Paper 4: Ranking Universities (Ince)

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Paper 4: Ranking Universities (Ince)

  1. 1. International Workshop on Performance Management Kent Business School Presentation by Martin Ince July 1, 2010
  2. 2. Ranking the world’s universities; why, how, and what happens when you do? <ul><li>Presentation by Martin Ince </li></ul><ul><li>Journalist and media adviser </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of the THE/QS World University Rankings </li></ul><ul><li>Chair of the Advisory Board of the QS Rankings </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why rank universities? <ul><li>Rapid growth of higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Growing expectation of openness </li></ul><ul><li>New students needing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>More need for international knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Ranking things and people </li></ul>
  4. 4. Anything can be ranked.. <ul><li>In the UK: schools, local government, libraries, hospitals, police forces…. </li></ul><ul><li>Kent Business School has the world’s ninth-ranked lecturer in information systems </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fun or… <ul><li>Some of these rankings are for fun </li></ul><ul><li>- rich lists </li></ul><ul><li>- now dozens of types </li></ul><ul><li>Some are serious </li></ul><ul><li>- Over 1000 “failing” institutions </li></ul>
  6. 6. National university ranking <ul><li>US News: 18 main columns of data </li></ul><ul><li>Likewise Times GUG, Macleans et al </li></ul><ul><li>Rich data in national systems </li></ul><ul><li>- Library costs </li></ul><ul><li>- Alumni giving </li></ul><ul><li>- Completion </li></ul><ul><li>- Course cost </li></ul><ul><li>- Economic impact </li></ul><ul><li>- Admissions standards </li></ul>
  7. 7. National data <ul><li>Available </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Has quality control </li></ul><ul><li>Has an agreed meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Tells a definite story </li></ul><ul><li>-- eg admission standards </li></ul><ul><li>dropout rates </li></ul>
  8. 8. International university ranking <ul><li>Far less data </li></ul><ul><li>Scheme has to grow out of what we want to measure </li></ul><ul><li>Who is it for? </li></ul><ul><li>Main functions of a university </li></ul><ul><li>Less data on specific subjects </li></ul>
  9. 9. Globalisation of universities <ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it important? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you measure it? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens when you try? </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is it? <ul><li>Universities are the original global enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>3 million overseas students (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Falling home student numbers in many developed world nations </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of students’ need to be more global </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul>
  11. 11. The five flows: Michael Porter <ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Goods </li></ul>
  12. 12. War for talent <ul><li>Work of Phil Brown et al </li></ul><ul><li>Unskilled jobs mobile for decades </li></ul><ul><li>IT makes middle class jobs mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft in China </li></ul><ul><li>Design, research, finance </li></ul><ul><li>Pasadenanow.com </li></ul><ul><li>Universities and students know this </li></ul>
  13. 13. Economic impact <ul><li>Research and innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Not just Silicon Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambridge UK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Munich </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bangalore </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Economic impact <ul><li>New emphases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change: mitigation and adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population ageing, obesity etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web 2.0, 3.0… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotechnology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where will this happen? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University only one of many factors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. This is only part of the story.. <ul><li>Manufacturing about 13 per cent of UK economy </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthcare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leisure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Soft power <ul><li>Governments appreciate this </li></ul><ul><li>British Council et al </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper and more reliable than war </li></ul><ul><li>China 282 Confucius Institutes, </li></ul><ul><li>1000 by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>Universities major poles of soft power </li></ul>
  17. 17. Other pressures <ul><li>Bologna </li></ul><ul><li>GATS </li></ul><ul><li>Asian growth </li></ul><ul><li>BTA </li></ul><ul><li>Lambert </li></ul>
  18. 18. QS: measuring top universities <ul><li>Started in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>No agreed way to do this </li></ul><ul><li>We decided on a novel approach </li></ul><ul><li>QS Quacquarelli Symonds and THES </li></ul><ul><li>Key issue: data consistency and data relevance </li></ul>
  19. 19. Instead… <ul><li>Look for globally agreed measures of: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic quality </li></ul><ul><li>Employability </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>World reach </li></ul>
  20. 20. Universities must <ul><li>Teach in at least two of the five areas </li></ul><ul><li>Teach undergraduates </li></ul><ul><li>Omit Rockefeller, UCSF </li></ul><ul><li>Include LSE </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to cover large general institutions </li></ul>
  21. 21. Academics know about universities <ul><li>So we ask them </li></ul><ul><li>9,386 this time </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is good at it? </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 200,000 data points </li></ul><ul><li>40 per cent of possible score </li></ul>
  22. 22. Who are they?
  23. 23. Balance… <ul><li>Subject areas </li></ul><ul><li>Social sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Arts and humanities </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedicine </li></ul><ul><li>Locations </li></ul>
  24. 24. Likewise employers <ul><li>Where do you like to recruit? </li></ul><ul><li>Major multinational employers </li></ul><ul><li>3,281 in 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>This means another 65,000 data points </li></ul><ul><li>10 per cent for this. So academic and employer opinion make up half your possible score </li></ul>
  25. 25. Research <ul><li>Citations/ 5 years from Scopus </li></ul><ul><li>Per person not per paper </li></ul><ul><li>Well-known biases in subject, language etc </li></ul><ul><li>20 per cent </li></ul>
  26. 26. Teaching <ul><li>Staff/student ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Looks simple but.. </li></ul><ul><li>Also 20 per cent </li></ul>
  27. 27. Global reach <ul><li>International staff </li></ul><ul><li>International students </li></ul><ul><li>5 per cent each </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands problem </li></ul><ul><li>Are these people serious about being international? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a place people want to be? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Ranking Criteria & Weights Peer Review Citations per Faculty Recruiter Review Int’l Faculty Int’l Students Student Faculty Ratio Peer Review – 40% Recruiter Review – 10% International Faculty – 5% International Students – 5% Student Faculty Ratio – 20% Citations per Faculty– 20%
  29. 29. Rankings.... <ul><li>Are a composite indicator with many measures </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a range of ways to excel </li></ul><ul><li>They are not a league table </li></ul>
  30. 30. Unlike a league table… <ul><li>Many ways to be success </li></ul><ul><li>Good to be in it at all </li></ul><ul><li>Rules far more complex </li></ul><ul><li>More variety: many university missions </li></ul>
  31. 31. QS Classifications make missions clearer <ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Research volume </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage: </li></ul><ul><li>Complete </li></ul><ul><li>Complete but no medical school </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>See at www.topuniversities.com </li></ul>
  32. 32.
  33. 33. What it shows <ul><li>Harvard is pretty good </li></ul><ul><li>US and UK 83/200 </li></ul><ul><li>But 31 nations have a university here </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico, India, Malaysia </li></ul>
  34. 34. Faculty level analysis <ul><li>The five areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arts and humanities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomedicine </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Methodology.. <ul><li>Peer review </li></ul><ul><li>Citations per paper </li></ul><ul><li>Only top 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Not combined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows big country effect </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. QS and THE <ul><li>Contract ended between these two </li></ul><ul><li>QS has many international media partners </li></ul><ul><li>US News and World Report </li></ul><ul><li>Nouvelle Observateur </li></ul><ul><li>Chosun Ibo </li></ul><ul><li>Publish 200/500 </li></ul>
  37. 37. Times Higher <ul><li>Work with Thomson Reuters </li></ul><ul><li>Stay with peer review </li></ul><ul><li>And bibliometrics </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching as well as research </li></ul><ul><li>Not employers </li></ul>
  38. 38. The competition <ul><li>Shanghai Jiao Tong, ARWU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobel Prizes – tiny universe of 802 people worth 40 per cent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papers in Science and Nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But 146/200 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cf Ton van Raan </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. HEEACT <ul><li>Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Citation </li></ul><ul><li>High citation </li></ul><ul><li>But still heavy science orientation </li></ul>
  40. 40. More competitors… <ul><li>Ecole des Mines </li></ul><ul><li>5 of top 10 French </li></ul><ul><li>CSIC </li></ul><ul><li>Scimago </li></ul><ul><li>EU </li></ul><ul><li>OECD (teaching) </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring something… </li></ul><ul><li>Media or other producers? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Indicators & Weights for Established Aggregate Rankings QS HEEACT Shanghai Webometrics
  42. 42. First impact <ul><li>International scholarly industry </li></ul><ul><li>IREG </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Leiden, Tsinghua et al </li></ul><ul><li>Hope they’ll say thank you </li></ul>
  43. 43. More importantly.. <ul><li>Big media interest </li></ul><ul><li>24 articles in the Mexican press 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Especially from Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Also continental Europe and UK </li></ul><ul><li>Far less from US </li></ul>
  44. 44. Response is… <ul><li>Reject the whole idea (German rectors) </li></ul><ul><li>Complain about their position </li></ul><ul><li>Ask how to do better </li></ul>
  45. 45. So here is the answer: <ul><li>Be visible around the world as an excellent institution </li></ul><ul><li>Produce graduates people want to hire </li></ul><ul><li>Produce papers people want to cite </li></ul><ul><li>Have enough staff to teach your students </li></ul><ul><li>Be attractive to overseas staff and students </li></ul>
  46. 46. But the real surprise.. <ul><li>THE (previously THES) since 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>Always written about universities and HE around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Nobody ever noticed </li></ul>
  47. 47. Because of the Rankings: <ul><li>Heisenberg in action </li></ul><ul><li>THE turned into something that anyone running a university anywhere in the world has to know about </li></ul>
  48. 48. First group: politicians <ul><li>Do UK universities need more money? </li></ul><ul><li>Or are they fine as they are? </li></ul><ul><li>US/UK comparison </li></ul>
  49. 49. Germany <ul><li>Rectors like things as they are </li></ul><ul><li>Government doesn’t agree </li></ul><ul><li>Only one winner </li></ul><ul><li>Excellence initiative </li></ul><ul><li>€ 1.9 billion in first tranche, $2.8 bn </li></ul><ul><li>Nine institutions + clusters and research centres </li></ul><ul><li>CHE </li></ul>
  50. 50. Korea <ul><li>Peak of world interest </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential candidates </li></ul><ul><li>About eight institutions want to be in top 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t all succeed </li></ul><ul><li>General interest in other people’s views of their societies </li></ul><ul><li>Need THE/QS degree </li></ul>
  51. 51. Likewise… <ul><li>● Brunei </li></ul><ul><li>Study abroad (THE/QS) </li></ul><ul><li>● Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Entry visa (THE or Shanghai 150) </li></ul><ul><li>● Middle East </li></ul>
  52. 52. Pushing systems .. <ul><li>Towards </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>New reward mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbing research institutions </li></ul><ul><li>But still need a wide range of </li></ul><ul><li>provision for a mass educated society </li></ul>
  53. 53. Is it compulsory? <ul><li>No it isn’t </li></ul><ul><li>4,000 universities cannot all be Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>Costs time and money </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectly valid decision not to get involved </li></ul><ul><li>Risks: eg Chinese provision </li></ul>
  54. 54. Rival and complementary routes <ul><li>Civic engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Newcastle in UK </li></ul><ul><li>Employability </li></ul><ul><li>LJMU </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Williams </li></ul><ul><li>For Profit </li></ul><ul><li>eg UEM and other Laureate universities </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Non-universities, Perimeter </li></ul>
  55. 55. University missions <ul><li>Hierarchies exist because of market forces </li></ul><ul><li>Systems without competition don’t need them </li></ul><ul><li>Students, research money etc </li></ul><ul><li>This is true of higher education and other aspects of society </li></ul><ul><li>East Asia cf continental Europe </li></ul>
  56. 56. Possible future issues for Ranking <ul><li>Distance/presence learning </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersed universities eg Kent </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged on local, regional or world scale </li></ul><ul><li>Producing new professionals? </li></ul><ul><li>Or new knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Profit-making or not? </li></ul>
  57. 57. In soft power world… <ul><li>Media studies </li></ul><ul><li>Links to developing world </li></ul><ul><li>Sport </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching – the original university subject </li></ul>
  58. 58. Performance Management <ul><li>Ups and downs </li></ul><ul><li>Is this university in the company you’d expect? </li></ul><ul><li>Eg US state universities </li></ul><ul><li>National-level representation </li></ul><ul><li>Can we go beyond this? </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><ul><li>Can be applied to any institution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching or business focused institutions can perform well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance measured against preset thresholds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>● Recognise contextual differences such as language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognise strengths of specialist institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratings can measure specific university missions </li></ul></ul>QS Star Ratings
  60. 60. QS Stars rating system
  61. 61. System Strength Rank   Country System Access Flagship Economic Overall 1 United States 100 100 100 100 100 2 United Kingdom 99 96 100 98 98 3 Germany 95 96 94 92 95 4 Australia 93 98 98 87 94 5 Canada 91 96 98 83 92 6 Japan 92 79 98 89 90 7 France 87 79 97 83 87 8 Netherlands 91 83 95 75 86 9 Korea, South 76 73 95 74 80 10 Switzerland 83 71 98 62 79 11 Sweden 75 83 93 62 78 12 Belgium 74 77 93 58 76 13 New Zealand 66 82 94 60 75 14 Italy 70 94 76 59 75 15 China 76 25 95 98 74 16 Hong Kong 78 62 98 51 72 17 Ireland 67 79 96 47 72 18 India 67 39 78 100 71 19 Spain 62 81 77 49 67 20 Finland 59 79 87 42 67
  62. 62. The future <ul><li>Likely to get better </li></ul><ul><li>More subject data </li></ul><ul><li>More purposes: companies as well as governments, students, university managers </li></ul><ul><li>University rankings and reputation practice: Martin@martinince.com </li></ul>
  63. 63. Really the last slide <ul><li>Thank you to.. </li></ul><ul><li>Nunzio Quacquarelli, Ben Sowter and colleagues at QS </li></ul><ul><li>Staff of Scopus </li></ul><ul><li>You for this invitation and for your attention </li></ul>

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