Relaxation and Feedback in Clusters of Galaxies

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Relaxation and Feedback in Clusters of Galaxies. Defense slides for dissertation presentation.

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Relaxation and Feedback in Clusters of Galaxies

  1. 1. Relaxation andFeedback in Clusters ofGalaxiesKenneth W. CavagnoloThesis DefenseSaturday, June 8, 2013
  2. 2. CollaboratorsMegan DonahueMark VoitMing SunDavid VentimigliaGus EvrardSaturday, June 8, 2013
  3. 3. What is a cluster ofgalaxies?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  4. 4. NASA / TRACESaturday, June 8, 2013
  5. 5. Robert Gendler (robgendlerastropixs.com)Saturday, June 8, 2013
  6. 6. NASA / ESA / STScI / AURASaturday, June 8, 2013
  7. 7. NASA / ACS Team / Benitez et al.Saturday, June 8, 2013
  8. 8. Virgo Consortium / Volker Springel / Klaus Dolag / SplotchSaturday, June 8, 2013
  9. 9. Virgo Consortium / Volker Springel / Klaus Dolag / SplotchSaturday, June 8, 2013
  10. 10. 100’s to 1000’s ofgalaxiesFew Mpc in size1013-1015 Msolar85%-90% dark matter15%-10% baryonsMost baryons not ingalaxies...CFHT / Coelum Astronomia / Hawaiian StarlightPerseus ClusterCluster StatsNB: Mpc ~ 1019 km or ~3 million light yearsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  11. 11. Intracluster MediumMACS J1423Optical: NAOJ / Subaru / H. EbelingX-ray: NASA / CXC / IoA / S.Allen et al.Saturday, June 8, 2013
  12. 12. Intracluster MediumMACS J1423Optical: NAOJ / Subaru / H. EbelingX-ray: NASA / CXC / IoA / S.Allen et al.Saturday, June 8, 2013
  13. 13. Intracluster Medium(ICM)ICM accounts for 75%-90% ofbaryonsHot: ≥ 10 million KDiffuse: ≤ 10-1 cm-3Luminous: 1042-1045 ergs s-1> 1 billion times LsolarLQuasars > 1046 ergs s-1Saturday, June 8, 2013
  14. 14. How does ICM emitX-rays?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  15. 15. Thermal BremsstrahlungNASA / CXC / D. BerrySaturday, June 8, 2013
  16. 16. Thermal BremsstrahlungNASA / CXC / D. Berry23 million K (2 keV) bremsstrahlung spectrumFlux[keV/cm2skeV]Energy [keV]Saturday, June 8, 2013
  17. 17. Atomic Line EmissionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  18. 18. Atomic Line EmissionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  19. 19. Atomic Line EmissionGalacticAbsorptionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  20. 20. Atomic Line EmissionFe L-shellGalacticAbsorptionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  21. 21. Atomic Line EmissionFe L-shellFe K-shellGalacticAbsorptionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  22. 22. Observing X-raysChandra X-rayObservatoryAngular res. 0.492″Energy res. ~100 eVSensitivity peak ∼1.3 keVNASA / CXC / D. BerrySaturday, June 8, 2013
  23. 23. Observing X-raysSaturday, June 8, 2013
  24. 24. “Tale of Two CoolingTimescales”Long cooling time (atmospheres)CosmologyRelaxationShort cooling time (cores)Galaxy FormationFeedbackSaturday, June 8, 2013
  25. 25. “Tale of Two CoolingTimescales”Long cooling time (atmospheres)CosmologyRelaxationShort cooling time (cores)Galaxy FormationFeedbackSaturday, June 8, 2013
  26. 26. Why study clusters?Cosmology:Structure growth as tracerCluster number densityDark matter & dark energyComplications:“Weighing” clustersCluster dynamic stateAbell 1185CFHT / Coelum Astronomia / Hawaiian StarlightSaturday, June 8, 2013
  27. 27. Reiprich et al., 2002Importance of RelaxationSaturday, June 8, 2013
  28. 28. Good news:Reiprich et al., 2002Importance of RelaxationSaturday, June 8, 2013
  29. 29. Good news:Cluster observables relateddirectly to mass (assumingequilibrium)Relations are wellunderstood & well modeledReiprich et al., 2002Importance of RelaxationSaturday, June 8, 2013
  30. 30. Good news:Cluster observables relateddirectly to mass (assumingequilibrium)Relations are wellunderstood & well modeledBad news:Reiprich et al., 2002Importance of RelaxationSaturday, June 8, 2013
  31. 31. Good news:Cluster observables relateddirectly to mass (assumingequilibrium)Relations are wellunderstood & well modeledBad news:Many clusters are not inequilibrium/relaxedPrecision cosmologyrequires knowledge ofcluster dynamic stateReiprich et al., 2002Importance of RelaxationLarge dispersionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  32. 32. Importance of RelaxationMathiesen & Evrard, 2001Hotter hard-bandtemperaturesLineof equalityMathiesen & Evrard2001 suggested metricfor measuring clusterdynamic stateSpectroscopicallyunresolved, cool,merging subclustersalter best-fit cluster“temperature”Use bandpassdependent temperaturesas measure of dynamicstateSaturday, June 8, 2013
  33. 33. ME01 prediction is quite simple to testBroad-band temperature: 0.7-7.0 keV bandHard-band temperature: 2.0-7.0 keV band2.0 keV is in cluster rest frameDefine Hard-band to Broadband Ratio:THBR =T2.0−7.0T0.7−7.0Importance of RelaxationSaturday, June 8, 2013
  34. 34. Temperature InhomogeneityCollected clustersfrom Chandra DataArchive6.5 Msec;225 observations;+190 clustersTwo aperturesselected:R5000R2500Central 70 kpcexcisedSaturday, June 8, 2013
  35. 35. Temperature InhomogeneitySingle-componentthermal plasmaFixed absorbing NHMetal abundance is freeSoft background fit andincluded during fittingBroadbandkTX = 7.4 ± 0.2 keVSaturday, June 8, 2013
  36. 36. Temperature InhomogeneitySingle-componentthermal plasmaFixed absorbing NHMetal abundance is freeSoft background fit andincluded during fittingCut Spectrum at2.0rest keV and re-fitSaturday, June 8, 2013
  37. 37. Temperature InhomogeneitySingle-componentthermal plasmaFixed absorbing NHMetal abundance is freeSoft background fit andincluded during fittingHard-bandkTX = 9.1 ± 0.5 keVSaturday, June 8, 2013
  38. 38. Temperature InhomogeneitySingle-componentthermal plasmaFixed absorbing NHMetal abundance is freeSoft background fit andincluded during fittingHard-bandkTX = 9.1 ± 0.5 keVRepeat 190+ times...Saturday, June 8, 2013
  39. 39. Temperature InhomogeneitySIGNIFICANTNET SKEWINGSaturday, June 8, 2013
  40. 40. Temperature InhomogeneitySIGNIFICANTNET SKEWINGInteresting, but is thisrelated to cluster dynamicstate?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  41. 41. Relaxed and UnrelaxedDistinguish between relaxed and unrelaxedclusters using complementary indicators(A) Presence of cool core: quantifiableusing data(B) Mergers: individual study too timeconsuming, consult literatureSaturday, June 8, 2013
  42. 42. Assume presenceof cool core (CC)relates to relaxationDefine a cool corecluster:If Tdec < 1 @ 2σ,cool coreOtherwise, non-coolT50 kpc~TclusterTdec =T50TclusterRelaxed and UnrelaxedSaturday, June 8, 2013
  43. 43. CC CLUSTERS“PREFER”LOWER THBRRelaxed and UnrelaxedSaturday, June 8, 2013
  44. 44. What about mergersystems?Cull out THBR > 1.1@ 1σ clustersAre these mergers?What of thoseunstudied systems?Yepes / Hoeft / UAMRelaxed and UnrelaxedSaturday, June 8, 2013
  45. 45. MOSTLY NCC MERGERS;BUT NOT 1:1CORRESPONDENCERelaxed and UnrelaxedSaturday, June 8, 2013
  46. 46. Temperature InhomogeneityTemperature inhomogeneity is detected &quantifiableTHBR “knows” about state of cluster coreHighest THBR values associated with mergersCalibrate between THBR and relaxation usingsimulations?Is THBR useful tool for quantifying scatter inmass-observables?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  47. 47. Temperature InhomogeneityTemperature inhomogeneity is detected &quantifiableTHBR “knows” about state of cluster coreHighest THBR values associated with mergersCalibrate between THBR and relaxation usingsimulations?Is THBR useful tool for quantifying scatter inmass-observables?ASK DAVID VENTIMIGLIA AT HIS DEFENSE?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  48. 48. “Tale of Two CoolingTimescales”Long cooling time (atmospheres)CosmologyRelaxationShort cooling time (cores)Galaxy FormationFeedbackSaturday, June 8, 2013
  49. 49. “Tale of Two CoolingTimescales”Long cooling time (atmospheres)CosmologyRelaxationShort cooling time (cores)Galaxy FormationFeedbackSaturday, June 8, 2013
  50. 50. Galaxy Labs, Inc.:ICM “records” feedbackFunction of black holes /AGNStar formation in big galaxiesComplications:Theory & observation don’tagree on massive galaxypropertiesDetails of feedback poorlyunderstoodX-ray: NASA / CXC / UVic. / A.Mahdavi et al.Optical / Lensing: CFHT / UVic. / A.Mahdavi et alAbell 520Why study clusters?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  51. 51. Importance of FeedbackZwicky 3146“The Most Massive Cooling Flow”Edge et al., 1994˙M > 1200 M⊙ yr−1Edge et al., 1994Let us consider simplecluster model...Without heating, modelspredict large deposition ofcool gas into coreBCG propertiesinconsistent with thismodelAND...Saturday, June 8, 2013
  52. 52. Importance of FeedbackTX <13TvirialPeterson et al., 2001, 2003X-ray spectroscopydisproves simplecooling-flow modelNogasAlso, not enoughmass in cooled by-productsMolecular gasEmission line nebulaeYoung starsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  53. 53. Galaxy population alsosays there is more tostoryTheory & observationdo not fully agree ongalaxy propertiesMassive galaxies tooblue & too brightAll factors point tohalted coolingLearn about high-zprocesses via low-zfeedback in coresImportance of FeedbackCroton et al., 2006NOFEEDBACKWITHFEEDBACKSaturday, June 8, 2013
  54. 54. What could possibly beheating the cores ofclusters?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  55. 55. Importance of FeedbackX-ray: NASA / CXC / BlantonAbell 2052Saturday, June 8, 2013
  56. 56. Importance of FeedbackX-ray: NASA / CXC / BlantonX-ray: NASA / CXC / Wilson & YoungRadio: NRAOAbell 2052Cygnus ASaturday, June 8, 2013
  57. 57. Importance of FeedbackX-ray: NASA / CXC / BlantonX-ray: NASA / CXC / Wilson & YoungRadio: NRAOX-ray: NASA / CXC / SAORadio: NRAO / Greg TaylorAbell 2052Cygnus AHydra ASaturday, June 8, 2013
  58. 58. Importance of FeedbackX-ray: NASA / CXC / BlantonX-ray: NASA / CXC / Wilson & YoungRadio: NRAOX-ray: NASA / CXC / SAORadio: NRAO / Greg TaylorX-ray: NASA / CXC / IoA / Fabian et al.Abell 2052Cygnus AHydra AAbell 426Saturday, June 8, 2013
  59. 59. Importance of FeedbackTake a “close to the data” approach:Study cooling ICM & cluster coresBetter understand feedbackCreate broad, varied cluster sample fromChandra archiveConduct study of ICM entropy... entropy?Saturday, June 8, 2013
  60. 60. ICM EntropyNature.Wallpaperme.comSaturday, June 8, 2013
  61. 61. ICM EntropyConsider entropy as astate variable:dS =dQTNature.Wallpaperme.comSaturday, June 8, 2013
  62. 62. ICM EntropyConsider entropy as astate variable:dS =dQTIdeal gas equation of state:P = Kρ5/3Nature.Wallpaperme.comSaturday, June 8, 2013
  63. 63. ICM EntropyConsider entropy as astate variable:dS =dQTRecast using observables:K =TXn2/3elecIdeal gas equation of state:P = Kρ5/3Nature.Wallpaperme.comSaturday, June 8, 2013
  64. 64. ICM EntropyConsider entropy as astate variable:dS =dQTRecast using observables:K =TXn2/3elecIdeal gas equation of state:P = Kρ5/3Nature.Wallpaperme.comTrue thermo entropy:s =32k ln K + s0Saturday, June 8, 2013
  65. 65. ICM EntropyConsider entropy as astate variable:dS =dQTRecast using observables:K =TXn2/3elecIdeal gas equation of state:P = Kρ5/3dKdr≥ 0Nature.Wallpaperme.comTrue thermo entropy:s =32k ln K + s0Saturday, June 8, 2013
  66. 66. DM halo properties and entropystructure dictate X-ray observablesShock heating and cooling will alterentropy distributionEntropy will retain information aboutfeedbackEntropy may also hold clues abouthow feedback operatesStudy entropy in cluster cores…ICM EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  67. 67. ICM EntropyMined ChandraData Archive (CDA)Inspected oranalyzed *every*cluster obs in CDA8.2 Msec;302 observations;233 “clusters”Make full-body ofwork publiclyavailableThe ACCEPT CollectionSaturday, June 8, 2013
  68. 68. Deriving ICM EntropyExtract surfacebrightnessEmergent X-raysindicative of gas density:Assume sphericalsymmetryDeproject emissionConvert surfacebrightness to densityff ∝ ρ2T1/2Saturday, June 8, 2013
  69. 69. Deriving ICM EntropyExtract surfacebrightnessEmergent X-raysindicative of gas density:Assume sphericalsymmetryDeproject emissionConvert surfacebrightness to densityff ∝ ρ2T1/2Saturday, June 8, 2013
  70. 70. Deriving ICM EntropyExtract surfacebrightnessEmergent X-raysindicative of gas density:Assume sphericalsymmetryDeproject emissionConvert surfacebrightness to densityff ∝ ρ2T1/2Saturday, June 8, 2013
  71. 71. Deriving ICM EntropyExtract temperatureprofileMinimum three annuliwith 2500 counts eachFit spectra with single-component, absorbed,thermal modelNo spectraldeprojection: timeconsuming, notsignificantSaturday, June 8, 2013
  72. 72. Deriving ICM EntropyExtract temperatureprofileMinimum three annuliwith 2500 counts eachFit spectra with single-component, absorbed,thermal modelNo spectraldeprojection: timeconsuming, notsignificantSaturday, June 8, 2013
  73. 73. 2D Maps from Schuecker et al., 2004Coma ClusterTX nelecDeriving ICM EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  74. 74. 2D Maps from Schuecker et al., 2004Coma ClusterK =TXn2/3elecDeriving ICM EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  75. 75. 2D Maps from Schuecker et al., 2004Coma ClusterK =TXn2/3elecDeriving ICM EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  76. 76. Deriving ICM EntropyFit models to K(r):K(r) = K0 + K100r100 kpcαK(r) = K100r100 kpcαSaturday, June 8, 2013
  77. 77. Deriving ICM EntropyFit models to K(r):K(r) = K0 + K100r100 kpcαK(r) = K100r100 kpcαRepeat 230+ times...Saturday, June 8, 2013
  78. 78. ACCEPT EntropyProfilesSaturday, June 8, 2013
  79. 79. Non-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  80. 80. Entropy profiles deviatefrom power-lawNon-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  81. 81. Entropy profiles deviatefrom power-lawConverge to purecooling model at largeradiiNon-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  82. 82. Entropy profiles deviatefrom power-lawConverge to purecooling model at largeradiiNon-zero core entropyconsistent withepisodic heatingNon-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  83. 83. Entropy profiles deviatefrom power-lawConverge to purecooling model at largeradiiNon-zero core entropyconsistent withepisodic heatingIs there more here thanmeets the eye?Non-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  84. 84. K0 distribution isbimodalNon-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  85. 85. Central coolingtime 1 GyrNon-Zero Core EntropySaturday, June 8, 2013
  86. 86. Does star formation “know”about K0?Select robust tracer like Hα:UV ionizing radiation from Oand B starsTurbulent mixing layers?Conduction interfaces?Regardless, Hα indicates T ~104 K gasScour the literature…InstituteforAstronomy/L.Cowieetal.Feedback-K0 RelationsAbell 1795Saturday, June 8, 2013
  87. 87. Hα loves lowentropyFeedback-K0 RelationsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  88. 88. Entropythreshold?Feedback-K0 RelationsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  89. 89. Do AGN “know” about K0?Select robust tracer like radioemission:Assumed to be sign of AGNRadio relics/ghosts, halos,lobes… mostly AGN relatedQuery NVSS and SUMSSSidestep resolution issueswith redshift cutNASA / CXC / D. BerryFeedback-K0 RelationsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  90. 90. Do AGN “know” about K0?Select robust tracer like radioemission:Assumed to be sign of AGNRadio relics/ghosts, halos,lobes… mostly AGN relatedQuery NVSS and SUMSSSidestep resolution issueswith redshift cutNRAO / AUI / Taylor3C 353Feedback-K0 RelationsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  91. 91. Radio loves lowentropy too!Feedback-K0 RelationsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  92. 92. Entropy thresholdis backFeedback-K0 RelationsSaturday, June 8, 2013
  93. 93. Entropy thresholdis backFeedback-K0 RelationsCommon threshold suggestscommon mechanism, like thermalelectron conduction(Voit et al., 2008)Saturday, June 8, 2013
  94. 94. So where does thatleave us…Entropy Lifecycle(speculative)Saturday, June 8, 2013
  95. 95. 1045 AGNSaturday, June 8, 2013
  96. 96. NASA / CXC / NRAO / Kraft et al.Centaurus A1045 AGNSaturday, June 8, 2013
  97. 97. NASA / CXC / NRAO / McNamara et al.MS 0735ConductiveStabilityE 1061 AGNSaturday, June 8, 2013
  98. 98. Mergers1E0657NASA / CXC / Markevitch et al.Saturday, June 8, 2013
  99. 99. Saturday, June 8, 2013
  100. 100. ConclusionsHard-band to broadband temperature ratiocorrelates with cluster dynamic stateICM entropy properties consistent with AGNfeedback modelsCharacteristic entropy threshold for feedbackactivitySaturday, June 8, 2013
  101. 101. FinSaturday, June 8, 2013
  102. 102. Saturday, June 8, 2013
  103. 103. Saturday, June 8, 2013
  104. 104. Saturday, June 8, 2013

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