Prepared by:kenedy simwinga BscAF- IRINGA UNIVERSITY
OPEN YOUR MIND
• Research is defined as the scientific and
systematic investigation for searching in depth
information about certain , social ,
geographical and political phenomena. The
field research is done in the field.
Characteristics Of Good Research
i. It must be verifiable.
ii. It must be understandable to use of
iii. It must be systematic and logically.
iv. It must have goal direct towards solving
v. It must be scientific because to use of
scientific ways of solving problems.
Objectives Of Good Research
To apply geographical knowledge gained in the
classroom to what is seen and observed in the
To find out the answers for the questions raised
as result of reading.
To identify specific geographical problems and
to solve them.
To acquire skills and competence in map
reading and interpretation recording techniques
It enables students to identify social problems
and how to solve them.
To improve classroom learning through
• A research question is basically what you want
to understand by doing your research
• The design of your study revolves around the
• A research question is a design component
that is directly linked to all of the components
of the design.
• It is underlies and influences the entire
Functions of a Research Question
• To help you to focus the study(the question’s
relationship to your purpose and conceptual
• To give the guidance on how to conduct
it(their relationship to methods and validity)
Features Of Good Research Questions
• Research questions should begin by raising
‘’what and how questions. They should lead a
reader further into the depth of the research
• Non directional words should be used. Words
with directional orientation such as effects,
influence, impact, determine, cause, and
relate should be omitted.
Features Of Good Research Questions
• Use open-ended questions without reference
to the literature or theory, unless otherwise
dictated by a qualitative design type.
• Use a single focus and specify the research
site in the research question.
• You must make a distinct separation between
dependent and independent variables.
Topic: How Basic Science Teachers
Help Medical Students Learn: The
The research questions to be answered are:
1. How do these basic science teachers help students
2. What do these teachers do to help students learn?
3. How and why do these techniques help students
4. What motivates teachers to do what they do?
A. Formulation Of Hypothesis
• What is hypothesis?
hypothesis is defined as the tentative diction of out time.
hypothesis is the quizzing answer towards the problem. It is like
a statement of expected results. Research is usually started before
the study begins. A well collected it should be clearly and simple for
if the problem is rapid population growth in Tanzania
hypothesis can be like this;
Due to ignorance.
Tradition, culture and religion.
Poverty of the people.
• The word hypothesis comes from the Greek
hypothesis meaning ground work, foundation,
• Hypothesis is a guess, an assumption, an
explanation, an informed judgment or an
inference that is professionally adopted to
explain facts or conditions or to guide one on
how to attack the problem
• It is helps in determining the investigation
methods to be used.
Types Of Research Hypotheses
• Alternative Hypothesis:
When a hypothesis is stated in a positive form, it
is termed as an alternative hypothesis. It is
written in a directional statement indicating the
kind of relationship anticipated. Examples:
1. Public universities are more popular than private
2. Public universities offer better courses than
Types Of Research Hypothesis
• Null hypothesis defined as a negative form of the
hypothesis, it is a statement that the
phenomenon has occurred because of chance.
The research study will determine if the null
hypothesis is rejected or accepted. The standard
use of language in null hypothesis is there is no
relationship between …..and…….Examples
1. There is no relationship between computer
literacy and academic achievements of Utengule
Relationship Among Hypotheses,
Objectives And Research Questions
• Research Hypotheses differ from research
questions in that hypotheses indicate the
questions in a testable form and predict the
nature of the answer(more specific and focused).
• A clear research question is readily transformed
into a hypotheses, by casting it in the form of
declarative statements that can be tested, so as
to show it to be either true or false.
To determine if girls and boys differ in their
professional career after passing out from college.
• Research Question:
Do boys and girls differ in their professional careers
after passing out from college?
Boys and girls do not differ in their professional
careers after passing out from college or There is no
significant difference between boys and girls as
regards professional careers after passing out from
Problems Of Research
i. Shortage of capital.
ii. Language barrier.
iii. Lack of peace and tranquility eg; areas which have
iv. Poor transport and communication eg; roads.
v. Ignorance and poor traditional beliefs.
vi. diseases in some areas are vested in epidemic
diseases like cholera and meningitis.
vii. Geographical land configuration such as areas with
thick forests, steep slope, remoteness and swampy.
• Research problem are formulated with a set of concepts.
Concepts are abstractions representing empirical
phenomena. In order to move from the conceptual to the
empirical level, concepts are converted into variables.
• A variable is an empirical property that take two or more
values. If a property can be changed in value or kind, it can
be regarded as a variable.
• Variable as a discrete phenomenon that can be measured
in two or more categories. It is a symbol to which we assign
numerical values. Example: social class is the variable
because it can be differentiated by at least five distinct
values, i.e.. Low, lower, middle, upper middle, and upper.
Types of Variables
There are so many variables but in research two or
three types are used for study.
1. Independent Variables.
This is variable are treated in a study in order to
see what effect differences in them will have on
the variables proposed as being dependent on
Synonyms of Independent Variables: Cause,
Input, predisposing factor, risk factors,
characteristic, attributes, determinants,
Types Of Variables
This is variable is or variable predicted to…..
Example: In education the dependent
variable is the achievement or learning and
the independent is the method of teaching.
Synonyms of Dependent Variables: Effect,
outcome, consequence, result, condition,
Independent VS Dependant Variables
The variable which the researcher wish to explain is
regarded as the dependent variable.
The variable expected to explain change in the dependent
variable is referred to as the independent variable.
The independent variable is the explanatory variable; it is
presumed cause of the changes in the values of the
The dependent variable is the expected outcome of the
Dependent variables are also called as criterion variables;
and independent variables predictor variables.
Importance Of Research
It is used to provide an accurate solutions to social
ii. It shows the scientific approach to geographical
iii. It provide practical knowledge to the students through
selecting geographical data from the field.
iv. It identify relationship between geographical phenomena
in .eg; relationship between man and his environment.
v. It provide the policy maker with accurate information
about the subject matter they are going to discuss and
therefore enable to make informed judgment on the
Types Of Research
• 1.Pure/Fundamental Research
• This type of research is mainly concerned with the
formulation of theories. It concerned with some natural
• 2.Qualitative Research
• Is concerned with qualitative phenomena relating to
quality or kind e.g. When we are interested to investigate
the reasons for human behavior such as Why people think
to do certain thing
• 3.Quantitative Research
• Is based on measurement of quantity or amount or deals
with numerical form. It is applicable to phenomena that
can be expressed in terms of quantity
Stage Of Research
• There are specific stages to be followed in organization of
field work/research these are:A. Problem identification
B. Hypothesis formation
C. Literature review
D. Collection of data
E. Data analysis
F. Data reading and presentation
G. Testing the hypothesis whether is true or false
H. Further generalization if true
I. Report writing
B. Identification Of Problem
A problem is a question or ideas of interest to you
which ought to be data collection. In taking
research of an area you have to know more thing
about the nature of the problem how serious and
The following are the source of problem
identification. These are
From the overview or review.
Defining A Problem
• A proble m is a ga p be twe e n a ctua l
pe rforma nce a nd pe rforma nce a ccording
to s ta nda rds a nd guide line s
A Good Problem Statement
• Cle a r, pre cis e a nd s pe cific
• It will a ns we r the following que s tions
– who, wha t, whe re , how a nd how big
Good Problem Statements
Exa mple 1
Only ha lf of the pa tie nts dia gnos e d a s
ha ving TB a re couns e le d for HIV te s ting in
Mbe ya Re giona l Hos pita l
Check Quality Of The Statements
Who? P a tie nts dia gnos e d a s ha ving TB
Wha t? Couns e ling for HIV te s ting
Whe re ? Mbe ya Re giona l Hos pita l
How? It is known tha t ½ of pa tie nts with
TB a ls o ha ve HIV infe ction. We a re
mis s ing the cha nce to tre a t both which
brings be tte r re s ults
• How big? Ha lf of the pa tie nts dia gnos e d
a s ha ving TB
Are The Following Good Problem
1. Mos t of pa tie nts le a ve Vwa wa Dis trict
Hos pita l OP D pha rma cy without cle a r
ins tructions on how to us e the ir
me dica tions
2. The re is a ve ry s e ve re s horta ge of s kille d
s ta ff in the hos pita l
Types Of Hypothesis
• There are two major types of research
hypothesis. There are;
It is the one that is started in negation. Eg; if
indicate no relationship between variable,
boarding and day scholars.
It is started indicates the an actual
expectation or relationship. Eg; there is
difference in academic performance in science
between student boarding and day scholars.
C. Literature Review
• Refers to the system identification and on
analysis of documents containing related to
This procedure left required a reach to
read various books, magazine, journals and
Importance Of Literature Review
i. To enable researches to determine what has
been related to the present data.
ii. They enable a researcher to avoid
unnecessary repetition of what has already
iii. To enable the researcher to redefine the
iv. To enable the researcher to select an
D. Data Collection
• Data collection is an action of railway new
information that enables the researcher to
reveal new thing.
Source Of Data
There are two sources of data that can be collected
a. Primary source of data.
The original data collected from the field
through observation question and interview etc.
b. Secondary source of data.
These are data obtained from other people
findings can be obtained from various record
includes textbooks, journals, magazine etc.
Techniques Of Research
• Research tools: These are method or ways used
to collect data in the field.
There are many methods which are used to
collect data. The main ones are:
B. Interview method
C. Questionnaire discussion
D.Focus group discussion
E. measurement of sampling
• This is the method in which a person uses his
or her eyes to take the phenomena and
record what is seen in some geographical
phenomena are appreciated when they are
actual untested eg; traffic activities.
Advantages Of Observation Methods
i. The method is reliable and appropriate since
data are obtained first hand.
ii. It series as one does not needed to look
iii. It help to develop the skills eg; observation
iv. The method help the researcher to store in
Disadvantages Of Observation
i. The data are based on personal observation.
ii. The method is costly.
iii. Some geographical phenomena are not
Types Of Observation
There are two types of observation. These are:
1. Participants Observation
• It’s also collect direct observation. In this
method the researcher becomes a part and
parcel of group of people leads observation.
The participant observer comments himself to
a group of people for a given time such as
several, hours, days, weeks or month.
Disadvantages Of Participants
i. Information gathered may be incomplete
because you cannot ask many questions in
ii. It is costly in form of time and money.
iii. It is very risk especially when you're are
observing people doing something illegal.
iv. One may be used and not record the
2.Non- Participants Observation
• A researcher observe behavior activities of the
group with our being parts the group he/she is
studying he sits when or they may be seen by
Advantages Of Non- Participants
i. The researcher is not affected economically
with the social situation of the group.
ii. Member observed are free to discuss under
presence at outside.
Disadvantages Of Non- Participants
i. Does not capture the natural content of
ii. The method is somehow a problem because
you cannot get full information to be
B. Interview Method
• Is the verbal interaction between an interview
and an interviewer designed to list the new
opinions or feeling they have on their own.
• Is the collection of data by asking questions
face to face and recording data.
Advantages Of Interview Method
It enable the researcher to acquire the required data
It permit the researcher to sure that the respondents
to have understood the question.
It is widely used to be literate and illiterate people.
It is possible to get additional information given be
through further discussion.
Information given can easily be checked it’s direct
based of body language.
Disadvantages Of Interview Method
i. It is time consuming.
ii. It is not reliable in issues happened longtime
iii. The respondents tend to be based.
iv. It is costly.
v. It require interview.
Types Of Interview
• There are two types of interview. These are:
a) Structured interview.
b) Unstructured interview.
c) Questionnaires interview.
A. Structured Interview
• The researcher is having prepared questions
which he/she each respondents in the same
B. Unstructured Interview
• In this type of the research provide guidance
to the respondents in term of possible
C. Questionnaires Interview
• Refers to the set of questions established by
the researcher in order to gather information
from the respondents. It consists of question
related to topics and they are used to obtain
the data required.
Advantages Of Questionnaires
i. Data can be collected of first hard
ii. A researcher gets many information from many
iii. It saves time a dose ended question used
Disadvantage Of Questionnaires
I. It’s used in place with literally rate hence it
leaves out illiterate.
II. Response rate is low because respondents of
not like to answer questions.
III. Questions may not be understood thus it can
lead to wrong answer.
IV. It is difficult to get respond willing to
intercept their daily routine.
Types Of Questionnaires Interview
• There are two types of questionnaires
interview. There are:
a. Structured (closed ended) questionnaires.
b.Unstructured (open ended) questionnaires.
A. Structured (Closed Ended)
• Refers to the questionnaires which are arranged by the list
of all possible alternation from which the respondents of
the answer the best describe the situation.
E.g.; what type of housed do you line in
b) Flat and other.
B. Unstructured (Open Ended)
• Refer the question which give respondents
complete freedom of responses.
These questions gives freedom on individual
to respond in his/her own words e.g.:
i. Why there is poor agriculture production in
ii. What crops do you grow.
D. Focus Group Discussion
• Is a research method which involve intensive
discussion on particular issue normally done in
small group of people of 5-7 people
• Is the method of data collection which
involves these election of small of the
repetitive individuals from the population
Sample is the position of the population which
is selected for observation so it is the subject
of population selected to represent the whole
Types Of Sampling/Sample Technique
. Random sampling-This is a types of
sampling where by the items have equal
chance of being considered.
The choice of individual to be included in a
sample is life pure chance e.g. You pick the
names from the basket
• Systematic sampling-Is the sampling which
involve drawing a sample by using a certain
regular manner of systematically E.g. You
select sample in systematic way after two
items the third are taken into sample
Stratified sampling-Is the type of sampling
which improve identification of group of
people where population is in groups E.g. Age,
Purposive sampling-Are researchers know
subject he/she clashed It.
Line sampling-This is a sampling in which the
selection is made specific line of population.
Quote sampling-Is a sampling where by the
items are selected by equal chance.
• Is the data collection methods through
measurement which can be done using very
sample equipment are done carefully the
results can be used to test hypothesis
Problems Encountered When
Language barriers-Someone may not understand the languages spoken
by respondents. This create problem in conducting interview. In such
case interpreter will be required
Public transport to various parts of the site-Such as districts or division
may insufficient researcher may take long time to reach the
iii. The climate can be harsh. it is difficult to collect data in such condition.
iv. Many geographical areas are prone to diseases such as malaria,
typhoid, cholera and meningitis.
Lack of adequate source of data.
vi. When instruments are not well presented its management becomes
difficult resulting to low response rate.
vii. Some people are very suspicious of strangers talking of them.
viii. Lack of cooperation from the respondents.
• Is a systematic plan which bring together in
organized from the primary planning that will
be needed to accomplish the purpose or
objective of research.
Components Of Research Proposal
ii. Problem identification
iii. Research hypothesis
iv. Literature review
v. Work plan/time schedule
vi. Budget chart
Function Of Research Proposal
i. It is a guideline to a researcher which show
how he/she will proceed with the research
ii. It shows the boundary on how a research
iii. It provide the means by the which the study
can be later evaluated.
E. Data Analysis
• Involves the preparation for complication of
field work report. Revise the rough drafts by
correcting fit for publishing.
F. Data Recording And Presentation
• Students should now write up the findings in a
concise manner and illustrates the work with
graphs, drawings and histograms.
G. Testing The Hypothesis
• The original data is then tested against the
result of the research. If the fact supports the
hypothesis appears wrong the student goes
back to the problem and tries to fresh.
H. Further Generalization If True
• It to say the facts are true in most cases and
ignoring the minor details it goes on day after
• Communicate your findings to a researcher or
Other Research Tools
• A field study
refers to the learning on activity carried on by individual or by
a group of people outside the classroom .
• Field work
is the science of selecting observing measuring and reporting
the geographical phenomena in specific area.
• Class tour
involves journey from the school to given place and returning
back to school it involves teachers and students e.g. a visit to
factory or industry or national park.
• Field research
is the field work approach which deals with finding the
problem and solving them daily life.
• What is research?
• Why interview method is more applicable
methods than others?
• What is sampling and define type of sampling?
• What is characteristics of good research?
• What is stages should follow to identify a
good research title?