Essentialsof Design
What are ThePrinciples of Design?The Principles of Design arethe ways that artists use theElements of Art to create goodCo...
There are 11Principles of DesignBalance ContrastEmphasis VarietyUnity/Harmony ProportionRhythm MovementPattern Repetition
BalanceThis principle of designrefers to the visualequalization of theelements in a work of art.There are three majorforms...
The three major formsof balance:Asymmetrical balance: whereequilibrium is achieved by the balancedifferences in the art e...
What kind of balance is illustrated in thispainting Oriental Poppies, byGeorgia O’Keefe?
If you said symmetrical balance,you are correct!If you could visuallydivide the paper inhalf. There wouldbe a poppy onboth...
What type of balance is shown in this painting,Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the PaintersMother (commonly kno...
If you said,asymmetricalbalance, you wereright! The largeform of the womanis "visually equal" tothe black curtainand white...
What typeof balanceis shown inthis stainedglass artwork,Rose Window?
Radial Balance!Look at the spiralor spinningeffect of the pattern.The axis is the centerpoint and the designor pattern app...
What type of balance is shown here?Here the larger figures to the right are balanced by the manysmaller figures to the lef...
What type ofbalance isshown here?The monkey and thethe cat balance eachother out on eitherside of the woman.Freda Khalo, A...
ContrastA design principle that emphasizesdifferences between the art elements.For example, a painting may have bright col...
In Spiral of Emotion by Joseph Perkins we see asharp contrast between darks and lights whichhe has balanced out with some ...
In this work we see sharp lines and shapes againstsofter lines and shapes. We also see sharp contrastbetween colors.Marlen...
The principle of design that is concerned withdominance; the development of a main idea orcenter of interest (also called ...
Where is the focal point in WassilyKandinsky’s, Composition VII ?
Kandinsky emphasized the large black circle in theupper left corner of his work. The object is differentfrom everything el...
In FranciscoGoya’s, TheShootings ofMay Third1801,where isthearea ofemphasis?
Goya "lights" up the painting in much the same way a spotlightlights up the actors on a stage. Goya creates a very light v...
Variety is achieved when the art elements arecombined in various ways to increase visual interest.For instance, an assortm...
Let’s look at Kandinsky’s painting again.How is the artist showing variety in thiswork?
Kandinsky used a variety of lines, shapes and colorsto give this painting interest. He also overlappedsome of those elemen...
This principle refers to the visual quality ofwholeness or oneness that is achieved througheffective use of the elements o...
What do you think Cezanne used to keep thispainting, Mt. Victoria,unified or working together?
Cezanne used blues, yellows and greens. Byusing related colors (remember blue and yellowmake green), the piece appears to ...
The relationship in size of onecomponent (part) of a work of art toanotherProportionAAAA
How is this artist, John Zacchea, showing correctproportion in Wine Bottle and Cheese?When comparingthe size of theobjects...
Sometimes artists chose to distort or exaggeratethe proportions of the subjects involved.Fernando Botero, A FamilyIn this ...
Rhythm refers to a way of utilizing the artelements to produce the look and feel of rhythmicmovement with a visual tempo o...
Here is an example of a cut paper tessellationdesign. What is used to create the appearanceof rhythm in this work?
Possible answers could be:The fish design is repeated over and over.The colors white and orange appear as a pattern.The li...
Movement is the designprinciple that uses some ofthe elements of art to producethe look of action or to causethe viewer’s ...
In Starry Night, famed artist Vincent Van Gogh createsmovement in his sky. How does he show us this?
The swirling motion of the colors in the sky showing the artistsinterpretation of wind.The repetition of the brushstrokes ...
Repetition of an element of art (i.e., shapes,lines, or colors) to achieve decoration orornamentation.Pattern
What elements has the artist used inthis mask to create pattern?This decorativewall plaque is agreat example ofhow an arti...
How has the artists use of patternenhanced this piece?Would this piece beas interesting if theartist had used asolid backg...
A way of combining art elements sothat the same elements are used overand over to achieve balance andharmony.Repetition
Ben Shahn has shown repetition in his work, Supermarketby repeating the same subject over and over to create aninteresting...
This beautifulScorpion Mola,by an unknownartist , from thePanama CanalKuna Indiansshows repetitionof whatelements of art?
Shapes, colors, lines, and forms arerepeated.
Composition is the plan, placementor arrangement of the elements of artin a work.The general goal is to select andplace ...
The Rule of ThirdsThe application of the rule ofthirds to photographs isconsidered by many to makethem more aesthetically ...
The Rule ofThirds The rule states that an imagecan be divided into nine equalparts by two equally-spacedhorizontal lines ...
Rule of ThirdsThe objective is to keep the subject(s) and areas of interest out of thecenter of the image, by placing them...
The objective is to keep thesubject(s) and areas of interestout of the center of the image,by placing them near one ofthe ...
The first calculation of thegolden ratio, was describedby Euclid in his Elements(greek: ).ΣτοιχεῖαA line segment section...
Golden Ratio Since the fifteen century, shapes proportioned accordingto the golden ratio have been considered aesthetical...
SymmetryThe "rule of odds" suggests that an oddnumber of subjects in an image is moreinteresting than an even number.
SymmetryThe "rule of odds" suggests that an oddnumber of subjects in an image is moreinteresting than an even number.
Related to the rule of odds is the observation thattriangles are an aesthetically pleasing implied shape within an image
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Essentials of Design

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Essentials of Art, components of a successful painting. A lot of the elements of Art can be found in music and other arts.

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Essentials of Design

  1. 1. Essentialsof Design
  2. 2. What are ThePrinciples of Design?The Principles of Design arethe ways that artists use theElements of Art to create goodCompositions (artwork)
  3. 3. There are 11Principles of DesignBalance ContrastEmphasis VarietyUnity/Harmony ProportionRhythm MovementPattern Repetition
  4. 4. BalanceThis principle of designrefers to the visualequalization of theelements in a work of art.There are three majorforms of balance
  5. 5. The three major formsof balance:Asymmetrical balance: whereequilibrium is achieved by the balancedifferences in the art elements within acomposition.Symmetrical balance: where the artelements in a composition are balancedin a mirror-like fashion (it does not haveto be exact but close).Radial balance: a kind of balancewhere the elements branch or radiateout from a central point.
  6. 6. What kind of balance is illustrated in thispainting Oriental Poppies, byGeorgia O’Keefe?
  7. 7. If you said symmetrical balance,you are correct!If you could visuallydivide the paper inhalf. There wouldbe a poppy onbothsides. No one sidedominates thepictures. Neitherpoppy appears tobe more importantthan the other.
  8. 8. What type of balance is shown in this painting,Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the PaintersMother (commonly known as Whistler’s Mother),by James Whistler?
  9. 9. If you said,asymmetricalbalance, you wereright! The largeform of the womanis "visually equal" tothe black curtainand white paintingon the wall.This makes thepainting appearbalanced.
  10. 10. What typeof balanceis shown inthis stainedglass artwork,Rose Window?
  11. 11. Radial Balance!Look at the spiralor spinningeffect of the pattern.The axis is the centerpoint and the designor pattern appears to"radiate" fromthat point.
  12. 12. What type of balance is shown here?Here the larger figures to the right are balanced by the manysmaller figures to the left. Also, Seurat added additional"light" to the left. How does this add balance to the painting?George Seurat, (French) 1859-1891, Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte
  13. 13. What type ofbalance isshown here?The monkey and thethe cat balance eachother out on eitherside of the woman.Freda Khalo, Autorretarto conCollre de Espinas y Colibri,
  14. 14. ContrastA design principle that emphasizesdifferences between the art elements.For example, a painting may have bright colors thatcontrast with dull colors or angular shapes thatcontrast with rounded shapes.Sharp contrast draws attention and can direct aviewer to a focal point within a work of art.
  15. 15. In Spiral of Emotion by Joseph Perkins we see asharp contrast between darks and lights whichhe has balanced out with some middle tones.
  16. 16. In this work we see sharp lines and shapes againstsofter lines and shapes. We also see sharp contrastbetween colors.Marlene Healey, Sections of my Destiny
  17. 17. The principle of design that is concerned withdominance; the development of a main idea orcenter of interest (also called focal point)Emphasis
  18. 18. Where is the focal point in WassilyKandinsky’s, Composition VII ?
  19. 19. Kandinsky emphasized the large black circle in theupper left corner of his work. The object is differentfrom everything else in the painting and therefore it"stands out".
  20. 20. In FranciscoGoya’s, TheShootings ofMay Third1801,where isthearea ofemphasis?
  21. 21. Goya "lights" up the painting in much the same way a spotlightlights up the actors on a stage. Goya creates a very light valuearound the area he wants you to see. The man in the white shirt isthe focal point of the painting. He uses value contrast to emphasizethis area.
  22. 22. Variety is achieved when the art elements arecombined in various ways to increase visual interest.For instance, an assortment of shapes that are of avariety of sizes attracts more attention than anassortment of shapes all the same size.Variety
  23. 23. Let’s look at Kandinsky’s painting again.How is the artist showing variety in thiswork?
  24. 24. Kandinsky used a variety of lines, shapes and colorsto give this painting interest. He also overlappedsome of those elements.
  25. 25. This principle refers to the visual quality ofwholeness or oneness that is achieved througheffective use of the elements of art andprinciples of designUnity/Harmony
  26. 26. What do you think Cezanne used to keep thispainting, Mt. Victoria,unified or working together?
  27. 27. Cezanne used blues, yellows and greens. Byusing related colors (remember blue and yellowmake green), the piece appears to work as awhole.
  28. 28. The relationship in size of onecomponent (part) of a work of art toanotherProportionAAAA
  29. 29. How is this artist, John Zacchea, showing correctproportion in Wine Bottle and Cheese?When comparingthe size of theobjects in thecomposition, yousee that theobjects are nottoo large or toosmall for eachother. They are ofa realistic size.
  30. 30. Sometimes artists chose to distort or exaggeratethe proportions of the subjects involved.Fernando Botero, A FamilyIn this case the artist choseto use these "puffed upforms" to exaggerate thesize of the people. Byshowing the figures largerthan life size, he isattempting to celebrate thelife within, and perhaps tomock their role in theworld.
  31. 31. Rhythm refers to a way of utilizing the artelements to produce the look and feel of rhythmicmovement with a visual tempo or beatRhythm refers to a way of utilizing the artelements to produce the look and feel of rhythmicmovement with a visual tempo or beatRhythm refers to a way of utilizing the artelements to produce the look and feel ofrhythmic movement with a visual tempo orbeatRhythm
  32. 32. Here is an example of a cut paper tessellationdesign. What is used to create the appearanceof rhythm in this work?
  33. 33. Possible answers could be:The fish design is repeated over and over.The colors white and orange appear as a pattern.The lines that form the scales of the fish.The black triangles that decorate the backbone of the fish.
  34. 34. Movement is the designprinciple that uses some ofthe elements of art to producethe look of action or to causethe viewer’s eye to sweepover the art work in a certainmanner.Movement
  35. 35. In Starry Night, famed artist Vincent Van Gogh createsmovement in his sky. How does he show us this?
  36. 36. The swirling motion of the colors in the sky showing the artistsinterpretation of wind.The repetition of the brushstrokes and paint dabs.The stars are all yellow and round, vary in size and placement, andhave "halos" of light encircling them.Look at the painting and concentrate on how your eyes bouncefrom one star to another. This is an example of how an artist cancreate movement in a work of art.
  37. 37. Repetition of an element of art (i.e., shapes,lines, or colors) to achieve decoration orornamentation.Pattern
  38. 38. What elements has the artist used inthis mask to create pattern?This decorativewall plaque is agreat example ofhow an artistuses lines andshapes to createpatterns.Artist Unknown,Indonesian, Wall Plaque,
  39. 39. How has the artists use of patternenhanced this piece?Would this piece beas interesting if theartist had used asolid backgroundrather than thispatterned one?Riffs by Florene
  40. 40. A way of combining art elements sothat the same elements are used overand over to achieve balance andharmony.Repetition
  41. 41. Ben Shahn has shown repetition in his work, Supermarketby repeating the same subject over and over to create aninteresting composition. He used the same type andthickness of line and the same shapes
  42. 42. This beautifulScorpion Mola,by an unknownartist , from thePanama CanalKuna Indiansshows repetitionof whatelements of art?
  43. 43. Shapes, colors, lines, and forms arerepeated.
  44. 44. Composition is the plan, placementor arrangement of the elements of artin a work.The general goal is to select andplace appropriate elements withinthe work in order to communicateideas and feelings with the viewer.Technology student will benefit froma better understanding ofcomposition. Learn to select andplace appropriate elements withintheir work in order to communicateideas and feelings with the viewer.
  45. 45. The Rule of ThirdsThe application of the rule ofthirds to photographs isconsidered by many to makethem more aesthetically pleasingand professional-lookingMany photographersrecommend treating any "rule" ofcomposition as more of aguideline, since pleasingphotographs can often be madewhile ignoring one or more suchrules.
  46. 46. The Rule ofThirds The rule states that an imagecan be divided into nine equalparts by two equally-spacedhorizontal lines and twoequally-spaced vertical lines.The four points formed by theintersections of these linescan be used to align featuresin the photograph. Proponents of this techniqueclaim that aligning aphotograph with these pointscreates more tension, energyand interest in the photo thansimply centering the featurewould.
  47. 47. Rule of ThirdsThe objective is to keep the subject(s) and areas of interest out of thecenter of the image, by placing them near one of the lines that woulddivide the image into three equal columns and rows, ideally near theintersection of those lines.
  48. 48. The objective is to keep thesubject(s) and areas of interestout of the center of the image,by placing them near one ofthe lines that would divide theimage into three equalcolumns and rows, ideallynear the intersection of thoselines.
  49. 49. The first calculation of thegolden ratio, was describedby Euclid in his Elements(greek: ).ΣτοιχεῖαA line segment sectionedinto two, to illustrate thegolden ratio. The totallength a+b is to the longersegment a as a is to theshorter segment b.The GOLDEN RATIO
  50. 50. Golden Ratio Since the fifteen century, shapes proportioned accordingto the golden ratio have been considered aestheticallypleasing in Western cultures; the golden ratio is stillfrequently used in art and design. The golden ratio hasattracted a large following for its supposed aesthetic,psychological, historical, mystical, natural, andmetaphysical properties, in addition to its mathematicalproperties. The most common other names used for the golden ratioare golden section (Latin: sectio aurea), golden mean,golden number, and phi (referring to the Greek letter ).φOther names include medial section, divine proportion,divine section, golden proportion, golden cut, extreme andmean ratio, and mean of Phidias.
  51. 51. SymmetryThe "rule of odds" suggests that an oddnumber of subjects in an image is moreinteresting than an even number.
  52. 52. SymmetryThe "rule of odds" suggests that an oddnumber of subjects in an image is moreinteresting than an even number.
  53. 53. Related to the rule of odds is the observation thattriangles are an aesthetically pleasing implied shape within an image

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