Called a cartridge, not bullet.
Cartridge is entire thing
Bullet is the projectile
Case is what is left over after it is shot.
I don’t really care, and mess it up myself
Learn the proper names, because it makes
The whole thing, bullet, case, powder and all is
called a cartridge.
•The biggest part
of the cartridge is
• It is the big brass
hollow thing that
holds your charge.
• Part of the Case
that resembles a
bottle neck is
called the neck.
•The brass ring at
bottom flat part of
the case is the rim.
•The rim will
writing on it.
Small metal circle
in the center of
the rim is called
•The Primer is hit
by a pin and
types of primer:
• Boxer Primers
are easier for
• Both boxer and
today use similar,
Center-Fire vs Rim-Fire Cartridges
• Center-Fire Cartridges have the small primer in the center.
• No visible primer is called a “rim-fire” cartridge.
• In rim-fired cartridges, the entire rim has the priming compound.
Powderless .22 Cap rounds
.22 Short, Long, Long Rifle, Stinger, Winchester, Winchester
5 mm Remington Rimfire Magnum
.17 Hornady Magnum, .17 Hornady Mach 2, 17 Winchester
The indention around the bottom of the case
above the rim is called the cup.
This is commonly used by auto and semi-autos
to eject the case after firing.
Firearm Cartridge Powder, Black Powder
Inside the case is housed the powder charge.
Older cartridges used black powder.
Products of combustion are 55% solid
Leaves thick, heavy coating that holds
moisture and rusts the barrel of firearms.
Until 1920s, primers still used black powder.
More accurately called propellant
Products of combustion are mainly gaseous.
Not free of smoke, just less smoke.
The bullet is the shiny copper part that is located inside
the neck of the case. It has lead inside it.
Bullets can be many shapes:
It can be pointed on the nose
Hollow pointed (the nose is drilled out and notched.)
Lead is used in a bullet core because it is cheaper to cast and
Penetration of a bullet is affected by many different
Many other ballistic designs (beyond the scope
Types of Bullet
Full Metal Jacket
Full Metal Jacket Bullet (FMJ)
The entire bullet core (the lead) is encased in a copper
There is no softening of the nose, or tip.
Use by the military because it is a very efficient way of
getting penetration. It is thought to be more humane
and to cost more for every soldier that is injured,
instead of killed.
Hague Convention, and the Geneva Convention
Treaties between many governments that are typically
Requires no hollow point or expanding rounds.
OpenTip (Match) Bullet (OTM)
Opposite of metal jacket.
More of the core is covered, but the opening
is at the tip.
Held at higher standard in manufacturing.
Soft Point Bullet (SP)
Think of a HP filled in with lead and
protruding a little.
SP has better ballistic properties than HP
The flattening of the bullet isn’t as dramatic
Use a BallisticTip for FMJ accuracy and HP
benefits at the same time.
It is a small piece of plastic stuck in the tip of
Frangible- Compressed Copper granules.
Shatters on impact.
Steel core / Armor Piercing- Instead of a lead
core, it is a solid piece of steel.
Tracer- The round is painted by a chemical
that burns as it flies downrange. It can keep
burning after landing and can start fires.
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