Characterization of2007                           Integrated Nano Materials                                 Amal CHABLI   ...
From Europe - FranceMicro and nano technologies 300mm facility 200mm MEMS facility Nanocharacterization      http://www...
Characterization International Acknowledgment                                                                        IBM p...
Driving forces for nanoscale characterization                        65 nm                   45 nm             32 nm      ...
Outline            A new nanomaterial context            Down to 45 nm CMOS technology            Below the 45 nm CMOS ...
Beyond CMOS and Extreme CMOS objects                      GaAs-NWs                                 CNT                    ...
Integrated materials characterization challenges     Co multi-twinned nanocrystal on TEM C membrane                      ...
Down to 45 nm node CMOS technology New materials                                           HiK, LoK, Metallic alloys,…   ...
1D information from full wafer layer stacks         Complementarities                                                     ...
Below 45 nm node CMOS technology  Size effect on material properties                                                     ...
2D information for specific features                                                                                      ...
2D information from electron microscopy                    φ-FET structure            C. Duprey et al., IEDM (2008)      ...
2D information from electron microscopyElectron holography                                        Si p/n junctions        ...
Non-conservative 3rd dimension case        50nm gate SOI device                          HAADF                      Redep...
Integration of nanomaterials   Features of nanometer size                                        Wires, Dots, CNT,…   Bo...
Beyond CMOS nanomaterial integration                                               Vertical ZnO NWs embedded in polymer  ...
Beyond CMOS nanomaterial integration               Gd inclusion in silica nanospheres                                    ...
3D for top down approach extreme CMOS    Gate-all-around (GAA) transistors             Th. Ernst, this conf., invited    ...
Specialized sample preparation for 3D                                                                                     ...
3D reliable information for GAA devices   Needle tomogram reconstruction by Weighted Back Projection2007                 ...
Challenges in nanoscale characterization                        65 nm                   45 nm             32 nm           ...
Aknowledgments      A. Bailly                          D. Cooper                W. Li Ling      J.-P. Barnes          ...
Join us for the                          11th Leti Annual Review2007                                         June 22-23, 2...
What about NEMS ?            Dynamic properties                                       NEMS VLSI2007                     ...
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Chabli

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Chabli

  1. 1. Characterization of2007 Integrated Nano Materials Amal CHABLI © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 1
  2. 2. From Europe - FranceMicro and nano technologies 300mm facility 200mm MEMS facility Nanocharacterization http://www.minatec.com 2007 © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 2
  3. 3. Characterization International Acknowledgment IBM press release – April 9, 2009CEA/Leti and IBM to Collaborate on Future Nanoelectronics TechnologyCEA/Leti Becomes a Research Associate of IBM and IBM’s SemiconductorJoint Development Alliance Ecosystem Centered in Albany« GRENOBLE, France - 09 Apr 2009: CEA/Leti (the Electronics and Information Technology Laboratory of theCEA, based in Grenoble), and IBM today announced that they will collaborate on research in semiconductorand nanoelectronics technology.… innovative nanoscaleComplementary expertiseThis collaboration will focus on three key areas: 2007 characterization techniques • Advanced lithography for fast prototyping and 22nm chip technology • CMOS technologies and low-power devices for 22nm chip technology and beyond • Technology enablement, including innovative nanoscale characterization techniques for research and for the monitoring of manufacturing protocols … » http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/27187.wss © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 3
  4. 4. Driving forces for nanoscale characterization 65 nm 45 nm 32 nm 22 nm 12 nm More than Moore Thin films-1DScaling down 3D 2007 Object collection-2D Single object -3D Beyond CMOS © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 4
  5. 5. Outline  A new nanomaterial context  Down to 45 nm CMOS technology  Below the 45 nm CMOS technology  Integration of nanomaterials2007  ConclusionFrom the point of view of characterization © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 5
  6. 6. Beyond CMOS and Extreme CMOS objects GaAs-NWs CNT Bio-molecules CNRS-LPN CEA-LEM Nanotechnology devices Nano-bridge for contacting a single Np Material science 2007  Nanosize effect characterization  Huge instrumental effort  Powerful simulation  Elaborated data interpretation Challenges for integrated NMs ? © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 6
  7. 7. Integrated materials characterization challenges  Co multi-twinned nanocrystal on TEM C membrane Structural characterization TEM 2 nm wo preparation µSQUID device single cluster magnetism HRTEM R. Morel et al., Eur. Phys. J. D24, 287 (2003) Nb 2007Characterization Nbusing a TEM lamella CoO Si Si Process induced changes Crystallographic orientation vs TEM M. Jamet et al., Phys. Rev. lett. 86, 4676 (2001) Where are we, today ? © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 7
  8. 8. Down to 45 nm node CMOS technology New materials HiK, LoK, Metallic alloys,… Metal gate stacks, Cu interconnects Advanced processes ALD, Epitaxy, … Layer thickness down to the nm Courtesy A.-M. Papon  Process improvement and control require mainly 1D information2007  Representative full wafer layers and stacks of the integrated materials are available  Sub nanometer depth resolution mandatory Material properties within thin layers Integration Interface stability © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 8
  9. 9. 1D information from full wafer layer stacks Complementarities 10 ε(E ) = ε1(E ) + j ε2(E ) as deposited - experimental + ZrO2 MEIS He 100 keV 8 Dielectric constant as deposited - calculation 1500 annealed - experimental annealed - calculation 6 ε1( E ) Zr Hf MEIS yield (a.u.) 1000 4 Hf diffusion 2 500 in ZrO 2 ε2(E ) EUV-SE 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 Photon energy E (eV) Energy (keV) Courtesy F. Ferrieu S. Lhostis et al., proc. of 213th ECS Conf. (2008) Al2O3 Al-O2007 XPS-UPS Cutting edge capabilities ATR-FTIR Hf/Al 1:9 Hf/Al 1:6 Hf-O 0,14 Hf/Al 1:4 0,12 Hf/Al 1:3 Hf/Al 1:2 0,1 Si-O Hf/Al 9:1 HfO2 0,08 ABS (u.a.) 0,06 0,04 0,02 0 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 -1 nombre donde (cm ) -0,02 N. Rochat et al., FCMN (2007) © CEA 2009. All rights reserved A. Martinez et al., JAP, 104, 073708 (2008) Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 9
  10. 10. Below 45 nm node CMOS technology  Size effect on material properties Cu lines  Local growth (SiGe S/D) Selective epitaxy  Process improvement and control require more and more 2D information  Representative features of integrated materials with only conservative 3rd dimension are available2007  Imaging with nanometer spatial resolution required Integration Size dependent properties Induced new phenomena and © CEA 2009. All rights reserved properties Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 10
  11. 11. 2D information for specific features  Cu interco. TOF-SIMS Cl Cu 10 µm 0.4 µm Cu line 3 µm Cu line J.-P. Barnes et al. SIMS XVI Int. Workshop (2007)  Metal gate EBSD 5 µm Workfunction (eV) 4.90 2007 4.89 4.88 KFM 4.87 K. Kaja et al.Poster TU-011 N. Gaillard et al., Microelec. Eng. 83 (2006)N. Barrett et al. © CEA 2009. All rights reservedPoster WE-025 Surface topography Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 11
  12. 12. 2D information from electron microscopy  φ-FET structure C. Duprey et al., IEDM (2008) TiTh. Ernst, this conf., invited TEM O p-Si N SiO2 Si HR-HAADF-STEM Hf02 SiO2 SiN TiN EF-TEM 2.5 nm spot size Courtesy M. Jublot 2007 Gate NBED Conservative Source 002 3rd dimension Drain is required 220 Orientation Uppermost Strain spatial resolution [110]Si © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Chemistry Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 12
  13. 13. 2D information from electron microscopyElectron holography Si p/n junctions 45 nm CMOS 200 nm Reference Standard Improved D. Cooper et al., APL 93, 183509 (2008) D. Cooper et al. Dark field holography 2007 Poster TH-014 Courtesy D. Cooper Conservative 3rd dimension is required © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein More about dark field holo.: M. Hitch, this conf., invited is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 13
  14. 14. Non-conservative 3rd dimension case  50nm gate SOI device HAADF Redeposited - STEM HfO2 TaSi2 TEM p-Si TiN c-Si 50 nm HfO22007 Full structure not identified by a unique view 3D information required Electron tomography © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 14
  15. 15. Integration of nanomaterials  Features of nanometer size Wires, Dots, CNT,…  Bottom up approach Self organization, catalysis,…  Process improvement and control require 3D information  Only features with no conservative dimension  Needs down to atomic resolution 20 nm O Fe Electron2007 holography EF-TEM 100 nm 50 nm CNT catalyst undoped Si NW Promising on isolated objects M. Den Hertog et al., but still mainly qualitative P doped Si NW © CEA 2009. All rights reserved to be published Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 15
  16. 16. Beyond CMOS nanomaterial integration  Vertical ZnO NWs embedded in polymer 1,2 µm SEM AFM 2 µm 300nm Electrical Scanning Probe Microscopy 1013 VAC = 1V SSRM SSRM VDC = 0V2007 50 kHz R (Ω) R (Ω) R (Ω) R (Ω) R (Ω) R (Ω) 300 nm SCMN. Chevalier et al. 109 Poster TH-020 E. Latu-Romain & al., EMRS (2008) Properties modification © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 16
  17. 17. Beyond CMOS nanomaterial integration  Gd inclusion in silica nanospheres Back projection of HAADF tilt series Electron tomography HAADF-STEM2007 3D observation mandatory Where is the Gd cluster ? even if isolated nanospheres © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 17
  18. 18. 3D for top down approach extreme CMOS  Gate-all-around (GAA) transistors Th. Ernst, this conf., invited Conventional preparation 100-200nm thick Parallel-sided lamella 2 µm2007 Thickness changes with tilt Shadowing at high angle © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 18
  19. 19. Specialized sample preparation for 3D P. Cherns et al.  Needle by FIB annular milling Poster TH-021 SEM 350nm2007 HAADF-STEM tilt series No thickness changes with tilt No shadowing over the full tilt range © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 19
  20. 20. 3D reliable information for GAA devices  Needle tomogram reconstruction by Weighted Back Projection2007 Boundaries of TiN layers Still some artifacts P. Cherns et al. Quantification… Poster TH-021 © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 20
  21. 21. Challenges in nanoscale characterization 65 nm 45 nm 32 nm 22 nm 12 nm Support More than Moore Thin films-1DScaling down Protocols 3D Relevance 2007 Object collection-2D Frontier Single object -3D Beyond CMOS © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 21
  22. 22. Aknowledgments  A. Bailly  D. Cooper  W. Li Ling  J.-P. Barnes  H. Dansas  M. Lavayssière  N. Barrett  Th. Ernst  Ch. Licitra  F. Bertin  F. Ferrieu  D. Mariolle  N. Bernier  F. Fillot  E. Martinez  N. Bicaïs  P. Gergaud  A.-M. Papon  P. Bleuet  J.-M. Hartmann  F. Pierre2007  A. Brenac  M. Jublot  O. Renault  P. Cherns  K. Kaja  N. Rochat  N. Chevalier  D. Lafond  J.-L. Rouvière  E. Latu-Romain  R. Truche  … © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 22
  23. 23. Join us for the 11th Leti Annual Review2007 June 22-23, 2009 at Minatec For more information www.leti.fr © CEA 2009. All rights reserved Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 23
  24. 24. What about NEMS ?  Dynamic properties  NEMS VLSI2007 Optical detection for MEMS Electron detection in a SEM for NEMS S. Petitgrand and A. Bosseboeuf, J. of Micromech. and Microengin.14, S97-101 (2003) Frequency vs. DC voltage M. Zalalutdinov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3287 (2000) © CEA 2009. All rights reserved After complete process Any reproduction in whole or in part on any medium or use of the information contained herein is prohibited without the prior written consent of CEA Characterization of Integrated Nano Materials A. Chabli 24

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