Chapter 6 Decision Support System Development Turban, Aronson, and Liang  Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems...
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the concepts of systems development. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn PADI, the phases of SD...
Osram Sylvania Thinks Small, Strategizes Big-Develops the Infonet HR Portal System Vignette <ul><li>Creation of a speciali...
Systems Development Life Cycle <ul><li>Four phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li...
Tools <ul><li>Computer-aided software design tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper CASE –  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crea...
Successful Project Management <ul><li>Establish a baseline  </li></ul><ul><li>Define scope of project </li></ul><ul><li>Ma...
Implementation Failures <ul><li>Lack of stakeholder involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete requirements </li></ul><ul><l...
Evolutionary Disruptors <ul><li>Development environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational cultural factors </li></ul></...
Project Management Tools <ul><li>Project management software can allow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration among disparat...
Alternative Development Methodologies <ul><li>Parallel development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple development on separate ...
 
Agile Development <ul><li>Rapid prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unclear or rapidly changing ...
DSS Development Methodology <ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative design </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary developm...
DSS Prototyping <ul><li>Short steps  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul...
DSS Prototyping <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User and management involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learni...
Change Management <ul><li>Crucial to DSS </li></ul><ul><li>People resistant to change </li></ul><ul><li>Examine cause of c...
DSS Technology Levels <ul><li>DSS primary tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental elements  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
 
DSS <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCs to multiprocessor mainframes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul>...
DSS <ul><li>Team developed DSS requires substantial effort to build and manage </li></ul><ul><li>End user developed DSS  <...
DSS <ul><li>DSS is much more than just a DBMS, MBMS, GUI, interface, and knowledge component </li></ul>
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Dss

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Decision Support System Development Turban, Aronson, and Liang Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Seventh Edition
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Understand the concepts of systems development. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn PADI, the phases of SDLC. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe prototyping. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand which factors lead to DSS success or failure. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the importance of project management. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the three technology levels of DSS. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the learning process involved in DSS development. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Osram Sylvania Thinks Small, Strategizes Big-Develops the Infonet HR Portal System Vignette <ul><li>Creation of a specialized business portal to solve specific problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototype </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive, Web-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HR portal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Think small, strategize big </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on key problems first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan to achieve quick small successes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intranet-based portal for hiring, job postings, benefits, bonuses, retirement information </li></ul>
  4. 4. Systems Development Life Cycle <ul><li>Four phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyclical </li></ul><ul><li>Can return to other phases </li></ul><ul><li>Waterfall model </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tools <ul><li>Computer-aided software design tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper CASE – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates systems diagrams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower CASE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manages diagrams and code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated CASE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>RAD design tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise class repository and collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UML modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis and design software </li></ul><ul><li>Code debugging methods </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and quality assurance tools </li></ul>
  6. 6. Successful Project Management <ul><li>Establish a baseline </li></ul><ul><li>Define scope of project </li></ul><ul><li>Manage change and scope creep </li></ul><ul><li>Get support from upper management </li></ul><ul><li>Establish timelines, milestones, and budgets based on realistic goals </li></ul><ul><li>Involve users </li></ul><ul><li>Document everything </li></ul>
  7. 7. Implementation Failures <ul><li>Lack of stakeholder involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Scope creep </li></ul><ul><li>Unrealistic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Project champion leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of skill or expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate human resources </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies </li></ul>
  8. 8. Evolutionary Disruptors <ul><li>Development environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational cultural factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of top management support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User and analyst attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development team capability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User education, support, involvement, training </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Project Management Tools <ul><li>Project management software can allow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration among disparate teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource and program management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portfolio management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web enabled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregates and analyses project data </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Alternative Development Methodologies <ul><li>Parallel development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple development on separate systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RAD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick development allowing fast, but limited functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phased development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequential serial development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid development of portions of projects for user input and modification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small working model or may become functional part of final system </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Throwaway prototyping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot test or simple development platforms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Agile Development <ul><li>Rapid prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Used for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unclear or rapidly changing requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedy development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy user input </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental delivery with short time frames </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to have integration problems </li></ul>
  12. 13. DSS Development Methodology <ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative design </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary development </li></ul><ul><li>Middle out process </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive design </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental design </li></ul>
  13. 14. DSS Prototyping <ul><li>Short steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototype </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immediate stakeholder feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In development of prototype </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the system in general </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation integral part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control mechanism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. DSS Prototyping <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User and management involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning explicitly integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototyping bypasses information requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short intervals between iterations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved user understanding of system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not have thorough understanding of benefits and costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependencies, security, and safety may be ignored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem may get lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction in quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher costs due to multiple productions </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Change Management <ul><li>Crucial to DSS </li></ul><ul><li>People resistant to change </li></ul><ul><li>Examine cause of change </li></ul><ul><li>May require organizational culture shift </li></ul><ul><li>Lewin-Schein change theory steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfreeze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create awareness of need for change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People support what they help create </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop new methods and behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create and maintain momentum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refreeze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce desired changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish stable environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. DSS Technology Levels <ul><li>DSS primary tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programming languages, graphics, editors, query systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>DSS generator (engine) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated software package for building specific DSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling, report generation, graphics, risk analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific DSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DSS application that accomplishes the work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DSS primary tools are used to construct integrated tools that are used to construct specific tools </li></ul>
  17. 19. DSS <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCs to multiprocessor mainframes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves multiple criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop in house, outsource, or buy off the shelf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Off the shelf software rapidly updated; many on market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prices fluctuate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different tools available </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. DSS <ul><li>Team developed DSS requires substantial effort to build and manage </li></ul><ul><li>End user developed DSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-makers and knowledge workers develop to solve problems or enhance productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short delivery time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User requirements specifications are eliminated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced implementation problems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low costs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality may be low </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May have lack of documentation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security risks may increase </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. DSS <ul><li>DSS is much more than just a DBMS, MBMS, GUI, interface, and knowledge component </li></ul>

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