure your melodic line allows this added note to fall on an up-beat. I've included two pages of dominant 7th bebop phrases in both treble and bass clef—see pages 45-47. I suggest picking several that catch your ear and practice them in different keys. Then, play them with the play-a-long CDs. Make them a part of your daily practice routine. Force your ear to hear the value of that extra note in each scale. Here is a list of the bebop scales for major, dominant 7th, minor, and half-diminished, listed in the key of C. The added notes are underlined. C major = C, D, E, F, G, Q, A, B, C. The added note is G#. C7 dominant 7"‘ = C, D, E, F, G, A, Bb, B, C. The added note is B natural. C- minor = C, D, Eb, E, F, G, A, Bb, C. The added note is E natural. Co half-diminished = C, Db, Eb, F, Gb, Q, Ab, Bb, C. The added note is G. When you find yourself playing lines that incorporate the bebop scales, you’ll hear a difference in your playing. That difference is often what separates the novice from the pro. After learning the four basic qualities, major, minor, dominant and half-diminished, the bebop scale is the most important sound you can acquire. It is an important part of the jazz language and until you learn to utilize it effortlessly, your playing will not contain the essence of jazz. David Baker has written several books on how to use this scale, develop lines and incorporate them into all of your playing situations. His books are called How To Play Bebop and come in 3 volumes. The Various Bebop Scales ‘ C Major Bebop down-beat.
  11. 11. LYDIAN DOMINANT SCALE The Lydian Dominant scale is a basic dominant 7th scale with the 4th note raised a half-step. The 4th note and the 11th are the same. In the key of C it looks like this: C7#4 = C, D, E, F#, G, A, Bb, C (this is sometimes written as "C7#11") C7+4 Lydian dominant 0 ° Q +1» 2' ‘; )4 5 6 L7 1 1 2 3 lli 5 6 ‘T ‘1 The fourth has always been a problem note because it can sound like a wrong note or poor choice although it is part of the basic scale. Jazz players have traditionally raised the 4th, especially on ending chords. George Russell (a fine teacher, player and composer at New England Conservatory in Boston) was the first to call it a Lydian Dominant. It is one of the first altered scales players learn because it only has one altered tone. The #4 is a favorite note to play on endings. DIMINISHED WHOLE-TONE SCALE The diminished whole-tone scale can also be called the altered scale, Pomeroy scale (named after Herb Pomeroy who taught many years at the Berklee School of Music) or the Super Locrian scale. It is part diminished and part whole-tone. T he-first part of the scale looks like a diminished scale, H W H W and the top part looks like a whole-tone scale, W, W, W. In the key of C the scale is: C, Db, D#, E, F#, G#, Bb, C. It contains a b9, #9, #4 and #5 in addition to the root, 3rd and lowered 7th. It is a high-tension scale and when used properly it enhances the cadential V7 to I progression by adding tension to the V7 chord/ scale, and then releases the tension, usually resolving melodically by a half-step to a tone in the chord of resolution, often the one (I) chord. See musical examples in both treble and bass clef. (Dim. whole-tone) C7 (Dim. whole-tone) Tension C7 tension T°"3'°" ha 0 i§"—" 7*_liu’—"i3 ' 41> L9 ling "'§’ j4“‘li5 L7 1 1 be to 3' 971 ‘F 7 1 THE DIMINISHED SCALE There are 1 diminished scales. One is used with a diminished chord and the other is used as a substitute scale for a dominant 7th chord. The diminished chord is spelled C, Eb, Gb, A, C; each interval equals a minor—third (3 half—steps). The diminished scale that best fits the diminished CHORD is spelled like this: C°7 = C, D, Eb, F, Gb, Ab, A, B, C(WHWHWHWH). C07 Diminished scale Chord C°7 Diminished scale Chrd . AI , . The diminished scale that is used as a substitute for a dominant 7th chord is spelled like this: C7=C, Db, D#, E, F#, G,A, Bb, C(HWHWHWHW). The C7 chord will look like this: C, E, G#, Bb, and either the Db or D#. I often write the symbol C7b9 to denote a substitute diminished scale. See page of dim. examples in both treble and bass clef. (Dim. scale) Tension C7b9(Dim- Scale) C7b9 Tension Tension
  12. 12. MINOR CHORD/ SCALES as SUBSTITUTES for DOMINANTS Dominant 7th chord/ scales have often been linked to a minor chord/ scale whose root lies a perfect 4th (5 half—steps) below the root of the dominant 7th chord. For instance, a C7 can also be thought of as a G- (dorian minor). A G— could be thought of as a C7. The professional musician will often substitute at will a minor for a dominant or, a dominant for a minor. They are interchangeable because they have the same key signature and the same fingerings. So, if you see a C7 chord and it lasts for two measures, you could think of it as one bar of G- resolving to the C7. Or, you could think of it as two bars of G—. However, when one thinks of it as two bars of G- you usually don’t get the tension/ release in the melodic line because the G— isn’t resolving to the 3rd and 7th of the C7. The rule of melodic development is: you can add tension to your playing by making a simple dominant 7th chord have more motion by putting the corresponding minor chord in front of the dominant as described above. It is obviously easier to do this when the dominant chord lasts for two bars or longer. There are several background tracks in this set that allow you to experiment with this harmonic idea. See the the chart below to see how minor, dominant, major and half-diminished chord/ scales are re- lated. Minor to dominant chords are the basis of the II/ V7/I progression. Volume 3 “The II/ V7/I Progression" in this series explores this important harmonic progression in all twelve major and minor keys. II / V7 / I IN TWELVE KEYS: The chord/ scale symbol in parenthesis is the half-diminished chord/ scale which is related to the II/ V7/l. It has the same key signature and fingering as the II/ V7/I. Example: D- (Dorian), G Dom. 7th. C major and Bro all share the same fingering and key signature. David Baker’s book and CD titled Vo| ume76 “How To Learn Tunes” is a great set which can aid in learning the various musical forms used in jazz and pop music. Once you are comfortable and familiar with IUV7’s and other common harmonic sequences and forms, memorization becomes much easier and faster. Track #22 allows you to practice II/ V7/I in all twelve major keys. Tracks #29, 30 and 31 also have built- in II/ V7 and II/ V7/I cadences. Most standards from America's vast library of popular music employ the II/ V7 progression and the II/ V7/I progression. It has become the most important harmonic formulae in Western music. It is a good idea to have II/ V7 and II/ V7/I phrases under your fingers in several, if not all, keys. We often call these memorized musical phrases licks, patterns and sometimes cliches. They help us keep our lines moving forward in spite of lapses in our creativelimaginative flow. Everyone has pre-learned II/ V7 and II/ V7/1 phrases that they can insert at will. The pros can play them in all twelve keys. 11
  13. 13. USING CHROMATICISM Using notes other than chord and scale tones in a melodic line is common to all styles of music. Jazz players have traditionally used notes outside the basic scale to add color, extend phrases, add tension and excitement and to add variety to the scalar color by incorporating more half-steps. The chromatic scale (the musical alphabet) contains twelve notes, each a half-step from its neighbor. The four basic qualities, major, minor, dominant and half-diminished each contain seven different notes. This leaves five notes that we could call non-scale, non- chord tones. These notes are the ones to incorporate when you want to add some chromaticism to your melodies. I've listed in treble and bass clef, 15 two-bar phrases utilizing various notes of the chromatic scale. I recommend playing all fifteen, then pick one and work it through all twelve keys, using the cycle as your root sequence guide. Or, work it through all twe ve keys by ascending or descending in half-steps. Start your gm collection of licks utilizing chromaticism. TREBLE CLEF
  14. 14. THE DOMINANT 7th TREE of SCALE CHOICES The two most important notes in any scale are the 3rd and 7th. They tell the listener what the quality is and indicate the harmonic motion. The 3rd tells us if it’s major or minor. The 7th tells whether the sound is stable (doesn’t want to move to another chord) or if it wants to move on to a chord of resolution. Dominants typically want to resolve to a chord up a perfect 4th (C7 wants to resolve to F, F-, F7 etc. ). The root or tonic is taken for granted. If it wasn't there we wouldn't be able to identify the sound. Any of these scales (qualities/ sounds/ sonorities) may be played when a dominant 7th chord/ scale RE- SOLVES to a chord/ scale whose ROOT lies a perfect 4th (5 half-steps) above the root of the dominant 7th chord. EXAMPLE: || C7 | C7 | F | F | Ab7 | Ab7| Db- | Db- | | Embellish the measures with these chords: C7 and Ab7, If the tempo is slow, you would probably embellish only measures 2 and 6. If fast, and you have a good command of the substitute scale you are using, you could embellish measures 1 and 2 and 5 and 6. Tempo and your facility are important factors in determining when and where to use substitute scales. l The altered tones are in bold type. Those tones usually resolve by half-step to a scale or chord tone. ~ This amounts to tension then release. It's a natural occurence in music. The 3rd’s and 7th’s are underlined. SCALES (Listed in order from consonance to dissonance) 1. DOM.7th = C7 = C D E F G A Q C This is the basic dominant 7th sound. Be care- l ful how you treat the 4th tone. Use it as a j passing tone. 2. BEBOP = C7 = C D E F G A Q B C Play B natural as a passing tone. It should always appear on an ugbeat never on the downbeat. 3. LYDIAN DOM. = C7#4 = C D E F# G A Q C The #4was/ is a favorite note. It is sometimes called a b5. 4. WHOLE-TONE = C7+ = C D E F# G# Q C This scale only has 6 tones. it is a symetrical scale used often in cartoon music and by DeBussy and Ravel. [Has a #4 and #5] 5. DIMINISHED = C7b9 = C Db D# E F# G A Q C ~ This scale has 8 different tones. It is symetrical and is also used in cartoon music. -. Michael Brecker is a master of this scale sound. [Has 1: b9, #9 and #4] 6. DIM. WHOLE-TONE = C7+9 = C Db D# E F# G# Q C This scale has four altered tones which help ‘ create tension. [Has a b9, #9, #4 and #5] 7. SPANISH or JEWISH SCALE = C7 (b9) = C Db E F G Ab Q C This scale is used often when playing in a minor key. it’s the same as F harmonic mi- nor. [Has a b9 and b6] 8. CHROMATIC SCALE = C7 = C Db D Eb E F F# G G#A Q B C (the Musical Alphabet) Any time there is a dominant 7th, you may want to experiment with these scales. The proper use of these various scales is part of what makes jazz so appealing. Endless variety in the hands of a master makes beautiful music. Don't be afraid to try these sounds. it may take some time for your ears to become accustomed to the sound and the fingerings. The book called Pattems For Jazz (Aebersold product code “P-T‘ for treble clef instruments, "P-B" for bass clef) lists jazz phrases based on many of the scales above. 13
  15. 15. Piano Voicings Dominant 7ths—thru Cycle. 3rd and 7th. Play a root in the left hand, one or two octaves below middle C. C7 F7 Bl27 El27 Al27 1)l»7 Gl»7 B7 E7 A7 D7 G7 C7 1. it; .% ti. .. ln3“ljF§_37”—'-ltgg iizwe i. :.= g,, ia. iigfi 93 ‘U7 8,5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Dominant 7ths—thru Cycle. 3rd and 7th. C7 F7 BI27 El27 Al27 Dl27 Gl>7 B7 E7 A7 D7 G7 C7 2 its 1% la; ii. ... .—i; g;l, .,, .i. .rif, g,i Dominant 7ths—thru Cycle. 3-note voicings. C7 F7 Bl27 1«: l»7 Al27 Dl27 Gl»7 B7 E7 A7 D7 G7 C7 Dominant 7ths. Cycle. 4-note voicings. C7 F7 Bl>7 El27 Al27 GIJ7 B7 D7 G7 C7 1)l»7 E7 A7 9 U Dominant to tonic. C7 FA C7(I3) FA C7 FA C7 FA C7 FA C7 FA L 5 so g 3» § --am: -§‘-39 ' I. .. ° 3 e B 3 e 3 O O C) c7+4 FA c7+4 FA C7+4 FA c7l»9 FA C7l29 FA c7lw FA ? c7l»9 FA C7l»9 FA c7i, *3 FA c7l>9 FA C7;3 FA+4 C752 FA 1;: tr 8 $0
  16. 16. Bass Lines BL7 Typical Dominant 7th Baas Lino through the cycle — 2 bars of each scale F7 C7 I '1 ‘V jifjjjlj DL7 F7 F7 C7 C7 Early Rock and Roll bass tlguro tor a 12-bar blues lino plainly outlining the dominant 1th sound. C7 C7 It has always been an important part of bass line construction to lead smoothly from one chord to the next. One of the best ways to achieve that goal is to approach the new chord from a half-step from below or from above. The example at thetop of the page utilizes this concept 11 out of 12 times. Half- connect one chord sound to the next and leaves no doubt in the listener's step approach tones help mind. Roots are generally played on the first beat of the chord’s appearance. When a chord lasts for two measures or more, the root is often played on beat one of bar one and the fiftth maybe played on beat one of bar two. This helps to balance the flow of the melodic bass line and not make it too get oriented. 15
  17. 17. Q9 69 Major, Dominant 7th, and Minor Scales 8: Chords The scales are written in all 12 keys from the root (first note of any scale) to the 9th of that scale. The blackened-in notes are chord tones: root, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th Anexampleotncalocomparlaonail oomplhbilitylumcneuz The 12 Major (Ionian) Scales To The 9th CA = D- (dorian minor), G7 8: 50 Half & Whole Step Construction: WWHWWWH (all share the same fingerings) FA BLA L ELA 9 A at , .. ‘W--'7" = ALA 1 _ _ ,3 The 12 Dominant 7th (Ionian) Scales To The 9th Halt'& Whole Step Construction: wwnwwnw (all share the same fingeringa) ‘ W, ‘ I: nL7(Cll7) The 12 Minor (Dorian) Scales To The 9th C = 3” ma °" F7 “"1 A0 Half& Whole Step Construction: wnwwwnw (all share the same llngarlnga) 16
  18. 18. Whole Tone Scales Half & Whole Step Construction: WWWWWW (1, 2, 3, M, 85, L7, 1) There are only two Whole Tone Scales C7 D7 E7 M7 Al»7(cs7) BL7 cfi7El»7(nm F7 G7 Diminished Scales Half & Whole Step Construction: WIIWHWHWH There are only three Diminished Scales This diminished scale fits This diminished scale iits This diminished scale fits these chord symbols: these chord symbols: these chord symbols: C07 El>07 Gl»07 A07 C4107 E07 G07 BL07 D07 F07 Al7°7 B07 alsoD7l79 F7l>9Alz7la9 371:9 . :son§7l»9 F§7l>9A7lv97 C7b9 Diminished Whole Tone Scales IIaIf& Whole Step Construction: HWHWWWW (1, L9, 39, 3, M, I5, I77, 1) C7+9 . c# melodic minor Also called “Altered” or “Super Locrian. ” b9, +0, 44 mg +6 altered tones. (all share the same flngerings) Contains L9, 39, $4, $5, in addition to the root, 3rd & la7th C7+9 nl»7+9(c#7+9) ‘I -11:1:-mung‘; ‘ 1 . = ‘fijljj 2111 am I-E: V-: —-. 'V"'_= “" E Half-Diminished Scales Half & Whole Step Construction: HWWHWWW (b°"| NW9 "13 WM 5090fl'90 called (minor 7, L5) or Locrian. (Wm Sham the 33"“ fi“9°| 'i"fl5) ‘M by WNW. ) Raise second tone a half-step to form the Half-Dim. 82 Scale (Ex. C0$i2)——jT
  19. 19. NOMENCLATURE + or # = raise 1/2 step - or b = lower 1/2 step H = Half step W = Whole step Because jazz players, composers, educators arid authors haven't agreed on a common nomenclature for writing chord and scale symbols, the novice will have to become familiar with several different ways of writing the same scale sound. Listed below are the most common symbols in order of usage—most-used to least-used. The symbol that is boldface is the one I use most often. Notice that throughout this book you will see CA and C to designate a major chord/ scale sound. I am doing this so you can begin to get better acquainted with various nomenclature. A = major scale/ chord or major seventh (CA). A (7) after a letter means to lower the 7th note of the scale, making it a Dominant 7th quality (C7). A dash (-) when located beside a letter means to lower the third and seventh of the scale 1/2 step, thus making it a minor tonality (Dorian minor) (C-). 0 means half-diminished (CG). C-A means a minor scale/ chord with a major 7th. -3 means 3 half—steps (a minor 3rd). CHORDISCALE TYPE ABBREVIATED CHORDISCALE SYMBOL * MAJOR (Ionian) (VVWHWVVWH) C D E F G A B C Cmaj, Cma, Cma7, Ci‘, Cmaj7. CM, CM7,Cmaj'9, Cmaj13 * DOMINANT SEVENTH (Mixolydian) (WWHWWHVV) C9 C11 C13 5th mode of Ma'or C D E F G A Bb C * M'N°R2f('f)"’¢'fd": T°: ‘M(; ?(j: "a”) (W”WVVc‘, ",’3”EbVV)F G A Bb C 07, Cmi, Cmi7, Cm7, Cmin, Cmin7, Cm9, Cm11, Cm13 LY°'A”4g‘”: gj; jffA'a°J. °", V“" #4) (WVVV‘{: ”,; ’VEV; ’;‘2; A B C Cmaj+4, CM+4, CA+11, CAb5, Cmajb5 * - 7lth hiolde of Maorocnani C Db Eb lI: |Gb Ab Bb C Cmi7(b5)’ C-7b5 *2> DIMINISHED (WHWHWHWH) C D Eb F Gb Ab A B C @ Cdim, C°7, Cdim7, C°9 LYDIAN DOMINANT (Dom. 7th with #4) (VWVNHWHVV) 4th mode of Melodic Minor c D E F# G A Bb c CF11’ C-lbs‘ C9+11' C13+11 WHOLE-TONE WVVWWWVV) 4 <(: D E F# G# Eb c C73!-I9. C7:5, C7+5 DOMINANT SEVENTH U ' g a D'm. Scale HWHWHWHW 9 +9 5m I c Db( Eb E | =# G A 3); , c C7b9 C7b9:4, C13b9+11 DIMINISHED WHOLE-TONE All d l HWHWWWW 9 5 9b1 7th mode of Melodic Minor ( ere Csgieét) E F# G# Bb 3.; C7a| t. C7b9I4. C7l>9+1? LYDIAN AUGMENTED (Majorwith #4 & #5) (WWWWHWH) +5 3rd mode of Melodic minor C D E F# G# A B C CA+5 MELODIC MINOR (ascending only) (gV; l2 Cmimmaml Cram. C_A(Mei°dic)' Cms HARMONIC MINOR (WHWWH-3H) c D Eb F G Ab B c IEZI CmiA, C-A(Har), C-A b6 SUSPENDED 4th (W-SWWHW) or (WWHWWHVV) Q-1, C7sus4, C7sus, C4, C11 CDFGABbC CDEFGABDC C * BLUES SCALE (use at player's discretion) (There is no chord symbol for the Blues scale) (-3WHH-3VV) (1, b3, 4, #4, 5, b7, 1) c Eb F F#G Bb c Used mostly with dominant and minor chords fihesearetheniostoommonchord/ scaiesinwesternmusrc. I believe in a reduced chordlscale notation that allows our creative side, our natural side (right brain function) to have direction and guidance without feeling inhibited or limited. When we speak of “quality” we mean whether it is Major, Minor, Dim, or whatever: I have tried to standardize the chord/ scale symbol notation in my books. Since some have been out many years there are instances where I may have used a dilierent chord symbol in one book than I used in this one. I feel the impnovisor needs as little notation as possible in order to transcend the actual nomenclature on the page. The more numbers, letters and alterations that appear on the page, the less chance they will have to remove their thoughts from the written page and express what is being heard in their mind, That is why I prefer 6, C7, 0-, CG, C7+9, C7b9. Remember, we are playing a music Iled jaz, and it contains many altered tones. Once we leam the various alterations and their corresponding abbreviated chord symbol, why keep writing all the alterations beside the chord symbol? Check out carefully the Scale Syllabus! Listen to Volume 26 “The Scale Syllabus. " Remember. 2nd's are the same as 9th’s, 4lh’s are the same as 11th’s, 13th’s are the same as 6th’s. Example: Key of C the2nd, D, isthe sameasthe9th, D. Oftenaoomposerwill simplywritelheirpreferred name oflhe scale besidethe chord symbol, such as Eb-A (melodic minor), F- (phrygian), F-(phry). 20
  20. 20. INTRODUCTION to the SCALE SYLLABUS Each chord/ scale symbol (C7, C—, CA+4, etc. ) represents a series of tones which the improvisor can use when improvising or soloing. These series of tones have traditionally been called scales. The scales listed here are the ones I most often hear musicians play. I have listed the Scale Syllabus in the key of C Concert so you can have a frame of reference and can compare the similarities and differences between the various chords/ scales. This SCALE SYLLABUS is intended to give the improvisor a variety of scale choices which may be used over any chord——rnajor, minor, dominant 7th, half-diminished, diminished and sus 4. Western music, especially jazz and pop, uses major, dominant 7th, dorian minor and Blues scales and chords more than any other. Scales and chords used less often are the half-diminished, diminished and sus 4. If we agree on these five chord/ scale families as being the most predominant, then we can set them up as categories and list substitute scales beneath each heading. ..see the Scale Syllabus page. You should also check out Volume 26 "The Scale SyIlabus" for more help with scales. Each category begins with the scale most closely resembling the chord/ scale symbol given to the left. The scales are arranged according to the degree of dissonance they produce in relation to the basic chord/ scale sound. Scales near the top of each category will sound mild or consonant and scale choices further down the list will become increasingly tense or dissonant. Each player is urged to start with the scales at the top and with practice and experimentation gradually work his way down the list to the more dissonant or tension—producing scales. You should work with a new scale sound on your instrument until your ears and fingers become comfortable with all the tones in the scale. Also try singing the scale with your voice. improvise with your voice over the scale you are learning and then play on your instrument what your voice sang. Music is made of tension and release. Scale tones produce tension or they produce relaxation. The improvisor's ability to control the amount and frequency of tension and release will in large mea- sure determine whether he is successful in communicating to the listener. Remember—you, the player, are $2 a listener! Read pages 43 to 45 in Volume 1 "JAZZ: How To Play And lmprovise" (Sixth Edition) for a more detailed explanation of tension and release in melodic development. Any of the various practice procedures and patterns listed in Volumes 1, 2, 3, 21 or 24 can be applied to the learning and assimilation of any of the scale choices listed in this Scale Syllabus. Need- less to say, any Scale you want to learn should be transposed and practiced in all twelve keys. The column on whole and half step construction I listed for each scale on the syllabus should prove helpful when transposing a scale to any of the twelve keys. For additional information on scale substitution, I recommend ‘‘scales for Jazz Improvisation" by Dan Haerle, "Jazz Improvisation" by David Baker, “Patterns for Jazz" and “Complete Method for Jazz Improvisation" by Jerry Coker, and the “Repository of Scales & Melodic Patterns” by Yusef Lateef. These books are available from Jamey Aebersold Jazz, Inc. , PO Box 1244, New Al- bany, IN 47151-1244 U. S.A. , or possibly at your local music store. Several play-a-long sets offer you an opportunity to practice the various scales in all twelve keys. They are: Vol. 24 “Major & Minor’; Vo| .21 “Gettin’ It Together”; and Vol.16 “Turnarounds, Cycles & II/ V7's. " You might also check out the play-a-longs which have tunes in all keys: Vol. 42 "Blues In All Keys"; Vol. 47 "Rhythm In All Keys"; Vol. 57 "Minor Blues In All Keys"; and two more fiolumes, Vol. 67 "Tune Up" and Vol. 68 “Giant Steps"—-each has several classic tunes in all twelve eys. Scales and chords are the backbone of our music and the better you equip yourself, the more fun you will have playing music. 21
  21. 21. SCALE SYLLABUS LEGEND: H = Half Step, W = Whole Step; A = Major 7th; + or# = raise H; b or - = lower H; 0 = Half-diminished; -3 = 3H (Minor Third) CHORD/ SCALE SYMBOL SCALE NAME WHOLE & HALF STEP SCALE IN KEY OF C BASIC CHORD ONSTRUCTION IN KEY OF C C Major WWHWWWH CDEFGABC CEGBD C7 HVEBASIC Dominant7th(Mixolydian) WWHWWHW CDEFGABbC CEGBbD C- CATEGORIES Minor(Dorian) WHWWWHW CDEbFGABbC CEbGBbD C0 Half Diminished (Locrian) H W W H WW W C Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C C Eb Gb Bb C° Diminished Stone scale WHWHWHWH CDEbFGbAbABC CEbGbA bb 1. MQAJORESCALE SCALE NAME W & H CONSTRUCTION SCALE IN KEY OF C BASIC CHORD IN KEY OF C CA(CanbewrittenC) Major(don’temphasizethe4tli) WWHWWWH CDEFGABC CEGBD C Major Pentatonic WW-3 W-3 C DE GAC CE GB CA+4 Lydian(majorscaIewitl1+4) WWWHWWH CDEF#GABC CEGBD CA Bebop(Major) WWHWHHWH CDEFGG#ABC CEGBD CAb6 HannonicMajor WWHWH-3H CDEFGAbBC CEGBD CA+5,+4 LydianAu mented WWWWHWH CDEF#G#ABC CEG#BD C Augmen -3H-3H-3H CD#EGAbBC CEGBD C 6thModeofHaimonicMinor -SHWHWWH CD#EF#GABC CEGBD C Diminished(beginwithHstep) HWHWHWHW CDbD#EF#GABbC CEGBD C Bluesscale -3WHH-3W CEbFF#GBbC CEGBD 2. DOMINANT 7th S SCALE NAME W & H CONSTRUCTION SCALE IN KEY OF C BASIC CHORD SCALE CHOICE , KEY F C7 Dominant7th WWHWWHW CDEFGABbC CEGBbD C7 Major Pentatonic W W -3 W -3 C D E G A C C E GBb D C7 Bebop(Dominant). WWHWWHHH CDEFGABbBC CEGBbD C7b9 Spanish orlewish scale H-3 HWHWW CDbEFGAb BbC CEGBb (Db) C7+4 LydianDominant WWWHWHW CDEF#GABbC CEGBbD C7b6 Hindu WWHWHWW CDEFGAbBbC CEGBbD C7+(has#4&#5) WhoIeTone(6tonescale) WWWWWW CDEF#G#BbC CEG#BbD C7b9(alsohas#9&#4) Diminished(beginwitliHstep) HWHWHWHW CDbD#EF#GABbC CEGBbDb(D#) C7+9 (also has b9, #4, #5) Diminished Whole Tone H W H W W W W C Db D# E F# G# Bb C C E G# Bb D# (Db) C7 Bluesscale -3WHH-3W CEbFF#GBbC CEGBbD(D#) DOMINANT 7th SUSPENDED 4th 7sus4 MAYBE Dont7thsralelintdon’teinplus'nthctliiril WWHWWHW CDEFGABbC CFGBbD C7 sus 4 WRIITEN Major Pentatonic built on b7 W W -3 W -3 Bb C D F G Bb C F G Bb D C7sus4 G~/ C Bebopscale WWHWWHHH CDEFGABbBC CFGBbD 3. MINOR SCALE SCALE NAME W & H CONSTRUCTION SCALE IN KEY OF C BASIC CHORD CHOICES‘ N EY C-orC-7 Minor(Don'an) WHWWWHW CDEbFGABbC CEbGBbD C- or C-7 Pentatonic (Minor Pentatonic) -3 W W -3 W C Eb F G Bb C C Eb G Bb D C-orC-7 Bebop(Minor) WHHHWWHW CDEbEFGABbC CEbGBbD C-A(m '.7th) MelodicMinor(aseending) WHWWWWH CDEbFGABC CEbGBD C-orC orC- BebopMinorNo.2 WHWWHHWH CDEbFGG#ABC CEbGBD C-orC-7 Bluesscale -3WHH-3W CEbFF#GBbC CEbGBbD C-A(b6&maj.7th) HannonicMinor WHWWH-3H CDEbFGAbBC CEbGBD C-orC-7 Diminished(beginwithWstep) WHWHWHWH CDEbFF#G#ABC CEbGBD C-orC-b9b6 Phrygian HWWWHWW CDbEbFGAbBbC CEbGBb C- or C-b6 Pure orNatural Minor, Aeolian W H W WH W W C D EbF G Ab Bb C C Eb GBb D 4. HALF DIMINISHED SCALE NAME W & H CONSTRUCTION SCALE IN KEY OF C BASIC CHORD SCALE CHOICES IN KEY OF C0 HaIfDiminished (Locrian) H WWHWWW C Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C C@#2 (CO9) I-lalfDiminished #2 (Locrian #2) WHWHWWW CDEbFGb Ab BbC CEb Gb BbD C0 (withorwithout#2) Bebopscale HWWHHHWW CDbEbFGbGAbBbC CEbGbBb 5. DIMINISHED SCALE SCALE NAME W & H CONSTRUCTION SCALE IN KEY OF C BASIC CHORD C HOICES Diminished (8 tone scale) WHWHWHWH CDEbFGbAbABC [N KEY OF NOTES: 1) The above chord symbol guide is my system of notation. I feel it best represents the sounds I hear in jan. The player should be aware that each chord symbol represents a series of tones called a scale. 2) Even though a C733 would appear to have only a raised 9th, it also has a b9, +4 and +5. So the entire C7+9 scale would look like: Root, b9, +9, 3rd, +4, +5, b7 & root (C, Db, D#, E, F#, G#, Bb, C). My chord symbol C7+9 is therefore an abbreviation, while the complete name of this scale is Diminished Whole Tone (sometimes called Super_Locrian or Altered Scale). Similarly, C7lfi also appears to have only one altered tone (b9) but it actually has three: b9, +9 and +4. The entire scale looks like this: Root, b9, +9, 3rd, +4, 5th, 6th, b7 & root (C, Db, D#, E, F#, G, A, Bb, C). This is called a Diminished scale and my chord s C7b9. 3) All scales under the Dominant 7th category provide much more tension than the basic dominant 7th sound and require practice and patience to grasp the essence of their meaning. I encourag are scales that embellish the basic Dominant 7 bol abbreviation is sound. Some scales e you to work with the first side of Volume 3 “The ll-V7 -1 Progression” since it emphasizes Diminished and Diminished Whole Tone scales and chords. 4) ' - In category #3, MINOR SCALE CHOICES, the PURE MINOR scale choice is not used very often. I have found the order of preference to be Dorian, Bebop, Melodic, Blues, Pentatonic, and then any of the remaining Minor scale choices. 22
  22. 22. 4 Warm-Up Exercises G. These warm-up exercises may be played with CD#1, Track #1. C7 Scale to the 9th C7 7th chord 3. 9th chord 4-1 J : —j: -— -: --2- . -.. .=—————§. -
  23. 23. Warm-up Exercises — Cont. C7 Approach chord tones from below. 3 1 C7 Approach chord tones from above. H7; 5 3 1 C7 Enclosure of chord tones. 16. C7 Bebop scale C7 Bebop scale 20. C7 Bebop scale C7 Bebop scale
  24. 24. V6) Cycle Exercises In All 12 Keys g. NOTE: Bl: Instruments begin on D7 (Trumpet, Tenor, Clarinet 8: Soprano); El» Instruments begin on A7 (Alto 8: Baritone Sax). Exercises 1-9 may be played with Track #15, or, by remating each measure, Track #14. ONE BAR EACH ROOTS c7 F7 BL7 Di>7 EL7 AL7 O Gla7(Fl$7) B7 E7 A7 D7 G7 C7 M ii? —_T: % : L‘’ L. L“ can Tags F7 BL7 EL7 Ai>7 Di27 2. f E, Ja§@7,-.5” mm C7 A7 D7 G7 _ law 1; , ,H' Lfrf A *1
  25. 25. Q’, Cycle Exercises In All 12 Keys — Cont. ' C7 F7 BL7 EI27 I, la 5- 3 5 7 91 5 5 Ai27 DL7 Flt7 B7 M 12 eiewm+. fl E J 73 L 7 G7 C7 E7 A7 D C7 F7 BL7 EL7 6' 7 9''‘7 5 4. 3 . 5 3 1 7 7 , A127 DL7 F: ¢7 A B7 “SE7”? ?? 573.; 4 gi , 7 C;
  26. 26. *-up-' €35 Cycle Exercises In All 12 Keys — Cont. fig 9th CHORDS C7 F7 B17 E17 9. 5 7 1 7 5 1 7 etc. A17 D17 1, F117 B7 1» 1 1 11 eflimms F l ems‘? D7 G7 7 t: x:: l E7 A7 _l, C/T %_LLr@_L11 i1° “ 1° 2 Beats Each Chord/ Scale C7 F7 B17 E17 A17 DE F117 B7 V 1 {Egg l ewe 1 E7 A7 D7 G7 C7
  27. 27. I 1,. Cycle Exercises ('5 I have written these exercises in several keys, but not all twelve. Use your ear and mind to play (transpose) them to all twelve keys. This practice develops your EAB. Exercises 1 and 2 may be played with Track #15. There is no recorded track for #3 thru #13, but if you repeat each exercise making them into 2-bar phrases, you could play them with Track #14. C7 F7 B17 L E17 arc. ‘- 1gE. ..1.£3.1ufl%nfiLQ C7 ' 1 F7 B17 I) E17 Em P 2E‘: ‘?%3.? T,3.171“JeLU_,11.£g11:: _r_Lp; eJ C7 F7 B17 E17 [7 / -$17 D17 1, G1v7ETc_ 3- 11 13 5 :3—/1 3 5 3 1 F‘, 2 C7 F7 B17 E17 [7 -- A177 D17 17 1 jrl jj j
  28. 28. ,; Cycle Exercises — Cont. ,; Cycle Exericises: ‘2_‘bars each chord/ scale {These may be used with Track 14 C7 7"‘ °“°"‘ F7 B17 arc. 14. C7 scale / F7 7 - B17 ETC. 1-: .—. mree mm 7:171 c_s1e 1 C7 9th chord F7 K‘. ,. . B17 (L: / . In 5. ETC. us. 1»{_; p’Tc; ?. 1;. —g1i]~-. b;. .1.~~» 1:1’ 1 15:1 W E71 were 1 Ki. C7 Bebop scale
  29. 29. 1;. Bebop Scale Patterns 1,. NOTE: Concert Key Instruments may play these exercises with CD #1, Track#1. B1» Instruments will play with CD #1, Track #3. E1 Instruments will play with CD #1, Track #4. C7 (C7 Bebop Scale) - ' 1.. o 1.. $9 0‘; 9 D 9 0 £0 9 Q 9 U 9' U 9 fl The added note B1 is always played on the upbeat. It will sound like a wrong note it played on a down-beat. (Play 3 Times) C7 (Play 3 Times) (Play 3 Times) (Play 2 Times) C7 7 4. {’#"’——-D (Play 3 Times) (Play 3 Times) C7 5- 5- 1 7. "L2 ‘C C7 12-/ ,«—= ———-—m
  30. 30. i jj " 1 , » ». , . . ~ . . . -— 1 , ma 9.. , » . ‘ . ~« 7 5 . » g .2.’ . . - '_ J W A M». .‘ 1,: _’ I *' ‘ ‘“ -1 . . I " . . . . ‘'1 . ._': ¢ . . . . _. I y 7, 1 ’ H _ - , .- I I 1 I 1%
  31. 31. I-W@’§ Typical Two & Four-bar Jazz Phrases Q3 NOTE: Concert Key Instruments may play these exercises with CD #1, Track#1, B1 Instruments with CD #1, Track #3, and El» Instruments with CD #1, Track #10. C7 (begin on the 3rd) 1- bl11»[g£, 15715 E7 11% ‘ THE 2. 171$: 1 re rm 1&4; C7 C7 [1 3- . ~-1@J1I3 F7 Beer: 1 C7 (begin on the 5th)
  32. 32. Q’ Two and Four-bar Phrases — Cont. '
  33. 33. 6» Typical Four 8: Eight-bar Jazz Phrases NOTE: Concert Key Instruments may play these exercises with CD #1, Track#1, B1» Instruments with CD #1, Track #3, and E1 Instruments with CD #1, Track #10. C7 Bebop scale , ,,, ,,, __1 L __________ _, C/ ' $17.. .1.. . mass ~1 53
  34. 34. Four & Eight-bar Phrases — Cont. és 11.”LEII9fll -[E733 £94.97 :41: W [fir if 3 T 37
  35. 35. Diminished Whole Tone Scale—2-Bar Phrases FA ‘9- C7+9 (HWHWWWW) (1, b9, #9, 3, #4, #5, b7, 1) (Dim. Whole Tone) NOTE: Most of these exercises can resolve to either F , F—7 or F7. C7+9 C7+9 FA C7+9 (Dlm. Whole Tone) C7+9
  36. 36. Diminished Whole Tone Sca1e—-4—Bar Phrases NOTE: Most of these examples can resolve to either F , F—7 or F7 b9, #9, 3, #4, #5, b7, 1) (HWHWWWW) (1 , (Dim. Whole Tone) (Trlad Superlmposltlon) C7+9 (Dlm. Whole Tone) C7+9 (Trlad Superlmposltlon) 58
  37. 37. iminished Scale - 4 Bar Phrases D (HWHWHWHW) (1, b9, #9, 3, #4, 5. 6, b7, 1) F, F7, F- C7b9 F, F7, F- C7b9 F F7, F-7
  38. 38. Typical Eight-bar Phrases ,1 (similar to CD#2, Track #7, Ex. 23) C7 C7 . . C7 C7
  39. 39. Suggestions for working with each of the 31 recorded play-a-long tracks TRACKS #1 thru #12 The first twelve recorded tracks allow you the opportunity to explore each dominant seventh key for an extended period of time. I suggest beginning by picking a key which allows you the freedom to easily play the scale and the chord and then improvise, using the notes of the scale and chord as your guide. Look at the Warm-Up Exercises for your instrument in the table of contents for ideas on how to go about practicing the scales. You don't have to use all the suggested warm-ups but do play several and use them as a springboard each time you start working on a new scale. Most professional musicians have one or two warm-up patterns they play when a new scale appears. They use these exercises to become more familiar with the fingerings and the general sound of the notes. Each note of the scale has its own sound. The 3" and 7"‘ are especially important. TRACK #13 - The Czcle - 8 bars of each scale This is a wrap-up track that you can use to review your knowledge of each of the twelve dominant 7"‘ scales that were presented on tracks #1 through #12. I hope by this time you'll feel somewhat comfortable improvising throughout this track. You may want to sing with this track before you actually play it. ‘ ‘i ’ " ' In keys that you are less confident, play simple ideas and don’t feel like you have to play a lot of notes. Go back and review some of the warm-up exercises until the keys feel easier. Keep your place and play with feeling. Play what you hear in your mind. Don’t try to impress your ego. If you feel you need some ideas, consult the various musical phrases I've presented throughout this book. Remember, this is a review track. Since it goes through all twelve keys without pause, it presents challenges that aren't present in the first twelve recorded tracks. TRACK #14 - The Cycle - 2 bars of each scale This track is similar to #13 but each scale only lasts 2 bars. The scales on this track will seem to fly by due to the short duration of each key. Look at the various two-bar melodic phrases for ideas of things you can play. I've listed the ideas in three keys. You have to transpose them to the other nine keys. Q page 35; @ page 33; @ page 39; 3 page 44. As stated earlier, the 3" of the scale likes to resolve down a half-step to the 7”‘ of the next scale. Also, the 7"‘ of the scale likes to resolve down a half-step to the 3"’ of the next scale. These tones are called guide-tones or leading-tones. They are present in ALL types of Western music. By memorizing patterns and licks and melodic fragments, your mind will feel more comfortable improvising. If you feel that jazz players are constantly playing brand new material, new ideas, you are mistaken. Much of what they play is learned and practiced over and over. The ease with which they perform their solos will often make the listener feel their ideas are falling out of the sky, with no effort. The effort was made hours, days or years ago in their practice room and grooves were carved in their musical mind. What you hear is the result of many hours of listening and practicing. It's not magic, although it will at times seem magical. When you reach the stage where you can effortlessly improvise through this track, you will have made tremendous progress towards realizing your musical goals. This is a very important track. TRACK #15 - The Cycle - 1 bar of each scale This track is a real challenge because each chord only lasts one bar. You won’t find many songs that have this many dominant 7”‘ chords that move this quickly, but this track is good practice. Consult table of contents for various exercises that take you through all twelve keys. They begin simply then gradually get more complex.
  40. 40. If you play a transposing instrument be sure you begin on the appropriate dominant 7"‘ key within the cycle: piano, guitar, flute, violin, bass and other C instruments begin on the C7 and continue. ..trumpets, clarinet, tenor and soprano sax, begin on the key of D7 and continue to the right. Alto & baritone sax begin on A7 and continue to the right. TRACK #16 - Dominant Tths - 4 bars of each scale, ug & down chromatically This is the first track that doesn’t go through the cycle. You have to think a little differently because the dominants don't RESOLVE like in the cycle tracks. The challenge here is to move smoothly from one scale to the next without stopping your musical train of thought. Try thinking in four and eight bar phrases, forcing yourself to play longer lines even though you feel you have run out of ideas. Remember, space/ rests are a part of music, too, Any four-bar phrase in this book can be used to stimulate your thinking. TRACK #17 - Dominant 7ths - 4 bars each scale - random root movement This track has a shuffle feel to the rhythm section. When the rhythm section feels good it will often obscure the difficulties presented in the chord progression. This seems to be the case here: A good feeling rhythm section playing smoothly over what could be a pretty intricate harmonic road if you don’t have the scales and chords under control. The main goal of this track is CONNECTION. The smooth connection of one scale INTO the next is what will make music. We call this “playing across the bar line. " The fourth measure of each 4 bar section is important because it LEADS to the next scale/ key. This is where smoothness of line is all important. This is also where the leading tones, the 3"‘ and 7"‘ are important, and resolving them to scale or chord tones of the next chord/ scale makes your playing sound smooth and professional. Look for half or whole step resolutions between chord tones and try to incorporate them in your line as you move from one key to the next. ' You may want to begin by playing pre-set patterns and gradually work into longer musical phrases that connect one scale into the next and then let that lead to full improvisation. TRACK #18 - Dominant 7ths - 2 bars each scale - random root movement This is an excellent track to work on 2 bar phrases and tie several together for longer phrases. See if you can keep an idea going for 8 measures. One suggestion would be to begin _in the low register and gradually move upward for 4 bars and then turn around and descend for 4 bars. Do this over and over utilizing the full range of your instrument where possible. It will force you to begin ideas on" notes you normally wouldn't. Another idea would be to stretch the above idea to equal 8 bars ascending and then turn around and descend for the next 8 bars. Use your imagination in order to stir your creativity. TRACK #19 - Dom. 7ths - 2 bars each - cycle, then ug & down chromatically This track is similar to Track #16 and #18. This is a review track and will allow you to assess your progress thus far. TRACK #20 - "Almost Like A Blues" - sixteen bar tune I wrote the chord progression to this song first. Then, a month later, I wrote the melody. The first eight measures appear to be a blues progression but then the progression changes and you find yourself traversing descending dominant 7ths chromatically through four keys. It then repeats the same four measures before returning to the beginning. This is an example of simplicity combined with complexity. The first 8 bars are simple and the last 8 require some thought. 65
  41. 41. TRACK #21 - The Czcle in 3/4 - 4 bars of each scale Playing in 3/4 time takes a somewhat different melodic concept than playing in the more common 4/4. With one less beat per measure, it’s easy to find your phrasing running up against a wall and the chords changing quicker than you are accustomed. You end up with extra notes in each phrase. Try singing along with this track and see if that doesn't help you get the feel of 3/4. TRACK #22 - ll / V7/ I in all twelve kezs This progression, consisting of a minor to dominant 7"‘ to major is the most important harmonic sequence in popular Western music. Your ability to master this sequence will in large part determine how successful you will be in improvising over the chord progressions to hundreds of songs in the jazz repertoire. Track #28 covers this same sequence in four minor keys. Jazz players have traditionally treated the V7 chord in II V7 l progression as an area that is left to the improviser to embellish as they choose. Some players aren't aware of the various choices that are available and their playing may seem a bit bland due to the lack of tension the V7 is seeking. See the page titled The TREE of DOMINANT 7"‘ CHOICES on page 13. This is an important page. It lists the various choices that are the most popular, _and most used. The ones at the top of the page are more consonant, and as you move down the page they become more dissonant. The object seems to be this: Play any note at any time . .over. a V7 chord but play with conviction and have it resolve as your mind dictates. Listening to the jazz masters helps develop a sense of community with all the jazz players of the past. You learn to speak their language by playing the same scales, patterns, licks, songs and chord progressions, with the same inflections, sound and articulations. In a way, it is like learning a new language; but you’ll speak it with your OWN voice. When cadences end in a minor key, the two-chord (ll) is usually a half-diminished chord/ scale, symbolized by. ..( ¢ ). The dominant 7"‘, (the five-chord, V7) is usually an altered dominant such as the diminished scale (beginning with a half-step, HWHWHWHW) or the diminished whole tone scale (HWHWWWW). Examine these two scales on pages 16 through 19. TRACK #23 - Dominant 7ths resolving to Tonic Minor The first four measures of each line/ key are unaltered dominants. Bars 5 and 6 use the dim. whole tone scale before resolving to the minor tonic key. So, you get an opportunity to play the basic scale. and then weave it into the altered scale, and then resolve to the tonic minor. This all equals tension, TENSION and Release. The diminished whole tone scale is a favorite for substitution over a dominant 7"‘, especially when it resolves to tonic. See the musical examples on pages 57 and 58 for ideas in constructing melodies with this recorded track. Usually, if we leam something well in one key, transposing those same ideas to other keys becomes much easier. If your CD player has AB Repeat, you may want to just work on the first linelkey over and over before going to the other eleven keys. Note: AB Repeat allows you to mark off a section of the song, any section, any length, and play it over and over until you manually release the repeat button. You may have to search for a player with this function. It is not found on all CD players. Some computer software products will allow you to do the same thing. TRACK #24 - Dim. Whole Tone resolving to Minor then resolving to Major This track gives you an opportunity to resolve the altered scale to minor THEN to major. Any of the dim. whole tone two-bar phrases in this book found on page 57 may be used with this track. The diminished whole tone scale has four altered notes (high tension notes). They are the b9, #9, #4 and #5. In the C7 dim. w. t. scale these notes are Db, D#, F#, and G#. The entire scale looks like this: 0. Db, D#. E, F#, G#, Bb, C.
  42. 42. Inside every dim. whole tone scale lie two major triads, each built on the raised 4”‘ and the raised 5"‘. Jazz players have traditionally isolated one or both of those triads and played them over the V7, giving the dominant 7"‘ chord a special high tension quality. They usually resolve into the tonic minor or major chord by half-step, thus making a smooth transition and release. I've notated the roots of the two major triads with small letters under the basic altered dominant. I hope this helps you center in on those notes if and when you are at the point where you want to experiment with those type sounds. TRACK #25 - Dim. Whole Tone scales - 8 bars each, random root movement This track isolates the altered scale and allows you time to work on phrases built on the basic dim. whole tone scale, without having to think about resolving the scale up a 4"‘ to tonic. I'm sure as you play with this track, you’ll want to try and resolve by half-step at the end of each 8 bar phrase to notes of the next scale. Once you gain a measure of proficiency with scales, the object seems to be to lengthen your lines by smoothly connecting one scale/ chord into the next. This is one of the challenges of improvising. The dim. whole tone scale offers much variety. The scale is loaded with tension notes and a measure of your mastery of this scale lies in how well you can effortlessly travel through chords replete with this type sound. This is not a beginning-level type of scale sound. Listening to records of people who have made their living improvising will help acclimate your ear to this sound. I think of it as the scale that comes closest to the chromatic scale. The chromatic scale offers complete freedom in Westem music and the dim. whole tone scale is next closest. You may also want to isolate the two major triads and work on developing facility emphasizing that sound. TRACK #26 - Diminished scale resolving to Minor, then to Major The diminished scale has three altered tones: the b9, #9 and the #4. It is an eight-note scale and offers a wide variety of patterns and shapes that seven—note scales can’t offer. The diminished scale beginning with a half-step (HWHWHWHW) is a favorite substitute scale for dominants. It, along with the dim. whole tone scale, form the basis of most substituted scales over any dominant 7"‘ sound. Michael Brecker and James Moody are excellent examples of players who can breeze through a complex chord sequence and sprinkle in ideas based on the diminished scale with ease. They obviously have studied the scale thoroughly and enjoy the variety it offers. They also are well versed in the dim. whole tone scale and know when and how each scale can be used to its best advantage. TRACK #27 - Diminished scale - 8 bars each - random root movement This track allows you to work on the 8 note diminished scale as an entity in itself, without resolving up a 4"‘ to the tonic. We are using it as a substitute color for a dominant chord. You can work on various patterns and hear what they sound like. Remember, there are only THREE diminished scales. See the scale chart on page 17 or 19. Since there are only three, our work is made a little easier. Inside each diminished scale lie 4 major triads. They are built on the root, lowered third, lowered fifth and the natural sixth degree of the scale. In the key of C they would appear on the notes C, Eb, Gb, and A. This major triad sound has been explored by various jazz players throughout the 20"‘ century. It probably started with classical composers such as Debussy and Ravel. I have indicated the roots of the major triads in letters beneath the basic chord symbol. It may take your ears some time to adjust to the sound of the various triads against the basic dominant 7"‘ sound. 67
  43. 43. TRACK #28 - Minor lI/ V7/ I in four keys I recorded this progression in the four most used keys. As I've said earlier, if you learn a pattern or chord sequence properly in one or two keys, it is relatively easy to transpose those ideas to other keys. Note: the first eight measures of each line resolve to dorian minor. The second eight measures resolve to minor with a major seventh. This means for the second section of each key you can use the ascending melodic minor scale or the harmonic minor scale as the key of resolution. Experiment with both and see if you can get the feel and sound of these special scales. When you get them under control, they will add variety to your playing. Incidentally, since the human ear hears melody differently than it hears harmony, you’ll find players substituting melodic and harmonic minor over a dorian sound. This is very common. Melodies don’t always perfectly align themselves over the harmony. The average person's ear would never know the difference. The aspiring musician works on their ears’ ability to hear EVERYTHING. Let nothing deter you from the path to becoming all you can be. TRACK #29 - Sweet Geor ia Brown - 32 measure son I chose this song because it uses a lot of dominant 7 scales and they tend to resolve up a perfect 4”‘. The measures that contain dominants that. I would consider substituting altered dominants are: 4, 8, 12, 14, 16, 20, 24, 26, 28, 30, 31, and 32 (they are marked with a star *). The coda section also has several possibleplaces. You may want to mark these with a pencil so your eye will easily see them. A Memorize the melody, listen to various versions on recordings and memorize the chord progression. When you have a song memorized (melody and chord progression) and can sing it while walking down the street, you’ll most likely play a stronger, more convincing solo when it's your turn to play. Anything internalized, (memorized), will pay huge dividends later in your musical journey. Get a Chromatic Pitch Pipe and carry it with you. Use it to practice singing the roots and triads to the songs you are learning. Constantly check your pitch. Learn to use your mind. That's what it is for. TRACK #30 - Indiana {Back Home Againj - 32 measure song This song has long been a favorite of jazz musicians. It was written long ago but jazz musicians still enjoy the challenge of “chasing the changes" to this song. Memorize the melody and the chord progression. Analyze the changes and mark llN7's and the dominant 7ths that resolve up a fourth. Experiment with substituting altered dominants at those points. The measures that I would use substitutes are: 2, 6, 8, 12, 16, 18, 22, 24, 26, 30, and 32. Put a mark on your page at these points so you can see them. TRACK #31 - Round About - 32 measure song. I wrote this song as a final review of various scales that can be used as substitutes for dominants. It employs these quality of scales: major, minor, Iydian dominant, diminished (as a substitute for dominant), and diminished whole tone (as a substitute for dominant). If you can play effectively over this tune’s chord progression you are on your way! Use your imagination. That is what makes you unique.
  44. 44. «» Concert Key Chord Progressions (IV Triad (1, 3 & 5) 7th chord 9th chord 0 '-' '7 , _,, ,_, ,,Q _, ____T: :"““; . g 3 Q, » at . “i Triad (1, 3 3. 5) 7th chord 9“? °h°'d E _ ‘ Li- 7th chord 9th chord Triad (1, 3 & 5) 3%? " in EL7 Scale Triad (1, 3 & 5) 7th chord 9"‘ °h°'d __ _. ___ : )m 9 | D be . ._. _.. _ , _ > 9 H l; (,T”0”E". ‘f*: —‘: ’T. '_ . . __ E“ 9 u [,9 39% - 3;. " - , 2 3 4 5 ti L7 8 5) 3 L7 6 5 4 3 2 , I 9th chord A| ,7 scale In) be Ln be [Lo Triad (1,, 3 &‘E—, ) 7th chord [7 alte—t? i:. ;.: srM—°ee° _ “M0 «rm. .. as t2345i; L7 s“9 8127 6’"'54321 1)l,7 scale 17 Triad (1, 3 & 5) 7th chord 9th chord ‘I’-49+ : -. -Q; A—_: }-777* 3' _. ,. mfi. W as 4 hi {’“'-‘5°‘: *r, ,»i»cé»J, t?"‘l91‘§: ": er - it 2 ‘, ”i’§’7;; 4 ‘5 air: 8 9 sin 6''5 4 Triad (1, 3 & 5) 7th chord ti’; chord 3 9th9chord Triad (1, 3 & 5) 7th ChOI’d Triad (1, 3 & 5) 7th chord 9th chord . . . . . . _ _ _. . . ._. .._ “ flu §i“i . Triad (1, 3 & 5) 7th chord 9"}. °"°'d 51.9 W. .. "7 4_ 7 . -. " . __. ."_. ::"‘ B? izfg -6 9 0 T ' . '. '.: :t': : '"9s1=7t'.5Ii32t Triad (1, 3 & 5) 7th chord 9th chord , ,, , . ... _e. H. .. _ A , V . -__ ts: tfii, #5? A Triad (1, 3 & 5) 7th chord 9"‘, ,°"°"‘ , , 0 . _, ‘ A -I) 3 2 1 __ WE
  45. 45. ('9 Concert Key Chord Progressions 6', rgfixtgen &#-U _W (feta 9 ,0 9%“ 9 ' ' 9.0 l-——8-——l ‘ ‘ V48:-—l D7 G7 C7.” s+b2fi°°°°°‘“°ae. .@iea°“* -r- - -. - l-: -s——l The Cycle, 1 bar of each scaIe—Play 7 times C7 F7 Bl77 l, .,l». e 2), .. _. 9 (zD. .0.. n_ . W‘, IBrfiC. ... ... eoi”T’“%ieeuri°9». ““‘“”°°"*”§ii«° § EL7 A197 telm L D127 Fll7 B7 E7 A7 D7 C7 C7 ritard. last time 70
  46. 46. Q3 Concert Key Chord Progressions ' Ascend chromatically, then descend chromatically, 4 bars each scaIe—Play 1 timel C7 DL7 W D7 EL7 E7 F7 F#7 G7 In 2. 4 —= as 4 AL7 A7 BL7 B7 C7 B7 BL7 A7 4 / i AE7 G7 F117 F7 E7 EL7 D7 DL7 +—4 —+, a—4 —+t+—4 —i—~i—4 —-+11--4 —e4—4 --i——i—4 —'P%‘—4eE CD #2 Begins Hefe Random root movement, 2 bars each sca| e—Play 3 times C7 E7 7 AL7 F A7 BL7 : sa—4 —sH—4 —: »+a—4 —«4a——‘i/ riiii‘—ises, i;+*— 4 +++«——t4s—+ AA G7 B7 D7 DL7 F#7 EI77 1, " _. __ _ 4 4 . _ __ 4 —eH—”4 —+ zirhfi ‘ F7 G7 EL7 A7 Ffi7 V D7 3 : ..'. ... Z._; ',. ' 2 A 2 A z 7 ' 2 ’ 2 C117 87 Ai»7 BL7 E7 L ,2 —'Fe , .W_+—, ..-. __2ee—‘—, *— 2 2 —i=1—‘——" 2 ‘ ' 7- . 9 ’ T 2 bars each thru the cycle, then up & down chromatical| y—Play 2 times Cycle BL7 E127 AL7 DL7 Ft37 B7 E7 D7 G7 C7 F7 Chromatic up - BE7 B7 C7 C; ¢7 D7 EL7 E7 F7 F#7 G7 A197 A7 'fl-: '§_—'F4;2t—F+—§—i—{; +—" 2_H_2_; :;+_* 2+ 2‘”*j: %2:e; .u :7 ; _2:{]] Chromatic down B/ E7 BB7 A7 A97 G7 Gb7 F7 E7 EL7 D7 Din C7 B7 L “Almost Like a Blues” 16 bar tune—Play 9 times and take the Coda Ab7(Ela—) / ‘T G7(D—) F: ¢7(cfi—) 6} ; r| Repeat over and over and fade out
  47. 47. 3 Concert Key Chord Progressions (5, C7 F7 BL7 El>7 Al>7 Dl>7 m -—'r3E--4 -#—11--4 —-l—1:l—4 —+11—4 —i: lfi--4 —lfi F117 B7 E7 A7 D7 G7 9-4‘ 4 4 4 - 3 1 2 F— BL7 EBA l C7+9 H El7A aw ‘l— 1 7 :3 1 1 2. D— G7 _ CA A7+9 CA 2. B— E7 ~ AA F'117+9- - AA E : l—_ 7 ’ ‘T _ 4 F11— B7 EA C'117+9 ZBA ll 1? 3 1 4 1 G- C7 FA 215A E T as -1; l —~% l -1: j 2. A- D7 GA E7+9 GA H l : l— ‘ll l Al— DL7 cm ;1;l7+9 <2;'lA ll. " ‘L J _r ‘El C- F7 Bl2A ]G7+9 §l»A, __ " l A 1 7 - 1 1i 1 C11— -JF117 1 BA lA'b7»_eg_‘ ZBA L 7 ii A E El2— Al>7 Dl>A Bl>7+9 ]2)l>A __ Db- EL7 Al2A F7+9 _A: l>A
  48. 48. —_. .,, ,.v {'5 Concert Key Chord Progressions Q3 A7 A7+9 D - BL7 Bi77+9 fzpj1z1gUhU#6_~w9#niz. ,‘Fe . , El»- '/2nd x only 73
  49. 49. AL7+9 DL— AL7+9 DLA BL7+9 FL— BL7;9 FLA ELA 1112 _l Zrl ‘ X 11:41 .3‘ =3 Diminished Wholetone scales, 8 bars each: Random root movement—Play 1 time D7+9 B7+9 E7+9
  50. 50. 1 Concert Key Chord Progressions G» C7L9 F— C7L9 FA E“ 1 X 1 x :33: :4 1 _1_j C EL GL A* E7139 A— E7L9 AA F GWBL DL F7L9 BL— F7L9 Ti BLA 1 1 x 1 2 1L 1 F AL B D G7L9 1 ((3-17 G7L9 CA ‘G B D F gm A7L9 D— A7L9 DA TE E G ‘B7ALA9 __ ____________ _E— A A B7!» EA 1: - A N-. . I ; re A ~ x__ __t 1 K-73 B D F AL EL7L9 AL— EL7L9 ALA W _ lg e as ~= »< E * K 1 2 =1 EWA C it I I C117L9 F11— C117L9 F11A 1‘ 7 1 ¥ : : I H L} _ [ fl Bk 1 le. 1 1L 1 , _D7L9 _G—__ _ _ D752 _ GAV M 1: z 1 4 x B _ 1 2: +1 we 11 D F AL B —. - 8- C, __ 117%? A BA [; '——--H. .. 1 Z 1 T . , 111 _1 , g_ :11 FHA C EL AL7L9 g DL— AL7L9 DLA ; 1 V 1 it 24 1 1 2 _; H A B D F BL7L9 FL— BL7L9 _m M FLA B 1) E G '/ Lastxonly *NOTE: Each of the four letters written beneath the first ‘chord symbol in each line represents the Roots of Four Major Triads which may be superimposed over the accompanying diminished scale. C7L9 C719 _ . . . . . 1, . . Ex. C w)GLA _ C lrlad, l: J>'I‘r1ad, G Triad, and A Triad. § The triad based on the tonic is a part of the basic, parent sound. The other three offer more harmonic tension. 75
  51. 51. 6', Concert Key Chord Progressions Q’. Diminished scales, 8 bars each: Random root movement—Play 1 time BL7L9 F7L9 F7L9 1 as A +1291» 1, Mrs M 19 . ,»e : .;M» *NOTE: Each of the four letters written beneath the first chord symbol GA in each line represents the Roots of Four Major Triads which may be _____—_— --_ _ ______ _ superimposed over the accompanying diminished scale. C7!” ‘ii: " ; ,7 ‘:4 : _ Ex. 57% G A = Crriad, F11~iad, G1'rriad, and A Triad. The triad based on the tonic is a part of the basic, parent sound. The other three offer more harmonic tension. llN7I| in Minor (Four Keys)—-Play 1 time no G7+9 C— Do G7+9 C-A Eiik-? ‘i‘— » 1 1* L"‘i__«% _ 1 fi Co F7+9 BL— C0 F7+9 BL—A E; 1 1 __ """"‘ -is . _ A Z 7 ~~1 ’"~‘: {,: _-, . 1 g; _kf‘: *f: :., :_C-(K451 F0 BL7+9 FL— F0 BL7+9 EL—A 11» 1 1 1" ix A11 A1 *1 ——z: :1 G0 C7+9 F- G0 C7+9 F-A Fine on repeat 76
  52. 52. W 7,’. Sweet Georgia Brown Q5 Play 5 “mes By Ben Bernie, Maceo Pinkard & Kenneth Casey F7 F7 BL7 BL7 LL L}V3*’? i;; ;‘ J mg F‘; r t F $7 erg’? aw «E: T J EL7 L ALA "H W W G0 C7+9 F- L: “ 1 = ii—T»' re: AL; -7 flag L54 1;: 7 Lt" 297 L; B? ‘ EL7 AL7 G7 GL7 17 BL— EL7 ALA ‘3.1;L1:: &i, F~J :5,-if 4VT‘5—Fr’if 9;-Li 13 SOLOS 'F7A BL7 A F ~ _/ —yA—i_; A+, -(L 1’/ HLJLJ / _ EL7 BL— EL7 ALA BL— EL7 ALA G— C7 xi 4 G L A -r 'fZ_. 1 F7 BL7 : "'; Zj‘": T X , , L V 7‘ _-4‘ :2: I. "” “Z } 7?-—-fl F5 G0 C7L9 F— BL’-‘ EL7 AL7 G7 GL7 F7 BL7 EL7 $ALA C7+9 {'1 LI **** be i L L L 4 _' —; —~= a $ ALA AL7 G7 GL7 F7 BL7 EL7 ALA AL7 G7 GL7 F7 BL7 EL7 L T it ' is L" x :1? A Do “DL— c— B7 BL— EL7+9 AQH I-_ L g 77
  53. 53. Q’) Indiana (Back Home Again) Q’) Plav 5timeS By Ballard MacDonald and James F. Hanley ALA F7 BL7 SOLOS ALA F7 BL7 BL— EL7 F 4 L 1 7/ 1 - 7 DLA GL7 ALA F7 BL7 k I arr A; 1 ALA F7 BL7 G0 C7+9 L _ I aeeie : — F— G0 C7+9 F— B07 c— F— BL— F: L7$ALA BL— EL7 c— F— BL— EL7 c— F— BL— EL7 ALA Copyrighl © 1997 Jumey Aebersold Jun. Inc . Inlemzuiunui Copyright Secured All Rnghn Reserved Used by PermI. ».~mn 78
  54. 54. _. ..! ,.. _ Q) Round About (1) Play 3 times By Jamey Aebersold ELA A7+4 AL— F7+9 Fig BL7+9 ELA Copyright © 1999 Jamey Aebersold Jazz, lnc. . $ lnlernalitvnal Copyright Secured An Rights Reserved ,9

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