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LET_02 LD 2009


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Live Event Technology - Lecture 2

Published in: Education, Business, Technology

LET_02 LD 2009

  1. 1. BSc Sound,Light and Live Event Technology Stage 2 -Live Event Techniques 5EJ 040 Lighting Design Lighting Design - a brief introduction
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>This lecture will cover: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why the correct positioning of lights is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How this creates a basic method of lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some conceptual issues on lighting design. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Direction and Focus <ul><li>The most vital decisions in planning a lighting design are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where we place the instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What we point them at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How we adjust the beams of the instruments </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Direction and Focus <ul><li>Where we place the instruments </li></ul><ul><li>What we point them at </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How we adjust the beams of the instruments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technique, although should be considered at the design stage </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Front light, side light, top light, back light, three quarter back light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all describe lighting positions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lecture will look at these terms more precisely. </li></ul><ul><li>The example of theatre is used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>could be any performance environment </li></ul></ul>Direction and Focus
  6. 6. What is Lighting Design?
  7. 7. What is Lighting Design? <ul><li>Selective Visibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Each member of the audience must be able to see clearly and correctly those things that he is intended to see.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Pilbrow, Stage Lighting Design, 1997 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What is a Lighting Designer?
  9. 9. What is a Lighting Designer? <ul><li>The lighting designer needs to develop and maintain the visual logic of the piece, working with and enhancing the visual languages of the production </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nick Moran, Performance Lighting Design, 2007 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The lighting designer should reveal the narrative of the event using the medium of light </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lighting the Performer <ul><li>Unlike television or film, the audience at a live performance can look at the entire stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In TV/film the camera shot tells the viewer what to look at </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One function of lighting is to direct the audience where to look </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Generally we wish to make the performer/s distinct from the background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal would be lighting for performers independent of lighting for scenic elements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often desirable to highlight features of the set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usual to try and stop spill and shadow as this is distracting and visually undesirable. </li></ul></ul>Lighting the Performer
  12. 12. Top Light <ul><li>The most natural place to put an instrument it may seem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixtures in rooms generally in the centre above. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Method <ul><li>A method of lighting the theatre stage was first codified by Stanley McCandless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McCandless, Stanley, A Method of Lighting the Stage . 4 Ed. New York: Theatre Arts Books, 1958.(first ed 1934) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not the only way, but a good basis </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Method <ul><li>McCandless proposed that : </li></ul><ul><li>The stage be broken down into areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3m-4m wide, depending on luminaires available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each area is lit from two sides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90 0 apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45 0 from the horizontal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One unit in a cool shade </li></ul><ul><li>The other in a warmer shade </li></ul><ul><li>All units to have separate dimmers </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Method <ul><li>Added to this “general cover” or “wash” </li></ul><ul><li>Light from where the audience is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lower angled front light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Light from the back </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adds form and atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Light from the side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasises form </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Method <ul><li>Motivating light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any light source used onstage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivated light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any lighting required to give the illusion of light coming from an offstage source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lighting required for a special effect; often merely a single luminaire. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Motivating Light -1 <ul><li>Multiple sources trying to be point source </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational light is the bare lamp </li></ul><ul><li>Steep lighting angle(note shadows) emphasising the hanging lamp </li></ul>Othello - LD Ken Coker
  18. 18. Motivating light - 2 Othello, The Cochrane Theatre, London/Dir:Chris Geelan/ Des:Bridget Kimak/ Photos:Bridget Kimak/Images: Ken Coker
  19. 19. Motivated Light <ul><li>Good example of motivated light and special </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic moment emphasised by white light through a doorway. </li></ul>Sleuth - LD Nick Richings
  20. 20. Special <ul><li>A special, a backlight-all single point </li></ul><ul><li>Combining to make striking image </li></ul><ul><li>Starcloth in background </li></ul><ul><li>Isolates a very small area </li></ul>Romeo & Juliet - LD Patrick Woodroffe
  21. 21. Top Light <ul><li>Unit 5 </li></ul><ul><li>May seem a natural position, but creates heavy shadow under eye sockets, nose, chin. </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic but not helpful for definition. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Top Light
  23. 23. <ul><li>Unit 2 </li></ul><ul><li>A useful position </li></ul><ul><li>Shows the important features of a face </li></ul><ul><li>Looks relatively natural </li></ul><ul><li>Danger of flattening features </li></ul><ul><li>Can “merge” figure into back ground </li></ul>Front Centre
  24. 24. Front Light
  25. 25. <ul><li>Unit 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Start of the modelling process </li></ul><ul><li>Good for features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least on one side </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not flatten figures into scenery </li></ul><ul><li>Can, depending on elevation and angle, miss any scenic elements. </li></ul>Front SR
  26. 26. <ul><li>Unit 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Complements Unit 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 10: </li></ul><ul><li> Each area is lit from two sides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90 0 apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45 0 from the horizontal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequently only imperfect positions available. </li></ul>Front SL
  27. 27. <ul><li>Unit 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Not great for facial features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shadows of nose etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good for revealing form </li></ul><ul><li>Note emphasis on body shape </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of flower vase on the SL side. </li></ul>Side SL
  28. 28. Side SR <ul><li>Unit 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Complement to unit 4 </li></ul><ul><li>This is high/pipe end side light </li></ul><ul><li>Can be varied in position from Pipe end to shin </li></ul>
  29. 29. Side/ Cross Light <ul><ul><li>The figure on the left is side lit by two lamps. One mounted on a boom in the stage left entrance and the other hung on a boom in the stage right entrance. Notice the edges of the figure are well lit, but the front of the body is in shadow. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Side Light <ul><li>Even and from both sides </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasises the line/movement of the body </li></ul>The Seasons - LD Mark Jonathan
  31. 31. <ul><li>Unit 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic </li></ul><ul><li>Often a heavier colour than front/side light </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on shape </li></ul>Backlight
  32. 32. Backlight
  33. 33. <ul><li>Unit 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Not good for features </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent for form </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic </li></ul><ul><li>Useful dance angle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember benefits of seeing beam </li></ul></ul>SR ¾ BL
  34. 34. <ul><li>Unit 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Complement of Unit 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Often used in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contrasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>complementary colour </li></ul></ul>SL ¾ BL
  35. 35. Uplight <ul><li>Another dramatic position </li></ul><ul><li>Used for effect </li></ul><ul><li>Throws large shadows behind figure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on closeness of unit </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. All <ul><li>Balance is the essence </li></ul><ul><li>Often trying to give sense of light direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be achieved by balance of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COLOUR </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>(With that the sun came out between the clouds…) </li></ul><ul><li>CUE 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Rosco 07 pars very strong over the back of the barrells stage left, giving the sunlight direction. </li></ul>Some Examples Playboy of the Western World, Liverpool Playhouse/Dir:Robert Delamere/ Des:Simon Higlett/ Photos:Johanna Town
  38. 38. Some Examples <ul><li>Strong point source from stage left </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly some light from right </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh dramatic shadow </li></ul>Wozzeck - LD Rick Fisher
  39. 39. Some Examples <ul><li>Motivated light </li></ul><ul><li>Daylight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diffuse light from an unseen sun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note light fading away downstage away from the window. </li></ul>Popcorn - LD Johanna Town
  40. 40. Some Examples <ul><li>Same setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small hours of the morning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hint of dawn or city through the window </li></ul><ul><li>Shadow from unseen light sources - through door? </li></ul>Popcorn - LD Johanna Town
  41. 41. Plan The Plan
  42. 42. Aims of Lighting <ul><li>What are we trying to achieve when we light an event/show? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Aims of Lighting <ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revelation of form . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illumination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sculpture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul></ul>Gillette Pilbrow Reid
  44. 44. Aims of Lighting <ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmosphere </li></ul></ul>Stanley McCandless <ul><ul><li>Selective Visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing Given Circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colouring the Stage Picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaping Space and Form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focussing Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition of the Stage Picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing Rhythm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing Style </li></ul></ul>Richard Palmer
  45. 45. Aims of Lighting <ul><li>Selective Visibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Each member of the audience must be able to see clearly and correctly those things that he is intended to see.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Pilbrow, Stage Lighting Design, 1997 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The LD’s first and most important task is to achieve visibility (ibid) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Aims of Lighting <ul><li>Selective Visibility </li></ul><ul><li>Only for effect should the audience need to strain to see </li></ul><ul><li>Balance is a key concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each object should receive the proportionally the correct amount of light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This balance is reflected in our use of lighting angles and positions and other dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This balance is altered to emphasise different parts of the performance area </li></ul>
  47. 47. Aims of Lighting <ul><li>Revelation of Form </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shade and shadow are equal in importance to light itself” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adolphe Appia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Performers and objects should be lit adequately and correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Their shape and form should be revealed as desired by the visual team </li></ul><ul><li>People generally do not speak in the dark </li></ul><ul><li>Scenic elements are there to give their own visual clues </li></ul>
  48. 48. Aims of Lighting <ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>“ The intensity,colour and distribution of the light create compositions of light shade and colour in the performance space.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pilbrow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pilbrow goes on to say that an LD should never sacrifice visibility for the sake of an attractive visual picture </li></ul><ul><li>I would disagree </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brighter and different instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visually more literate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Images from music videos, advertising </li></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Aims of Lighting <ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>By lighting design the overall visual aims of the design team are achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Light is used as an element of design in space,but it is dynamic- unlike painting </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting design is visual design in space and time </li></ul>
  50. 50. Aims of Lighting <ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><li>Mood should be the result of getting visibility,form, and composition right </li></ul><ul><li>A hard task </li></ul><ul><li>By using intensity colour,distribution and movement the LD can exploit the fundamental emotional and psychological effects inherent in light; we can mirror the complexities of the text. </li></ul>How sweet the moonlight sits upon this bank Here we will sit, and let the sounds of music Creep in our ears; soft stillness and the night Becomes the touches of sweet harmony. Sit Jessica. Look how the floor of heaven Is thick inlaid with patines of bright gold
  51. 51. Aims of Lighting <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Lighting supports the storytelling/information that the event has </li></ul><ul><li>We can use what the audience expects to see </li></ul><ul><li>We can jog their visual memories </li></ul><ul><li>We can surprise them by showing them the unexpected </li></ul>
  52. 52. Texts – Must Reads! <ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Lighting Design : how to light for the stage, concerts, exhibitions and live events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  Nick Moran, Methuen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISBN 9780713677577 (2007) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Stage Lighting Handbook </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Francis Reid, A & C Black, Sixth Edition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISBN 0 7136 5396 5 (2001) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Texts <ul><ul><ul><li>Stage Lighting Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Richard Pilbrow,Nick Hern Books </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISBN 1 85459 273 4 (1997) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Lighting Art : the aesthetics of stage lighting design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  Richard H. Palmer,Englewood Cliffs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISBN 013536566X (1985) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theatrical Design and Production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>J. Michael Gillette , 4th edition. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mayfield Publishing Company. (1999). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 12: Lighting Design </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. References <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Both links, sadly, now expired </li></ul>
  55. 55. Light A Car <ul><li>KC has been asked to light a car reveal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One speaker at lectern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One car on riser </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Light A Car <ul><li>Before I start </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascertain physical resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Place;budget;kit; duration …… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Then apply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revelation of form . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Light A Car <ul><ul><li>Selective Visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who has got to see what, when? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revelation of form . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are we trying to show? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall stage picture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quiet? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brash? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker needs to be seen + heard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Car needs to be seen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Exercise <ul><li>You have been asked to light a small conference/presentation for the UOD </li></ul><ul><li>Stage is 10m x 8m x 0.6m </li></ul><ul><li>Two tables </li></ul><ul><li>Lectern </li></ul><ul><li>BP Screen – short video only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4m x 3m </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Exercise <ul><li>Create a list of questions you should ask the client </li></ul><ul><li>Create an initial lighting design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume lighting positions, power are Ok </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget reasonable….for UOD </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Layout 10m 8m Table Table Chair Chair Chair Chair Chair Lectern Screen