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Practical Phonetics (実践音声学)

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音声学(phonetics)の基礎を学んで語学学習に活用しよう!

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Practical Phonetics (実践音声学)

  1. 1. Practical Phonetics
  2. 2. Self-introduction /laʒenɔʁɛ̃k/lagénorhynque (Paci c white-sided dolphin; カマイルカ) (defprofile lagénorhynque :name "Kent OHASHI" :account @lagenorhynque :company "Opt, Inc." :languages [Clojure Haskell Python Scala English français Deutsch русский] :interests [programming language-learning mathematics]) :contributing [https://github.com/japan-clojurians/clojure-site-ja]
  3. 3. Contents 1. What is 'phonetics'? 2. Why phonetics matters? 3. Basics of phonetics 4. English pronunciation quiz
  4. 4. What is 'phonetics'?
  5. 5. 音声学( ): /fəˈnɛtɪks/phonetics φωνή (phone; /pʰɔː.nɛ᷄ː/) =「音声」(sound/voice)に関する学問 言語学( )の一分野 物理的実在である言語音声そのものが研究対象 調音音声学( ) 音響音声学( ) 聴覚音声学( ) linguistics articulatory phonetics acoustic phonetics auditory phonetics cf. 音韻論( ): /fəˈnɒlədʒi/, /fəˈnɑlədʒi/phonology 個別言語ごとの言語音の機能的構造(体系)や音韻規則などが研究対象
  6. 6. ちなみに フォニックス( ): /ˈfɒnɪks/, /ˈfɑnɪks/phonics 英語の発音と綴りの規則を習得するための学習/教育法 音声学や音韻論の知見を基礎としている 歴史的経緯により、英語は正書法( )がかなり不規則 → 英語圏で読み書きを学び始める際に取り組むことのひとつ orthography cf. Phonics made easy | Oxford Owl
  7. 7. Why phonetics matters?
  8. 8. 自然言語を使う際に発音や文法を気にしすぎる必要はないが…… 音声学の知識があると どのように言語音を作るのかが分かる 母語や外国語の発音を矯正できる 発音できるものは聴き取れる→ listening/speakingが効率化 語彙/文法を覚えやすくなる→ reading/writingが効率化 ⇒語学学習の効率が高まる Let's learn the basics of phonetics!
  9. 9. Basics of phonetics
  10. 10. 調音音声学における「音」 調音(articulation): 音声器官を使って言語音を作り出すこと 単音(phone) 子音( ) 母音( ) IPA (国際音声記号; ) consonant vowel International Phonetic Alphabet
  11. 11. 子音
  12. 12. 子音の分類 1. 発声( ) 2. 調音位置/調音部位( ) 3. 調音方法( ) phonation place of articulation manner of articulation
  13. 13. 1. 発声(phonation) 無声音(voiceless): [ p ], [ s ], etc. 有声音(voiced): [ b ], [ z ], etc.
  14. 14. 2. 調音位置(place of articulation) 両唇音( ): [ p ], [ m ], [ ɸ ], etc. 唇歯音( ): [ f ], etc. 歯音( ): [ θ ], etc. 歯茎音( ): [ t ], [ n ], [ r ], [ ɾ ], [ s ], [ ɹ ], [ l ], etc. 後部歯茎音( ): [ ʃ ], etc. そり舌音( ): [ ɻ ], etc. 硬口蓋音( ): [ ɲ ], [ ç ], [ j ], [ ʎ ], etc. 軟口蓋音( ): [ k ], [ ŋ ], [ x ], etc. 口蓋垂音( ): [ ʀ ], [ χ ], etc. 咽頭音( ): [ ħ ], etc. 声門音( ): [ h ], etc. bilabial labiodental dental alveolar postalveolar retro ex palatal velar uvular pharyngeal glottal
  15. 15. 3. 調音方法(manner of articulation) 破裂音/閉鎖音( ): [ p ], [ t ], [ k ], etc. 鼻音( ): [ m ], [ n ], [ ɲ ], [ ŋ ], etc. ふるえ音( ): [ r ], [ ʀ ], etc. はじき音( ): [ ɾ ], etc. 摩擦音( ): [ ɸ ], [ f ], [ θ ], [ s ], [ ʃ ], [ ç ], [ x ], [ χ ], [ h ], etc. 側面摩擦音(lateral fricative): [ ɬ ], etc. 接近音( ): [ ɹ ], [ ɻ ], [ j ], etc. 側面接近音(lateral approximant): [ l ], [ ʎ ], etc. plosive/stop nasal trill tap/ ap fricative approximant
  16. 16. 母音
  17. 17. 母音の分類 1. 円唇性( ) 2. 前後(backness) 3. 広さ(height) roundedness
  18. 18. 1. 円唇性(roundedness) 非円唇母音(unrounded vowel): [ i ], [ ɑ ], etc. 円唇母音(rounded vowel): [ y ], [ ɒ ] etc.
  19. 19. 2. 前後(backness) 前舌母音( ): [ i ], [ y ], [ e ], [ ø ], [ ɛ ], [ œ ], [ æ ], [ a ], etc. 中舌母音( ): [ ɨ ], [ ə ], etc. 後舌母音( ): [ u ], [ o ], [ ʌ ], [ ɔ ], [ ɑ ], [ ɒ ], etc. front vowel central vowel back vowel
  20. 20. 3. 広さ(height) 狭母音( ): [ i ], [ y ], [ ɨ ], [ u ], etc. 半狭母音( ): [ e ], [ ø ], [ o ], etc. 半広母音( ): [ ɛ ], [ œ ], [ ʌ ], [ ɔ ], etc. 広母音( ): [ a ], [ ɑ ], [ ɒ ], etc. close vowel close-mid vowel open-mid vowel open vowel
  21. 21. English pronunciation quiz Debug your English pronunciation!
  22. 22. Q1 top
  23. 23. A1 [ tɒp ] / [ tɑp ] Check [ p ]の後に余分な母音がないか?
  24. 24. EX1 up [ ʌp ], ship [ ʃɪp ], cap [ kæp ] cat [ kæt ], hat [ hæt ], coat [ kəʊt ]/[ koʊt ] steak [ steɪk ], cook [ kʊk ], back [ bæk ] dice [ daɪs ], house [ haʊs ], mouse [ maʊs ] bush [ bʊʃ ], dash [ dæʃ ], push [ pʊʃ ] catch [ kæt ͡ʃ ], much [ mʌt ͡ʃ ], touch [ tʌt ͡ʃ ] time [ taɪm ], come [ kʌm ], steam [ stiːm ] web [ wɛb ], snob [ snɒb ]/[ snɑb ], cab [ kæb ] sad [ sæd ], mad [ mæd ], mud [ mʌd ] bag [ bæɡ ], bug [ bʌɡ ], hug [ hʌɡ ]
  25. 25. Q2 missing
  26. 26. A2 [ ˈmɪsɪŋ ] Check ss を[ s ]と発音できているか? (NOT [ ɕ ], [ ʃ ])
  27. 27. EX2 C/sea/see [ siː ]/[ si ], sip [ sɪp ], seat [ siːt ] she [ ʃiː ]/[ ʃi ], ship [ ʃɪp ], sheet [ ʃiːt ] sick [ sɪk ], sin [ sɪn ], sit [ sɪt ] chic [ ʃiːk ], shin [ ʃɪn ], shit [ ʃɪt ] Z [ zɛd ]/[ ziː ], zip [ zɪp ] gee [ d ͡ʒiː ], gyp [ d ͡ʒɪp ]
  28. 28. Q3 award
  29. 29. A3 [ əˈwɔːd ] / [ əˈwɔɹd ] Check ar を[ ɔː ]/[ ɔɹ ]と発音できているか? (NOT [ ɑː ]/[ ɑɹ ])
  30. 30. EX3 award [ əˈwɔːd ]/[ əˈwɔɹd ], quark [ kwɔːk ]/[ kwɔɹk ] quarter [ ˈkwɔːtə ]/[ ˈkwɔɹ.tɚ ], war [ wɔː ]/[ wɔɹ ] ward [ wɔːd ]/[ wɔɹd ], wardrobe [ ˈwɔːdɹəʊb ]/[ ˈwɔɹdɹoʊb ] warm [ wɔːm ]/[ wɔɹm ], warn [ wɔːn ]/[ wɔɹn ]
  31. 31. Q4 Chicago
  32. 32. A4 [ ʃɪˈkɑːɡoʊ ] Check i の[ ɪ ]が発音できているか? (日本語では脱落しがち)
  33. 33. EX4 participate [ pɑːˈtɪsɪpeɪt ]/[ pɑɹˈtɪsɪpeɪt ], institute [ ˈɪnstɪt(j)uːt ] chicane [ ʃɪˈkeɪn ], hospital [ ˈhɒspɪtəl ]/[ ˈhɑspɪtl ̩ ] beautiful [ ˈbjuːtɪfəɫ ], architect [ ˈɑːkɪtɛkt ]/[ ˈɑɹkɪtɛkt ] occupation [ ɒkjuːpeɪʃən ]/[ ɑkjuːpeɪʃən ], reputation [ ˌɹɛpjʊˈteɪʃən ]
  34. 34. Q5 king
  35. 35. A5 [ kɪŋ ] Check ng を[ ŋ ]と発音できているか? (NOT [ ŋg ])
  36. 36. Q6 one
  37. 37. A6 [ wʌn ] Check n を[ n ]と発音できているか? (NOT [ ɴ ])
  38. 38. EX5, 6 Tom [ tɒm ]/[ tɑm ], dumb [ dʌm ], some [ sʌm ] ton [ tʌn ], done [ dʌn ], son/sun [ sʌn ] tong [ tɒŋ ]/[ tɑŋ ], dung [ dʌŋ ], sung [ sʌŋ ]
  39. 39. Q7 he
  40. 40. A7 [ hiː ] / [ hi ] Check h を[ h ]と発音できているか? (NOT [ ç ])
  41. 41. EX7 he [ hiː ]/[ hi ], hit [ hɪt ]
  42. 42. Q8 knee
  43. 43. A8 [ niː ] / [ ni ] Check n を[ n ]と発音できているか? (NOT [ ɲ ], [ nʲ ])
  44. 44. EX8 neat [ niːt ], knee [ niː ]/[ ni ], knit [ nɪt ], new [ njuː ]/[ n(j)u ]
  45. 45. Q9 who
  46. 46. A9 [ huː ] Check wh を[ h ]と発音できているか? (NOT [ ɸ ])
  47. 47. EX9 who'll [ huːl ], heal/heel/he'll [ hiːl ], who'd [ huːd ], heed/he'd [ hiːd ] fool [ fuːl ], feel [ ːl ], food [ fuːd ], feed [ ːd ]
  48. 48. Q10 baby
  49. 49. A10 [ ˈbeɪbi ] Check 2番目のb を[ b ]と発音できているか? (NOT [ β ])
  50. 50. That's all! (*> ᴗ •*)ゞ
  51. 51. Further Reading 音声学の基礎と実践的な日本語/英語(+α)の発音練習 IPAについて 英語の音声について フォニックス(phonics)について 発音(pronunciation)や語源(etymology)を調べるなら 『脱・日本語なまり―英語(+α)実践音声学』 『脱・日本語なまり』音声データ International Phonetic Association | ɪntə'næʃənəl fə'nɛtɪk əsoʊsi'eɪʃn IPA_Kiel_2015.pdf BBC Learning English - The Sounds of English Phonics made easy | Oxford Owl Wiktionary, the free dictionary

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