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Orbital motion

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orbital motions in the universe

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Orbital motion

1. 1. Orbital Motion Earth and Environmental Science Vocabulary
2. 2. Vocabulary: Orbital Motion – Kepler’s Laws • Kepler’s first law – law that states that planets orbit in ellipses, with the Sun at one focus. • Kepler’s second law – law that states that planets speed up as they get nearer the Sun and slow down as they move farther from the Sun. • Kepler’s third law – law that states that the square of a planet’s period is proportional to the cube of the planet’s orbital radius.
3. 3. Astronomical unit a distance unit equal to the average Earth-Sun distance. The symbol for astronomical unit is “AU.” One astronomical unit is approximately equal to 150 million kilometers. (The actual distance is 149,597,870.691 km.) • 370x210 science1.nasa.gov
4. 4. Eccentricity – the degree by which the shape of an orbit differs from a circle. 1920x1080-neo.ipl.nasa.gov o The eccentricity of an ellipse can vary between 0 and 1. An ellipse with an eccentricity of 0 is a circle. An ellipse with an eccentricity of 1 is a line segment. o To measure the eccentricity of an ellipse, divide the distance between the foci by the width of the ellipse. (On the diagram below, the foci are labeled “F1” and “F2.”)
5. 5. Ellipse – a flattened circle An ellipse contains two foci, labeled “F1” and “F2” on the diagram at right. The sum of the distances from any point on the ellipse to the two foci is constant. On the diagram, a1 + a2 = b1 + b2. The orbits of planets and other objects in the solar system are elliptical, with the Sun at one focus. 226x170-nasa.gov
6. 6. Gravity – the force of attraction between all objects in the universe The magnitude of the gravitational force between two objects depends on the masses of the two objects and the distance between them. The force of gravity is proportional to the product of the masses. The force of gravity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. • 640x426-jscfeatures.nasa.gov • (Inside the Space Station with no gravity)
7. 7. Orbit – the path of one body around another body in space, such as the path of Earth around the Sun. neo.jpl.nasa.gov1920 × 1080
8. 8. Orbital radius – the average distance from an orbiting object to the object it is orbiting around. 216x144-imagine.gsfc.nasa The orbital radius of a planet is the mean distance from the planet to the Sun
9. 9. Period – the amount of time it takes for an object to complete one full orbit. • earthobservatory.nasa.gov720 × 480Search by image • Diagram showing orbital velocities at low, medium, and high-Earth orbits. The higher a satellite's orbit, the slower it moves.
10. 10. Vector – a representation that specifies the direction and magnitude of a quantity. In physics, vectors are used to represent displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, and other quantities that have a specific direction. A vector can be resolved into perpendicular components. For example, “6.0i + 3.0j” describes a vector that points 6 units east and 3 units north.
11. 11. Velocity – the speed and direction of a moving object. helios.gsfc.nasa.gov695 × 532 The velocity of an object can be described by a vector.
12. 12. Kepler’s first law law that states that planets orbit in ellipses, with the Sun at one focus. www2.jpl.nasa.gov335 × 230
13. 13. Kepler’s second law law that states that planets speed up as they get nearer the Sun and slow down as they move farther from the Sun. www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov358 × 120
14. 14. Kepler’s third law • www.windows2universe.org240 × 319 • Orbit – the path of one body around another body in space, such as the path of Earth around the Sun. law that states that the square of a planet’s period is proportional to the cube of the planet’s orbital radius.
15. 15. Orbit neo.jpl.nasa.gov1920 × 1080 the path of one body around another body in space, such as the path of Earth around the Sun.
16. 16. Force – something that can cause a change in motion; a push or a pull. 720x540-grc.nasa.gov O When you push or pull an object, you exert a force on the object. Other examples of forces include gravity, the electrostatic force, and the strong and weak nuclear forces.
17. 17. Force A Delta II rocket lights its main engine and nine solid-fueled boosters to begin the Dawn mission to the asteroid belt. The launch took place Sept. 27, 2007, at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Photo credit: NASA/Sandra Joseph and Rafael Hernandez www.nasa.gov2008 × 3000 something that can cause a change in motion; a push or a pull. When you push or pull an object, you exert a force on the object. Other examples of forces include gravity, the electrostatic force, and the strong and weak nuclear forces.
18. 18. Orbital Motion • Module 15 NCVPS Earth and Environmental Science • By Kella Randolph, M. Ed. • Thank you for viewing.