Endoskeleton: An internal skeleton (as opposed to an exoskeleton, or external skeleton, as in an arthropod) Bone: Hard connective tissue Cartilage: Flexible connective tissue Ligament: Connective tissue that joins bone to bone Tendon: Connective tissue that joins muscle to bone
Categorized by development: Endochronal – from embryonic cartilage Dermal – from embryonic connective tissue Alveolar – from special cells found only in jaw bones Sesamoid – within tendons Wormian – within the flat bones of the skull Categorized by shape: Flat – thin, flattened, often slightly curved Irregular – unique, often complicated shape that is not geometrically describable Short – square-like shape Long – elongated shape
Compact Bone – also called Cortical Bone, the rigid outer shell of the bone Spongy Bone – also called Cancellous or Trabecular Bone, forms the ends of the long bones and the center of other bones; composed of a honeycomb-like network Medullary (or Marrow) Cavity – The hollow center of long bones, lined with endosteum which can generate new bone cells, and filled with bone marrow to be used as a food reserve
Structural Classification: Based on tissue composition and structural complexity * cartilaginous – formed by cartilage * fibrous – formed of fibrous connective tissue * synovial – formed by a synovial capsule Functional Classification: Based on the way joints move * see next slide
Review skeletal system.
Review skeletal system.
Endochronal Ossification: Bone formation that begins within cartilage Intramembranous Ossification: The formation of bone from connective-tissue membranes Alternately, bone healing is sometimes grouped into reactive (fracture and granuation), reparative (callus and lamellar bone), and restorative (normal contour) phases.
Stress/strain: shin splint, stress fracture, arthritis Inflammation: gout, lupus, fibromyalgia Degenerative: Osteoporosis, tooth decay, myeloma and other cancers
Applied Learning OutcomesUse the terminology associated with the skeletal systemLearn about the following:• Skeleton structure• Bone structure and types• Bone function• Bone tissue• Bone development and growth• Bone physiology• Bone articulationsUnderstand the aging and pathology of the skeletal system Chapter 5 – The Skeletal System
OverviewHumans have anendoskeletonThe skeletal system iscomposed of bones,cartilage, ligaments, andtendonsThe skeletal system providesmovement, protection, andshape Chapter 5 – The Skeletal System
The HumanSkeletal SystemThe axialskeleton iscomposed ofthe spine, ribcage, andskull Chapter 5 – The Skeletal System
The Human Skeletal SystemTheappendicular Upper appendages:skeleton is the shoulders, arms,composed of wrists, and handsthe upper and Lower appendages:lower the hips, legs, knees, ankles, and feetappendages,and the bonesthat girdlethem to theaxial skeleton Chapter 5 – The Skeletal System
BoneBone Types:Bones can be Flat,categorized Irregular,by their shape Short, or Longand by theirorigin in theembryo Endochronal, Dermal, Alveolar, Sesamoid, or Wormian Chapter 5 – The Skeletal System
Bone Human bone is primarily comprised of compact bone and spongy bone. Some bones have at their center a medullary cavity containing bone marrow. Chapter 5 – The Skeletal System
JointsJoints attach bones,provide support andprotection, and allowfor body movement.Joints arecategorized by theirstructuralclassification andtheir functionalclassification. Chapter 5 – The Skeletal System
JointsPivot Joints: elbowGliding Joints: intervertebralBall-and-Socket: shoulder, hipSaddle: thumbCondyloid: wristHinge: knee, ankle, humeroulnar Chapter 5 – The Skeletal System
Human Bone ChartsReview thehuman skeleton,anterior viewChapter 5 – The Skeletal System
Human Bone ChartsReview thehuman skeleton,posterior viewChapter 5 – The Skeletal System
Bone Development and HealingThe process of bonedevelopment is calledossification. There are twotypes of ossification:endochronal andintramembranous.Bone healing occurs instages: fracture,granulation, callus,lamellar bone, and normalcontour. Chapter 5 – The Skeletal System
Wellness and Illness over the Life Span• Most common bone and joint pathologies are related to atypical stress and strain.• Other organ-system diseases cause inflammation of bones and joints.• Other pathologies include degenerative disorders and diseases.• During a person’s lifetime, bone is constantly degraded and replaced. Chapter 5 – The Skeletal System
SummaryThe skeletal system works together withthe muscular system to provide the bodywith support and movement.Bones are classified by their shape andorigin.A certain amount of activity is needed tomaintain the integrity of the skeletalsystem; however, too much activity canprematurely wear out its components. Chapter 5 – The Skeletal System