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Rocks, Soils, Erosion, Weathering and Deposition
Study Guide with pictures added
Illustrated Earth and Environmental Scien...
Rocks, Soils, Erosion, Weathering and
Deposition
• Weathering is the destructive processes by which materials at or near
t...
What are the 2 types of weathering?
Physical/Mechanical
Chemical
Name six main processes of physical
weathering.
• mechanical – a physical change
in which rocks are broken down
into diffe...
Mechanical weathering continued
• (2) frost action – water seeps
into an opening or crack in a
rock and then freezes when
...
Weathering
• (3) Temperature- the cycle of
heating and cooling of rocks
causes a cycling of expansion
and contraction that...
Weathering
• (5) Gravity- can pull loosened
rocks downhill, resulting in a
landslide. This can cause rocks
to break into s...
Chemical weathering- changes in the chemical
makeup or mineral composition of rocks.
• Five main processes can cause
chemi...
Chemical Weathering
• (2) Oxidation- oxygen can
chemically combine with
substances resulting in the
formation of a new sub...
Chemical Weathering
• (3) Carbonation- carbon dioxide
in the air can dissolve in rain,
forming carbonic acid, which can
di...
Chemical Weathering
• (4) Sulfuric acid- sulfur oxides
can combine with water in the
air, producing acid rain, which
can c...
Chemical weathering
• (5) Plant acids- some plants
produce weak acids that can
dissolve minerals in rocks(Ex:
mosses)
• As...
Erosion and deposition
• (1) erosion is the process by
which weathered rock and soil
are moved from one place to
another.
...
Erosion and deposition
• (2) Erosion changes landscapes
by wearing down mountains,
filling in valleys, and making
rivers a...
Erosion and deposition
(4) Weathering, erosion, and
deposition act in a cycle to wear
down and build up Earth’s surface.
(...
The five agents of erosion and their effects on landscape:
• 1. Gravity erosion or mass
wasting is the downhill
movement o...
The five agents of erosion and their effects on landscape:
• a. Landslides- the tumbling of
soil, rocks, and boulders down...
The five agents of erosion and their effects on landscape:
• d. Creep – the slow movement
of sediments downslope, caused
b...
The five agents of erosion and their effects on landscape:
• USGS
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• 1. The amount of runoff is
affected by the amount of
rainfall, plant growth, ...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
2. Urban storm water runoff effects water
quality, (how clean or dirty) water q...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• b. Increased erosion and
deposition results from large
amounts of urban runof...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• c. Streams
• 1. Streams usually cause erosion by
abrasion as sediments collid...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• 3. If a stream flows first over a hard
rock layer, then over a soft rock laye...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• 4. Downcutting represents downward
erosion of the stream channel. This
happen...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• 5. Lateral erosion undermines part
of the bank or valley wall, leading
to mas...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• River systems- streams that join
and form rivers, usually begin in
mountains ...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• The drainage basin is all of the
area drained by a river and its
channel.
• a...
North Carolina River basins
• Everyone lives in a river basin. Even if we
don't live near the water, we live on land that
...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• 4. Deposits are made by rivers
and are constantly changing the
landscape of s...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• 6. Deltas are formed as large amounts
of sediments are deposited at the
mouth...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
gulfsci.usgs.gov497 × 443
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• Glacial ice erodes by abrasion
(rubbing) and plucking (picking
up rocks) and ...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• The material deposited by a
glacier is called till.
• The till left behind af...
Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
• Glaciers can also form lakes by
leaving behind till that keeps
water from flo...
Wind as an active agent of erosion in deserts, plowed fields, and beaches:
• Wind erodes Earth’s surface in
two ways – abr...
Wind as an agent of erosion
• Deflation occurs when loose materials such as clay,
silt, and sand are carried away by the w...
Wind as an agent of erosion
• The amount of wind erosion is
dependent upon four factors.
• 1. Size of particles
• 2. Speed...
Wind as an agent of erosion
• Deposits made by wind form
dunes or loess deposits (layers
of fine sand and silt deposited i...
Ocean waves as agents of erosion
• Waves- their powerful force is
constantly eroding and shaping
shorelines.
• Waves recei...
Ocean waves as agents of erosion and deposition
lighthouse.tamucc.edu471 × 216
soundwaves.usgs.gov1000 × 505
Ocean waves as agents of erosion and deposition
coastal.er.usgs.gov1000 × 2861
Ocean waves as agents of erosion and deposition
www.swcsc.arizona.edu432 × 324
How to control erosion
sofia.usgs.gov630 × 432
How to control erosion
Controlling erosion
Controlling erosion
Contour farming is a method of plowing along the
contours of the land rather than up and down a slope....
How to control erosion
science.howstuffworks.com200 × 303
http://water.usgs.gov/edu/gallery/impervious-areas-air.html
Sediments
• All causes of mechanical
(physical) weathering result in
the breaking down of rocks into
smaller pieces called...
The 3 types of rocks.
• Igneous rocks form when molten rock cools and becomes
solid. Molten rock is called magma when it i...
The difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous:
Extrusive- hardens above ground
Intrusive- hardens underground
Ign...
How are sedimentary rocks formed?
Compaction and cementation of
sediments.
Do you see how the sediment that is collecting
...
the forces that form metamorphic rocks?
• Metamorphism usually happens
where plates are coming
together; rocks are heated ...
Humus is made of
decaying organic matter.
Humus is dark, organic material that forms in soil when
plant and animal matter ...
It takes soil hundreds of years
to form from parent rock.
• Soils- soil is made of loose, weathered rock and organic
mater...
. Soil is important to living things because plant
roots need soil to grow.
. Name the 3 basic soil particles.
• The rock material is composed sand, silt, and clay. (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/ext/l...
What is loamy soil?
• A mixture of sand, clay and
humus
• A loamy soil is one that
combines all three of these
types of pa...
The layers of a soil profile.
• Organic layer
• Topsoil
• Weathered parent material
• Un-weathered Parent material
. The five causes of soil mismanagement are:
• Clearing vegetation
• Plants planted in the wrong location
• Overuse of pes...
Overuse of pesticides
Clearing vegetation
Planting in wrong location
Pollution of cars and factories
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Rocks, Soils, Erosion, Weathering and Deposition

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  1. 1. Rocks, Soils, Erosion, Weathering and Deposition Study Guide with pictures added Illustrated Earth and Environmental Science
  2. 2. Rocks, Soils, Erosion, Weathering and Deposition • Weathering is the destructive processes by which materials at or near the Earth’s surface are changed in color, texture, composition, firmness or form. Weathering is the beginning of erosion. There are two types of weathering: mechanical or physical and; chemical.
  3. 3. What are the 2 types of weathering? Physical/Mechanical Chemical
  4. 4. Name six main processes of physical weathering. • mechanical – a physical change in which rocks are broken down into different shapes and smaller pieces. • Six main processes can cause mechanical weathering. • (1) Impact and abrasion- moving materials can cause rocks to fracture, flake, or lose small particles. (www.geolocations.ws)
  5. 5. Mechanical weathering continued • (2) frost action – water seeps into an opening or crack in a rock and then freezes when temperatures drop. Water expands when it freezes and causes rocks to break into pieces. • (Weathering.wikispaces.com)
  6. 6. Weathering • (3) Temperature- the cycle of heating and cooling of rocks causes a cycling of expansion and contraction that causes particles on the rock surface to crack or flake off. • (4) Organic activity- the roots of plants can often loosen and change rock material.
  7. 7. Weathering • (5) Gravity- can pull loosened rocks downhill, resulting in a landslide. This can cause rocks to break into smaller pieces. • (6) Exfoliation- rocks which form under the surface form under pressure, which confines the rocks. When that pressure is released, the rock will expand. As it expands, the outer layers break free in sheets, and this is called exfoliation. • Landslide at the Three Gorges Reservoir (www.international rivers.org) • Exfoliation of rock • (www.patanography.wikispaces.com)
  8. 8. Chemical weathering- changes in the chemical makeup or mineral composition of rocks. • Five main processes can cause chemical weathering. • (1) Water – can dissolve minerals that are holding rocks together, or form acids when mixing with gases in the atmosphere to form acid rain (speeds up decomposition of rocks.) • Running water washes away the surface. • Acid rain eats away at rock surface.
  9. 9. Chemical Weathering • (2) Oxidation- oxygen can chemically combine with substances resulting in the formation of a new substance. Example: iron in rocks mixes with oxygen and forms rust. • (www.wikispaces.com)
  10. 10. Chemical Weathering • (3) Carbonation- carbon dioxide in the air can dissolve in rain, forming carbonic acid, which can dissolve certain rocks, such as limestone and feldspar. • (www.pantography.wikispaces.com)
  11. 11. Chemical Weathering • (4) Sulfuric acid- sulfur oxides can combine with water in the air, producing acid rain, which can chemically break down rocks, metals, and other materials.
  12. 12. Chemical weathering • (5) Plant acids- some plants produce weak acids that can dissolve minerals in rocks(Ex: mosses) • As chemical changes take place, minerals can be added or removed from rocks.
  13. 13. Erosion and deposition • (1) erosion is the process by which weathered rock and soil are moved from one place to another. • www.flickr.com • www.soil-net.com
  14. 14. Erosion and deposition • (2) Erosion changes landscapes by wearing down mountains, filling in valleys, and making rivers appear and disappear. • (3) Deposition is the process by which sediments are laid down in new locations. Photo of landslide area, Annapurna region of Nepal, courtesy of Julien Lagarde on Flickr under Creative Commons
  15. 15. Erosion and deposition (4) Weathering, erosion, and deposition act in a cycle to wear down and build up Earth’s surface. (5) The agents of erosion are gravity, wind, running water, glaciers, and waves. schools.bcsd.com188 × 254
  16. 16. The five agents of erosion and their effects on landscape: • 1. Gravity erosion or mass wasting is the downhill movement of sediments caused by gravity. • (soilerosion 0918.wikispaces.com)
  17. 17. The five agents of erosion and their effects on landscape: • a. Landslides- the tumbling of soil, rocks, and boulders down a slope. • b. Mudflows – usually occur after heavy rains carrying large amounts of mud downhill. • c. Slump - materials such as rock or soil on a steep slope move downhill as a coherent unit to decrease the slope angle of the landpubs.usgs.gov548 × 663Search by image
  18. 18. The five agents of erosion and their effects on landscape: • d. Creep – the slow movement of sediments downslope, caused by repeated expansion and contraction of materials • Ex: freezing and melting, growth and decay of roots, and burrowing animals courses.missouristate.edu349 × 240Search by image www.meted.ucar.edu600 × 400Search by image
  19. 19. The five agents of erosion and their effects on landscape: • USGS
  20. 20. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • 1. The amount of runoff is affected by the amount of rainfall, plant growth, and shape of the land. www.co.henry.ga.us457 × 336Search by image
  21. 21. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams 2. Urban storm water runoff effects water quality, (how clean or dirty) water quantity, (how much water) habitats, biological resources, public health and the aesthetic appearance )how pretty or ugly a place looks to us) of waterways. a. After storms there is often a temporary increase in pollutants, toxins, and bacteria levels as material washes from lawns, pastures, and streets. www.smgov.net240 × 332Search by image http://www.mde.state.md.us/programs/Marylander/Pages/Stormwater.aspx
  22. 22. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • b. Increased erosion and deposition results from large amounts of urban runoff which alters aquatic habitats. www.ci.manhattan-beach.ca.us305 × 259Search by image
  23. 23. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • c. Streams • 1. Streams usually cause erosion by abrasion as sediments collide with rocks and wear down the rocks over time. • 2. Load – the soil particles and rocks carried by the stream www.hinchingbrookeschool.co.uk546 × 193 www.coolgeography.co.uk741 × 462
  24. 24. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • 3. If a stream flows first over a hard rock layer, then over a soft rock layer that is easily eroded, then a waterfall forms. bqs.usgs.gov1050 × 694
  25. 25. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • 4. Downcutting represents downward erosion of the stream channel. This happens when the stream energy (capacity to carry its load) exceeds the amount of material in the stream’s load. This digs out the bottom or stream bed, and causes valleys to be narrow and steep-sided (canyons and gorges). • esp.cr.usgs.gov391 × 269 3 ut.water.usgs.gov349 × 298
  26. 26. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • 5. Lateral erosion undermines part of the bank or valley wall, leading to mass wasting and widening of the valley. • 6. Stream deposition results from decreasing water velocity (the flow of the stream slows down) or from chemical changes. The coarsest material (larger rocks) is deposited first as water velocity (speed) decreases. Stream deposited material is called alluvium. www.geol.umd.edu480 × 358
  27. 27. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • River systems- streams that join and form rivers, usually begin in mountains or hills. • 1. Larger streams flowing into a main river are called tributaries. • 2. Eventually a river empties into another river, a lake, or an ocean at the mouth. • cgee.hamline.edu429 × 355
  28. 28. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • The drainage basin is all of the area drained by a river and its channel. • a. drainage basins are separated by divides (high ground between two drainage basins). • b. The Continental Divide is the largest divide, running north and south (close to Denver, Colorado). co.water.usgs.gov746 × 799
  29. 29. North Carolina River basins • Everyone lives in a river basin. Even if we don't live near the water, we live on land that drains to a river or estuary or lake, and our actions on that land affect water quality and quantity far downstream. There are 17 river basins in North Carolina, draining 52,337 square miles of surface and underground waters. The topography of each basin determines the area that it drains, and whether that water - from creeks, rivers, springs, and aquifers - flows into the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico. (http://www.eenorthcarolina.org/riverbasins.html)
  30. 30. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • 4. Deposits are made by rivers and are constantly changing the landscape of surrounding areas as sediments are deposited where a river curves, or meanders. • 5. Oxbow lakes are small lakes formed from a U-shaped bend that erosion and deposition of sediments cuts off from the river. www.wsfcs.k12.nc.us350 × 433
  31. 31. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams
  32. 32. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • 6. Deltas are formed as large amounts of sediments are deposited at the mouth of a river. • 7. Flood plains are flat areas on both sides of a mature river or stream. Fine sediments are deposited on flood plains after heavy rains or spring thaws. Larger sediments are deposited and form ridge-like deposits called levees. eros.usgs.gov1186 × 765
  33. 33. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams gulfsci.usgs.gov497 × 443
  34. 34. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • Glacial ice erodes by abrasion (rubbing) and plucking (picking up rocks) and wearing away underlying rocks. • As a glacier moves, it carries rock materials (which are stuck in the ice) and wear down (erode) the land surface it passes over. This usually forms a U-shaped valley. pubs.usgs.gov495 × 962
  35. 35. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • The material deposited by a glacier is called till. • The till left behind after a glacier melts forms a ridge called a moraine. pubs.usgs.gov509 × 348
  36. 36. Running water – Runoff, Rivers and Streams • Glaciers can also form lakes by leaving behind till that keeps water from flowing away from the area (Ex: the Great Lakes) cida.usgs.gov420 × 32
  37. 37. Wind as an active agent of erosion in deserts, plowed fields, and beaches: • Wind erodes Earth’s surface in two ways – abrasion and deflation. • Abrasion occurs when larger particles carried by wind act as “sandblasters”, cutting and polishing rocks. • usgs
  38. 38. Wind as an agent of erosion • Deflation occurs when loose materials such as clay, silt, and sand are carried away by the wind. edu.environmentalatlas.ae pubs.usgs.gov370 × 140
  39. 39. Wind as an agent of erosion • The amount of wind erosion is dependent upon four factors. • 1. Size of particles • 2. Speed of the wind • 3. Length of time the wind blows • 4. Resistance of rocks exposed to wind croptechnology.unl.edu500 × 299
  40. 40. Wind as an agent of erosion • Deposits made by wind form dunes or loess deposits (layers of fine sand and silt deposited in an area). skywalker.cochise.edu640 × 427 gec.cr.usgs.gov350 × 263
  41. 41. Ocean waves as agents of erosion • Waves- their powerful force is constantly eroding and shaping shorelines. • Waves receive their energy from winds that blow across the water surface. The size of a wave depends on how fast, how far, and how long the wind blows. soundwaves.usgs.gov600 × 450
  42. 42. Ocean waves as agents of erosion and deposition lighthouse.tamucc.edu471 × 216 soundwaves.usgs.gov1000 × 505
  43. 43. Ocean waves as agents of erosion and deposition coastal.er.usgs.gov1000 × 2861
  44. 44. Ocean waves as agents of erosion and deposition www.swcsc.arizona.edu432 × 324
  45. 45. How to control erosion sofia.usgs.gov630 × 432
  46. 46. How to control erosion
  47. 47. Controlling erosion
  48. 48. Controlling erosion Contour farming is a method of plowing along the contours of the land rather than up and down a slope. This creates furrows between crops to collect water. dnr.wi.gov300 × 199 Construction sites can use sediment fences, temporary vegetation and grass covered drainage ditches to reduce erosion. water.usgs.gov735 × 250
  49. 49. How to control erosion science.howstuffworks.com200 × 303 http://water.usgs.gov/edu/gallery/impervious-areas-air.html
  50. 50. Sediments • All causes of mechanical (physical) weathering result in the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces called sediments. • (www.flikr.com)
  51. 51. The 3 types of rocks. • Igneous rocks form when molten rock cools and becomes solid. Molten rock is called magma when it is below the Earth’s surface and lava when it is above. • https://www.windows2universe.org/earth/geology/sed_intro.html • Sedimentary rocks contain clues about their past! Environments change over time. By looking at sedimentary rocks in an area you can figure out what the environment was like when those rocks were formed. Environmental features, like swamps, dunes, and oceans, contain different types of sediments. The type of sediment and the way it was deposited determines the kind of sedimentary rocks that will eventually be formed in a particular area. (https://www.windows2universe.org/newsletters/5_2012.html#C2) • Metamorphic rocks are changed by heat and pressure • Any type of rock, can be metamorphosed. The rocks are changed either in small areas of contact metamorphism or large areas of regional metamorphism. (http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/geology/meta_intro.html)
  52. 52. The difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous: Extrusive- hardens above ground Intrusive- hardens underground Igneous rocks that form below the Earth’s surface are called intrusive igneous rocks (or plutonic). They form when magma enters an underground chamber, cools very slowly, and forms rocks full of large crystals(esprojects.wikispaces.com) Igneous rocks that form above the Earth’s surface are called extrusive igneous rocks. These rocks, also called volcanic rocks, form when lava cools quickly at or above the Earth’s surface. (The rockcycle.wikispaces.com)
  53. 53. How are sedimentary rocks formed? Compaction and cementation of sediments. Do you see how the sediment that is collecting at the bottom of the California mountains in (A) looks like a fan from the left? • This is called an alluvial fan! Alluvial fans form when sediment eroded from mountains is deposited on a valley floor like in (A). The rocks that are formed from an alluvial fan have large pieces of sediment that are not very round like the sediment in (B). (Courtesy of Martin Miller , University of Oregon and Earth Science World Imagebank. http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/geology/sed_alluvial.html)
  54. 54. the forces that form metamorphic rocks? • Metamorphism usually happens where plates are coming together; rocks are heated and are under high pressure. • L.Gardiner/Windows Original • (https://www.windows2universe.org/earth/geology/meta_intro.html)
  55. 55. Humus is made of decaying organic matter. Humus is dark, organic material that forms in soil when plant and animal matter decays. When plants drop leaves, twigs, and other material to the ground, it piles up. This material is called leaf litter. When animals die, their remains add to the litter. Over time, all this litter decomposes. This means it decays, or breaks down, into its most basic chemical elements. Many of these chemicals are important nutrients for the soil and organisms that depend on soil for life, such as plants. The thick brown or black substance that remains after most of the organic litter has decomposed is called humus. Earthworms often help mix humus with minerals in the soil. This leaf litter will eventually decompose and become nutrient-rich humus. Photograph by Iris Fong, MyShot (http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/hu mus/?ar_a=1) (http://www.madrimasd.org/blogs/universo/2007/10/02/75038)
  56. 56. It takes soil hundreds of years to form from parent rock. • Soils- soil is made of loose, weathered rock and organic material in which plants with root can grow. The rock material is composed sand, silt, and clay. • Parent material- the material from which a soil is formed. • Residual Soil- soil that has the bedrock beneath the soil as a parent material • Transported Soil- soild formed from deposits left by winds, rivers, and glaciers. • A-Horizaon (Top Soil)- darkest color due to organic material. • B-Horizaon (Subsoil)- 1) clay is washed to the subsoil • 2) May contain soluble minerals, such as calcium and magnesium carbonates • 3) color is usually red- brown from iron oxides that form above and wash down • C-Horizon- Made of slightly weathered parent material (rock
  57. 57. . Soil is important to living things because plant roots need soil to grow.
  58. 58. . Name the 3 basic soil particles. • The rock material is composed sand, silt, and clay. (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/ext/loam.html) • Sand Silt Clay
  59. 59. What is loamy soil? • A mixture of sand, clay and humus • A loamy soil is one that combines all three of these types of particles in relatively equal amounts. Loamy soil is ideal for most garden plants because it holds plenty of moisture but also drains well so that sufficient air can reach the roots. (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/ext/loam.html)
  60. 60. The layers of a soil profile. • Organic layer • Topsoil • Weathered parent material • Un-weathered Parent material
  61. 61. . The five causes of soil mismanagement are: • Clearing vegetation • Plants planted in the wrong location • Overuse of pesticides and fertilizers • Pollution of cars and factories • Compaction from animals roads and construction
  62. 62. Overuse of pesticides
  63. 63. Clearing vegetation
  64. 64. Planting in wrong location
  65. 65. Pollution of cars and factories

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