SlideShare a Scribd company logo

L6 Wind Energy

Introduction to Wind Energy

1 of 53
Download to read offline
ENGINEERING SCIENCE &
ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY
    Lecture 6 - Wind & Wind Energy


    Keith Vaugh BEng (AERO) MEng
L6  Wind Energy
L6  Wind Energy
Wind
Wind
L6  Wind Energy

Recommended

Wind Energy Lecture slides
Wind Energy Lecture slidesWind Energy Lecture slides
Wind Energy Lecture slidesKeith Vaugh
 
Essential fluids
Essential fluids Essential fluids
Essential fluids Keith Vaugh
 
Determination of Milky Way Rotation Curve Through Observation of Redshift of ...
Determination of Milky Way Rotation Curve Through Observation of Redshift of ...Determination of Milky Way Rotation Curve Through Observation of Redshift of ...
Determination of Milky Way Rotation Curve Through Observation of Redshift of ...Daniel Bulhosa Solórzano
 
Awma 2001 Plumes And Aircraft #0189
Awma 2001   Plumes And Aircraft #0189Awma 2001   Plumes And Aircraft #0189
Awma 2001 Plumes And Aircraft #0189Joel Reisman
 
Basic Atmospheric Concepts
Basic Atmospheric ConceptsBasic Atmospheric Concepts
Basic Atmospheric ConceptsTony Yen
 
Math cad effective radiation heat transfer coefficient.xmcd
Math cad   effective radiation heat transfer coefficient.xmcdMath cad   effective radiation heat transfer coefficient.xmcd
Math cad effective radiation heat transfer coefficient.xmcdJulio Banks
 
Impact of Electrification on Asset Life Degradation and Mitigation with DER
Impact of Electrification on Asset Life Degradation and Mitigation with DERImpact of Electrification on Asset Life Degradation and Mitigation with DER
Impact of Electrification on Asset Life Degradation and Mitigation with DERPower System Operation
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Boiling and Condensation heat transfer -- EES Functions and Procedures
Boiling and Condensation heat transfer -- EES Functions and ProceduresBoiling and Condensation heat transfer -- EES Functions and Procedures
Boiling and Condensation heat transfer -- EES Functions and Procedurestmuliya
 
1997 a+a 325-714-rhocas
1997 a+a 325-714-rhocas1997 a+a 325-714-rhocas
1997 a+a 325-714-rhocasKees De Jager
 
Characteristics of shock reflection in the dual solution domain
Characteristics of shock reflection in the dual solution domainCharacteristics of shock reflection in the dual solution domain
Characteristics of shock reflection in the dual solution domainSaif al-din ali
 
Gas dynamics and_jet_propulsion- questions & answes
Gas dynamics and_jet_propulsion- questions & answesGas dynamics and_jet_propulsion- questions & answes
Gas dynamics and_jet_propulsion- questions & answesManoj Kumar
 
Thermo 5th chap02p001
Thermo 5th chap02p001Thermo 5th chap02p001
Thermo 5th chap02p001Luma Marques
 
Weak and strong oblique shock waves
Weak and strong oblique shock wavesWeak and strong oblique shock waves
Weak and strong oblique shock wavesSaif al-din ali
 
Thermodynamics (2013 new edition) copy
Thermodynamics (2013 new edition)   copyThermodynamics (2013 new edition)   copy
Thermodynamics (2013 new edition) copyYuri Melliza
 
Igcse physics revision
Igcse physics revisionIgcse physics revision
Igcse physics revisionMomina Mateen
 

What's hot (17)

MET 214 Module 8
MET 214 Module 8MET 214 Module 8
MET 214 Module 8
 
Boiling and Condensation heat transfer -- EES Functions and Procedures
Boiling and Condensation heat transfer -- EES Functions and ProceduresBoiling and Condensation heat transfer -- EES Functions and Procedures
Boiling and Condensation heat transfer -- EES Functions and Procedures
 
Chapter3
Chapter3Chapter3
Chapter3
 
1997 a+a 325-714-rhocas
1997 a+a 325-714-rhocas1997 a+a 325-714-rhocas
1997 a+a 325-714-rhocas
 
Characteristics of shock reflection in the dual solution domain
Characteristics of shock reflection in the dual solution domainCharacteristics of shock reflection in the dual solution domain
Characteristics of shock reflection in the dual solution domain
 
Igcse physics formula
Igcse physics formulaIgcse physics formula
Igcse physics formula
 
Sheet # 1
Sheet # 1Sheet # 1
Sheet # 1
 
garretttylerreport3
garretttylerreport3garretttylerreport3
garretttylerreport3
 
Aerodynamic i
Aerodynamic iAerodynamic i
Aerodynamic i
 
Compressible flow basics
Compressible flow basicsCompressible flow basics
Compressible flow basics
 
Gas dynamics and_jet_propulsion- questions & answes
Gas dynamics and_jet_propulsion- questions & answesGas dynamics and_jet_propulsion- questions & answes
Gas dynamics and_jet_propulsion- questions & answes
 
Thermo 5th chap02p001
Thermo 5th chap02p001Thermo 5th chap02p001
Thermo 5th chap02p001
 
Chapter 11
Chapter 11Chapter 11
Chapter 11
 
Weak and strong oblique shock waves
Weak and strong oblique shock wavesWeak and strong oblique shock waves
Weak and strong oblique shock waves
 
Thermodynamics (2013 new edition) copy
Thermodynamics (2013 new edition)   copyThermodynamics (2013 new edition)   copy
Thermodynamics (2013 new edition) copy
 
S tn-wav-003
S tn-wav-003S tn-wav-003
S tn-wav-003
 
Igcse physics revision
Igcse physics revisionIgcse physics revision
Igcse physics revision
 

Similar to L6 Wind Energy

Wind Energy to Electrical Energy
Wind Energy to  Electrical EnergyWind Energy to  Electrical Energy
Wind Energy to Electrical EnergyH Janardan Prabhu
 
Simulation of Wind Power Dynamic for Electricity Production in Nassiriyah Dis...
Simulation of Wind Power Dynamic for Electricity Production in Nassiriyah Dis...Simulation of Wind Power Dynamic for Electricity Production in Nassiriyah Dis...
Simulation of Wind Power Dynamic for Electricity Production in Nassiriyah Dis...IOSR Journals
 
Flying windmills-technology
Flying windmills-technologyFlying windmills-technology
Flying windmills-technologyAtulsinghSalaria
 
Extreme engineering for fighting climate change and the Katabata project
Extreme engineering for fighting climate change and the Katabata projectExtreme engineering for fighting climate change and the Katabata project
Extreme engineering for fighting climate change and the Katabata projectUniversité de Liège (ULg)
 
Wind energy
Wind energyWind energy
Wind energyAshu0711
 
28328791-Wind-Energy-ppt.ppt
28328791-Wind-Energy-ppt.ppt28328791-Wind-Energy-ppt.ppt
28328791-Wind-Energy-ppt.pptKumarMurari5
 
Wind turbines basics & betz law
Wind turbines basics & betz lawWind turbines basics & betz law
Wind turbines basics & betz lawAJAY MALLA
 
Analytic Model of Wind Disturbance Torque on Servo Tracking Antenna
Analytic Model of Wind Disturbance Torque on Servo Tracking AntennaAnalytic Model of Wind Disturbance Torque on Servo Tracking Antenna
Analytic Model of Wind Disturbance Torque on Servo Tracking AntennaIJMER
 
Powerpoint Presentation On WIND ENERGY
Powerpoint Presentation On WIND ENERGYPowerpoint Presentation On WIND ENERGY
Powerpoint Presentation On WIND ENERGYArunima Sethi
 

Similar to L6 Wind Energy (20)

Energy in wind
Energy in windEnergy in wind
Energy in wind
 
Wind Energy to Electrical Energy
Wind Energy to  Electrical EnergyWind Energy to  Electrical Energy
Wind Energy to Electrical Energy
 
Ht2514031407
Ht2514031407Ht2514031407
Ht2514031407
 
Ht2514031407
Ht2514031407Ht2514031407
Ht2514031407
 
Wind energy
Wind energyWind energy
Wind energy
 
Simulation of Wind Power Dynamic for Electricity Production in Nassiriyah Dis...
Simulation of Wind Power Dynamic for Electricity Production in Nassiriyah Dis...Simulation of Wind Power Dynamic for Electricity Production in Nassiriyah Dis...
Simulation of Wind Power Dynamic for Electricity Production in Nassiriyah Dis...
 
Flying windmills-technology
Flying windmills-technologyFlying windmills-technology
Flying windmills-technology
 
Extreme engineering for fighting climate change and the Katabata project
Extreme engineering for fighting climate change and the Katabata projectExtreme engineering for fighting climate change and the Katabata project
Extreme engineering for fighting climate change and the Katabata project
 
Wind Energy-2.docx
Wind Energy-2.docxWind Energy-2.docx
Wind Energy-2.docx
 
Wind turbine
Wind turbineWind turbine
Wind turbine
 
Wind energy
Wind energyWind energy
Wind energy
 
Wind energy
Wind energyWind energy
Wind energy
 
Wind turbines
Wind turbinesWind turbines
Wind turbines
 
28328791-Wind-Energy-ppt.ppt
28328791-Wind-Energy-ppt.ppt28328791-Wind-Energy-ppt.ppt
28328791-Wind-Energy-ppt.ppt
 
Big infrastructures for fighting climate change
Big infrastructures for fighting climate changeBig infrastructures for fighting climate change
Big infrastructures for fighting climate change
 
Wind turbines basics & betz law
Wind turbines basics & betz lawWind turbines basics & betz law
Wind turbines basics & betz law
 
Analytic Model of Wind Disturbance Torque on Servo Tracking Antenna
Analytic Model of Wind Disturbance Torque on Servo Tracking AntennaAnalytic Model of Wind Disturbance Torque on Servo Tracking Antenna
Analytic Model of Wind Disturbance Torque on Servo Tracking Antenna
 
Powerpoint Presentation On WIND ENERGY
Powerpoint Presentation On WIND ENERGYPowerpoint Presentation On WIND ENERGY
Powerpoint Presentation On WIND ENERGY
 
Presentation On Wind Power
Presentation On Wind PowerPresentation On Wind Power
Presentation On Wind Power
 
Presentation On Wind Power
Presentation On Wind PowerPresentation On Wind Power
Presentation On Wind Power
 

More from Keith Vaugh

Renewable Energy Thermodynamics Lecture Slides
Renewable Energy Thermodynamics Lecture SlidesRenewable Energy Thermodynamics Lecture Slides
Renewable Energy Thermodynamics Lecture SlidesKeith Vaugh
 
T3c - MASTER - Pump test flow system and data shown Problem 2023.pptx
T3c - MASTER - Pump test flow system and data shown Problem  2023.pptxT3c - MASTER - Pump test flow system and data shown Problem  2023.pptx
T3c - MASTER - Pump test flow system and data shown Problem 2023.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
T3b - MASTER - Pump flow system - operating point 2023.pptx
T3b - MASTER - Pump flow system - operating point 2023.pptxT3b - MASTER - Pump flow system - operating point 2023.pptx
T3b - MASTER - Pump flow system - operating point 2023.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
T3a - Finding the operating point of a pumping system 2023.pptx
T3a - Finding the operating point of a pumping system 2023.pptxT3a - Finding the operating point of a pumping system 2023.pptx
T3a - Finding the operating point of a pumping system 2023.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
T2c - Centrifugal Pumps, turbines and Impeller calculations 2023.pptx
T2c - Centrifugal Pumps, turbines and Impeller calculations 2023.pptxT2c - Centrifugal Pumps, turbines and Impeller calculations 2023.pptx
T2c - Centrifugal Pumps, turbines and Impeller calculations 2023.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
T2b - Momentum of Fluids 2023.pptx
T2b - Momentum of Fluids 2023.pptxT2b - Momentum of Fluids 2023.pptx
T2b - Momentum of Fluids 2023.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
T2a - Fluid Discharge 2023.pptx
T2a - Fluid Discharge 2023.pptxT2a - Fluid Discharge 2023.pptx
T2a - Fluid Discharge 2023.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
T1 - Essential Fluids - 2023.pptx
T1 - Essential Fluids - 2023.pptxT1 - Essential Fluids - 2023.pptx
T1 - Essential Fluids - 2023.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
L7 - SecondLawThermo 2023.pptx
L7 - SecondLawThermo 2023.pptxL7 - SecondLawThermo 2023.pptx
L7 - SecondLawThermo 2023.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
L6 - Mass&EnergyClosedVol 2023.pptx
L6 - Mass&EnergyClosedVol 2023.pptxL6 - Mass&EnergyClosedVol 2023.pptx
L6 - Mass&EnergyClosedVol 2023.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
L5 - EnergyAnalysisClosedSys 2023.pptx
L5 - EnergyAnalysisClosedSys 2023.pptxL5 - EnergyAnalysisClosedSys 2023.pptx
L5 - EnergyAnalysisClosedSys 2023.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
L4 - PropertiesPureSubstances 2023.pptx
L4 - PropertiesPureSubstances 2023.pptxL4 - PropertiesPureSubstances 2023.pptx
L4 - PropertiesPureSubstances 2023.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
L2 - Basic Concepts 2023 UD.pptx
L2 - Basic Concepts 2023 UD.pptxL2 - Basic Concepts 2023 UD.pptx
L2 - Basic Concepts 2023 UD.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
L1 - ES & Thermofluids 2023 Master SS.pptx
L1 - ES & Thermofluids 2023 Master SS.pptxL1 - ES & Thermofluids 2023 Master SS.pptx
L1 - ES & Thermofluids 2023 Master SS.pptxKeith Vaugh
 
L1 - Energy Systems and Thermofluids 2021-22
L1 - Energy Systems and Thermofluids 2021-22L1 - Energy Systems and Thermofluids 2021-22
L1 - Energy Systems and Thermofluids 2021-22Keith Vaugh
 
CAD & Analysis Introduction
CAD & Analysis IntroductionCAD & Analysis Introduction
CAD & Analysis IntroductionKeith Vaugh
 
Essential fluid mechanics
Essential fluid mechanicsEssential fluid mechanics
Essential fluid mechanicsKeith Vaugh
 

More from Keith Vaugh (20)

Renewable Energy Thermodynamics Lecture Slides
Renewable Energy Thermodynamics Lecture SlidesRenewable Energy Thermodynamics Lecture Slides
Renewable Energy Thermodynamics Lecture Slides
 
T3c - MASTER - Pump test flow system and data shown Problem 2023.pptx
T3c - MASTER - Pump test flow system and data shown Problem  2023.pptxT3c - MASTER - Pump test flow system and data shown Problem  2023.pptx
T3c - MASTER - Pump test flow system and data shown Problem 2023.pptx
 
T3b - MASTER - Pump flow system - operating point 2023.pptx
T3b - MASTER - Pump flow system - operating point 2023.pptxT3b - MASTER - Pump flow system - operating point 2023.pptx
T3b - MASTER - Pump flow system - operating point 2023.pptx
 
T3a - Finding the operating point of a pumping system 2023.pptx
T3a - Finding the operating point of a pumping system 2023.pptxT3a - Finding the operating point of a pumping system 2023.pptx
T3a - Finding the operating point of a pumping system 2023.pptx
 
T2c - Centrifugal Pumps, turbines and Impeller calculations 2023.pptx
T2c - Centrifugal Pumps, turbines and Impeller calculations 2023.pptxT2c - Centrifugal Pumps, turbines and Impeller calculations 2023.pptx
T2c - Centrifugal Pumps, turbines and Impeller calculations 2023.pptx
 
T2b - Momentum of Fluids 2023.pptx
T2b - Momentum of Fluids 2023.pptxT2b - Momentum of Fluids 2023.pptx
T2b - Momentum of Fluids 2023.pptx
 
T2a - Fluid Discharge 2023.pptx
T2a - Fluid Discharge 2023.pptxT2a - Fluid Discharge 2023.pptx
T2a - Fluid Discharge 2023.pptx
 
T1 - Essential Fluids - 2023.pptx
T1 - Essential Fluids - 2023.pptxT1 - Essential Fluids - 2023.pptx
T1 - Essential Fluids - 2023.pptx
 
L7 - SecondLawThermo 2023.pptx
L7 - SecondLawThermo 2023.pptxL7 - SecondLawThermo 2023.pptx
L7 - SecondLawThermo 2023.pptx
 
L6 - Mass&EnergyClosedVol 2023.pptx
L6 - Mass&EnergyClosedVol 2023.pptxL6 - Mass&EnergyClosedVol 2023.pptx
L6 - Mass&EnergyClosedVol 2023.pptx
 
L5 - EnergyAnalysisClosedSys 2023.pptx
L5 - EnergyAnalysisClosedSys 2023.pptxL5 - EnergyAnalysisClosedSys 2023.pptx
L5 - EnergyAnalysisClosedSys 2023.pptx
 
L4 - PropertiesPureSubstances 2023.pptx
L4 - PropertiesPureSubstances 2023.pptxL4 - PropertiesPureSubstances 2023.pptx
L4 - PropertiesPureSubstances 2023.pptx
 
L2 - Basic Concepts 2023 UD.pptx
L2 - Basic Concepts 2023 UD.pptxL2 - Basic Concepts 2023 UD.pptx
L2 - Basic Concepts 2023 UD.pptx
 
L1 - ES & Thermofluids 2023 Master SS.pptx
L1 - ES & Thermofluids 2023 Master SS.pptxL1 - ES & Thermofluids 2023 Master SS.pptx
L1 - ES & Thermofluids 2023 Master SS.pptx
 
L1 - Energy Systems and Thermofluids 2021-22
L1 - Energy Systems and Thermofluids 2021-22L1 - Energy Systems and Thermofluids 2021-22
L1 - Energy Systems and Thermofluids 2021-22
 
CAD & Analysis Introduction
CAD & Analysis IntroductionCAD & Analysis Introduction
CAD & Analysis Introduction
 
Hydropower
HydropowerHydropower
Hydropower
 
Fluid discharge
Fluid dischargeFluid discharge
Fluid discharge
 
Essential fluid mechanics
Essential fluid mechanicsEssential fluid mechanics
Essential fluid mechanics
 
L4 Bio mass
L4 Bio massL4 Bio mass
L4 Bio mass
 

L6 Wind Energy

  • 1. ENGINEERING SCIENCE & ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY Lecture 6 - Wind & Wind Energy Keith Vaugh BEng (AERO) MEng
  • 7. Source: Figure 7.5 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
  • 9. Source: Figure 7.6 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
  • 10. Idealized winds generated by pressure Actual wind patterns owing to land mass gradient and Coriolis Force. distribution..
  • 11. Idealized winds generated by pressure Actual wind patterns owing to land mass gradient and Coriolis Force. distribution.. Source: Figure 7.8 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
  • 13. Source: Figure 7.9 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
  • 14. Source: Figure 7.9 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
  • 17. Types of Wind • Geostrophic wind/ Prevailing wind • Storms • Local winds/Sea breezes • Mountain wind/Valley wind Sea and Land Breeze
  • 18. Wind variation with time • Inter annual • Annual • Diurnal • Short term
  • 19. Wind Measurement • Wind Atlas/Wind resource maps • Available for Europe and most Western nations • Ireland’s wind atlas developed by SEI
  • 20. Wind Measurement • Wind Atlas/Wind resource maps • Available for Europe and most Western nations • Ireland’s wind atlas developed by SEI Source: European Wind Atlas. Copyright © 1989 by Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark.
  • 23. Power in the wind Lesson Number 1. in an Oklahoma Wind Power Tutorial Series By Tim Hughes, Environmental Verification and Analysis Center, The University of Oklahoma Calculation of Wind Energy and Power Calculating the energy (and later power) available in the wind relies on knowledge of basic geometry and the physics behind kinetic energy. The kinetic energy (KE) of an object (or collection of objects) with total mass M and velocity V is given by the expression: KE = ! * M * V2 (1) 1 P = ρ Av 3 Air parcel Now, for purposes of finding the kinetic energy of 2 moving air molecules (i.e.:wind), let's say one has a large air parcel with the shape of a huge hockey puck: ρ = Air density that is, it has the geometry of a collection of air molecules passing though the plane of a wind turbine's blades (which A = Swept area of rotor out a cross-sectional area A), with thickness (D) sweep passing through the plane over a given time. A Air flow v = wind speed The volume (Vol) of this parcel is determined by the parcel's area multiplied by its thickness: Therefore, Power availableVol = A * D is Proportional to the air density letter 'rho') represent the density Let ! (the greek Proportional to the square ofand is expressed as:diameter the rotor of the air in this parcel. Note that density is mass per volume D Proportional to the cube of the wind speed ! = M / Vol and a little algebra gives: M = ! * Vol Now let's consider how the velocity (V) of our air parcel can be expressed. If a time T is required for this parcel (of thickness D) to move through the plane of the wind turbine blades, then the parcel's velocity can be expressed as V = D / T, and a little algebra gives D = V * T. Let's make some substitutions in expression no. 1 ( KE = ! * M * V2 ) Substitute for M ( = ! * Vol ) to obtain: KE = ! * (! * Vol) * V2 !
  • 24. Swept area If you double the diameter of a rotor, the swept area is increased by a factor of 4 A 2.5 MW turbine has a rotor diameter of approximately 80 m 2 Swept area A = π r
  • 25. }
  • 26. TYPICAL WIND TURBINE CONFIGURATION } Image source: http://www.popsci.com/content/next-gen-wind-turbine-examined
  • 27. }
  • 28. POWER OUTPUT OF A WIND TURBINE The power in the wind, Pw at a given site } 1 1 3 Pw = ρ Au = ρ A ∫ {u ( z )} p ( u )du 3 2 2 where: u(z) = wind speed at hub height p(u) = wind frequency distribution The average output power Po of a turbine 1 3 Po = η ρ A ∫ CP ( λ ) {u ( z )} p ( u )du 2
  • 29. }
  • 30. WIND FARM’s Accurate wind data for a period of time is essential }
  • 31. WIND FARM’s Accurate wind data for a period of time is essential }
  • 32. WIND FARM’s Accurate wind data for a period of time is essential } Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposed plains
  • 33. WIND FARM’s Accurate wind data for a period of time is essential } Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposed plains
  • 34. WIND FARM’s Accurate wind data for a period of time is essential } Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposed plains Wind turbine spacing should be of the order 5D → 10D
  • 35. WIND FARM’s Accurate wind data for a period of time is essential } Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposed plains Wind turbine spacing should be of the order 5D → 10D
  • 36. WIND FARM’s Accurate wind data for a period of time is essential } Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposed plains Wind turbine spacing should be of the order 5D → 10D Wind farms will experience array loss, i.e. an array of turbines will not produce as much power as if they potentially could
  • 37. WIND FARM’s Accurate wind data for a period of time is essential } Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposed plains Wind turbine spacing should be of the order 5D → 10D Wind farms will experience array loss, i.e. an array of turbines will not produce as much power as if they potentially could
  • 38. WIND FARM’s Accurate wind data for a period of time is essential } Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposed plains Wind turbine spacing should be of the order 5D → 10D Wind farms will experience array loss, i.e. an array of turbines will not produce as much power as if they potentially could Low wind shear reduces the differential loading on turbine blades, i.e. fatigue loading
  • 39. }
  • 40. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian
  • 41. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian
  • 42. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise
  • 43. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise
  • 44. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise End of Service Life - recyclability
  • 45. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise End of Service Life - recyclability
  • 46. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise End of Service Life - recyclability Embodied energy
  • 47. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise End of Service Life - recyclability Embodied energy
  • 48. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise End of Service Life - recyclability Embodied energy Remote regions - access and grid connections
  • 49. Advantages Disadvantages Prime fuel is free Risk of blade failure (total destruction of installation) Infinitely renewable Suitable small generators not readily available Non-polluting unsuitable for urban areas In Ireland the seasonal variation matches Cost of storage battery or mains electricity demands converter system Big generators can be located on remote Acoustic noise of gearbox and rotor sites including offshore blades Saves conventional fuels Construction costs of the supporting tower and access roads Saves the building of conventional Electromagnetic interference due to generation blade rotation Diversity in the methods of electricity Environmental objections generation

Editor's Notes

  1. \n
  2. \n
  3. \n
  4. \n
  5. Simple, single cell atmospheric convection in a non-rotating Earth.  "Single cell" being either a single cell north or south of the equator.\nTo begin, imagine the earth as a non-rotating sphere with uniform smooth surface characteristics. Assume that the sun heats the equatorial regions much more than the polar regions. In response to this, two huge convection cells develop. An intermediate model: We now allow the earth to rotate.  As expected, air traveling southward from the north pole will be deflected to the right. Air traveling northward from the south pole will be deflected to the left.\nHowever, by looking at the actual winds, even after averaging them over a long period of time, we find that we do not observe this type of motion.  In the 1920’s a new conceptual model was devised that had three cells instead of the single Hadley cell.  These three cells better represent the typical wind flow around the globe.\nRefer to source for this slide and following 3 - http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~cfjps/1400/circulation.html\n
  6. Global winds shape the Earth's climate, determining - in broad strokes - which areas are tropical, desert, or temperate. Here's a simplified overview of how it works.\n\nThe Sun heats the Earth most intensely in the tropical zone around the equator. The heated air rises, cools, and then dumps its moisture as rain. That's why there are rain forests in the tropics.\n\nThe now drier air is forced by the continuously rising equatorial air to move towards the temperate latitudes on either side of the equator. At roughly 30° N and S - called the "horse latitudes" - it can move no further due to the Earth’s rotation, and settles to the surface. \n\nAs the air sinks, it compresses and warms, creating hot, rain-free conditions. \nThis circulation pattern, called a Hadley cell, is why the deserts of the world are located just poleward of the tropics, to the north and south.\n\nSource - http://blogs.edf.org/climate411/2008/01/14/global_winds/\nHorse Latitudes Around 30°N we see a region of subsiding (sinking) air.  Sinking air is typically dry and free of substantial precipitation. Many of the major desert regions of the northern hemisphere are found near 30° latitude.  E.g., Sahara, Middle East, SW United States.\nDoldrums Located near the equator, the doldrums are where the trade winds meet and where the pressure gradient decreases creating very little winds.  That's why sailors find it difficult to cross the equator and why weather systems in the one hemisphere rarely cross into the other hemisphere.  The doldrums are also called the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ).\n
  7. These give rise to and westerlies. Trade winds occur between 0 and 30 degrees latitude, westerlies lie between 30 and 60 degrees - where Ireland lines. \n\nThe trade winds are so named as they carried the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors west to the Americas and they then returned using the westerlies to bring them back east with their heavily laden ships.\n\nCoriolis Force - Once air has been set in motion by the pressure gradient force, it undergoes an apparent deflection from its path, as seen by an observer on the earth. This apparent deflection is called the "Coriolis force" and is a result of the earth's rotation. http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/fw/crls.rxml\n\n
  8. Owing to the tilt of the Earth's axis in orbit, the ITCZ will shift north and south.  It will shift to the south in January and north in July.\nThis shift in the wind directions owing to a northward or southward shift in the ITCZ results in the monsoons.  Monsoons are wind systems that exhibit a pronounced seasonal reversal in direction.  The best known monsoon is found in India and southeast Asia.\nWinter -- Flow is predominantly off the continent keeping the continent dry.\nSummer -- Flow is predominantly off the oceans keeping the continent wet.\nMonsoons happen not only in southeast Asia and India, but also in North America.  They are responsible for the increased rainfall in the southwest US during the summer months and the very dry conditions during the winter months.\n\n
  9. Owing to the tilt of the Earth's axis in orbit, the ITCZ will shift north and south.  It will shift to the south in January and north in July.\nThis shift in the wind directions owing to a northward or southward shift in the ITCZ results in the monsoons.  Monsoons are wind systems that exhibit a pronounced seasonal reversal in direction.  The best known monsoon is found in India and southeast Asia.\nWinter -- Flow is predominantly off the continent keeping the continent dry.\nSummer -- Flow is predominantly off the oceans keeping the continent wet.\nMonsoons happen not only in southeast Asia and India, but also in North America.  They are responsible for the increased rainfall in the southwest US during the summer months and the very dry conditions during the winter months.\n\n
  10. Owing to the tilt of the Earth's axis in orbit, the ITCZ will shift north and south.  It will shift to the south in January and north in July.\nThis shift in the wind directions owing to a northward or southward shift in the ITCZ results in the monsoons.  Monsoons are wind systems that exhibit a pronounced seasonal reversal in direction.  The best known monsoon is found in India and southeast Asia.\nWinter -- Flow is predominantly off the continent keeping the continent dry.\nSummer -- Flow is predominantly off the oceans keeping the continent wet.\nMonsoons happen not only in southeast Asia and India, but also in North America.  They are responsible for the increased rainfall in the southwest US during the summer months and the very dry conditions during the winter months.\n\n
  11. Owing to the tilt of the Earth's axis in orbit, the ITCZ will shift north and south.  It will shift to the south in January and north in July.\nThis shift in the wind directions owing to a northward or southward shift in the ITCZ results in the monsoons.  Monsoons are wind systems that exhibit a pronounced seasonal reversal in direction.  The best known monsoon is found in India and southeast Asia.\nWinter -- Flow is predominantly off the continent keeping the continent dry.\nSummer -- Flow is predominantly off the oceans keeping the continent wet.\nMonsoons happen not only in southeast Asia and India, but also in North America.  They are responsible for the increased rainfall in the southwest US during the summer months and the very dry conditions during the winter months.\n\n
  12. \n
  13. \n
  14. The geostrophic winds are largely driven by temperature differences, and thus pressure differences, and are not very much influenced by the surface of the earth. The geostrophic wind is found at altitudes above 1000 metres (3300 ft.) above ground level. \n\nThe geostrophic wind speed may be measured using weather balloons. \n\nLand masses are heated by the sun more quickly than the sea in the daytime. The air rises, flows out to the sea, and creates a low pressure at ground level which attracts the cool air from the sea. This is called a sea breeze. At nightfall there is often a period of calm when land and sea temperatures are equal. At night the wind blows in the opposite direction. The land breeze at night generally has lower wind speeds, because the temperature difference between land and sea is smaller at night. \n\nOne example is the valley wind which originates on south-facing slopes (north-facing in the southern hemisphere). When the slopes and the neighbouring air are heated the density of the air decreases, and the air ascends towards the top following the surface of the slope. At night the wind direction is reversed, and turns into a downslope wind.\n \nIf the valley floor is sloped, the air may move down or up the valley, as a canyon wind. \n\nIf the valley is constricted this can further increase the wind speed.\n\nWinds flowing down the leeward sides of mountains can be quite powerful: Examples are the Foehn in the Alps in Europe, the Chinook in the Rocky Mountains, and the Zonda in the Andes. \nExamples of other local wind systems are the Mistral flowing down the Rhone valley into the Mediterranean Sea, the Scirocco, a southerly wind from Sahara blowing into the Mediterranean sea. \n
  15. Interannual –longer than 1 year variations - can have a large effect on the overall performance of a wind farm during its lifetime. Meteorologists reckon it takes 30 years of data to determine long term values and 5 years data is needed to arrive at a reliable wind speed for a site. However 1 years data is sufficient to predict long term seasonal mean wind speeds within 10% and 90% confidence.\nUp to 25% variation can occur in inter annual wind speeds\n\nAnnual Significant variation in seasonal or monthly averaged wind speeds are common thro out the world “march – in like a lion and out like a lamb”... In Ireland the winter is much windier than the summer\n\nDiurnal – daily time scale - sea breezes and valley winds are an example of these . Generally the diurnal variation is much greater in the summer than in the winter – due to solar radiation.\n\nShort term variations include turbulence and gusts, any wind speeds that have a period between less than one second to 10 minutes and have a stochastic nature are considered to be turbulent. A gust is a discrete event within a turbulent air flow, and has measureable characteristics such as amplitude, rise time, max gust variation and lapse time\n
  16. Interannual –longer than 1 year variations - can have a large effect on the overall performance of a wind farm during its lifetime. Meteorologists reckon it takes 30 years of data to determine long term values and 5 years data is needed to arrive at a reliable wind speed for a site. However 1 years data is sufficient to predict long term seasonal mean wind speeds within 10% and 90% confidence.\nUp to 25% variation can occur in inter annual wind speeds\n\nAnnual Significant variation in seasonal or monthly averaged wind speeds are common thro out the world “march – in like a lion and out like a lamb”... In Ireland the winter is much windier than the summer\n\nDiurnal – daily time scale - sea breezes and valley winds are an example of these . Generally the diurnal variation is much greater in the summer than in the winter – due to solar radiation.\n\nShort term variations include turbulence and gusts, any wind speeds that have a period between less than one second to 10 minutes and have a stochastic nature are considered to be turbulent. A gust is a discrete event within a turbulent air flow, and has measureable characteristics such as amplitude, rise time, max gust variation and lapse time\n
  17. The Griggs-Putnam Index of Deformity is an additional useful tool to help determine the potential of a wind site. The idea is to observe the area’s vegetation. A trees shape, especially conifers or evergreens, in often influenced by winds. \n\nStrong winds can permanently deform the trees. This deformity in trees is known as “flagging”. Flagging is usually more pronounced for single, isolated trees with some height.\n\nThe Griggs-Putnam diagram, like the Wind Resource Maps, can offer a rough estimate of the wind in your area. The more information that you can obtain from the various sources, the greater degree of accuracy you will have in determining your wind speed and your potential power output.\n\nThe Griggs Putnam index should be used with a degree of caution, don’t just depend on one tree, make sure there are several used in the survey. \n\nConifers give better indications that broadleaf trees.\nAbsence of deformation doesn’t necessarily rule a site out of contention \n
  18. “Data from the wind monitoring site is essential for determining the viability of the project and, particularly, for assessing financial viability. Problems with the quality of wind data can lead to significant difficulties in obtaining financing. The importance of paying attention to this cannot be over-stated. It is hard to overemphasise how easy it is to acquire bad data. A significant effort is required to ensure good data.” - IWEA best practice guidelines 2008 state:\n\nThe best way of measuring wind speeds at a prospective wind turbine site is to fit an anemometer to the top of a mast which has the same height as the expected hub height of the wind turbine to be used. This way one avoids the uncertainty involved in recalculating the wind speeds to a different height. \n\nBy fitting the anemometer to the top of the mast one minimises the disturbances of airflows from the mast itself. If anemometers are placed on the side of the mast it is essential to place them in the prevailing wind direction in order to minimise the wind shade from the tower. \n\nPlanning and Development Regulations 2008 (S.I. No. 235 of 2008), state that for; The erection of a mast for mapping meteorological conditions.\n1. No such mast shall be erected for a period exceeding 15 months in any 24 month period.\n2. The total mast height shall not exceed 80 metres.\n3. The mast shall be a distance of not less than:\n(a) the total structure height plus:\n(i) 5 metres from any party boundary,\n(ii) 20 metres from any non-electrical overhead cables,\n(iii) 20 metres from any 38kV electricity distribution lines,\n(iv) 30 metres from the centreline of any electricity transmission line of 110kV or more.\n\n(b) 5 kilometres from the nearest airport oraerodrome, or any communication, navigation and surveillance facilities designated by the Irish Aviation Authority, save with the consent in writing of the Authority and compliance with any condition relating to the provision of aviation obstacle warning lighting.\n\n4. Not more than one such mast shall be erected within the site.\n5. All mast components shall have a matt, nonreflective finish and the blade shall be made of material that does not deflect telecommunications signals.\n6. No sign, advertisement or object, not required for the functioning or safety of the mast shall be attached to or exhibited on the mast.\n
  19. This formula is a derivative of the kinetic energy formula we looked at in the first lecture, \nK.E. = ½ m v2\n\nAir at 1,500 meters (5000 ft) could be expected to be 15% less dense than normal air\nAir at 30 degrees C would be about 5% less dense than normal air\n\nAir density normally taken to be 1.225 kg/m^3 at 15 deg C and at sea level\nAir density is affected by\nAltitude - Air density decreases as altitude increases\nTemperature - Air density decreases as temperature rises\nHumidity - Air density decreases with increases slightly with increased humidity\n
  20. Nothing tells more about a wind turbine’s potential for generating electricity than its swept area. Invariably a turbine with a large rotor will generate more electricity than one with a smaller rotor.\n\nLooking at the example in the first lecture 20 m rotor in 12m/s winds. If we doubled the swept area to 40 meters, there would be a corresponding increase of 4 times the power available from the wind.\n
  21. There are additional requirements for overspeed protection, particularly when there is a reduction in the turbines electrical load during operation at high tip speed ratios in high winds. \n\nYaw control is the simplest method of achieving power control, i.e the turbine is turned out of the wind direction and its blades are orientated parallel to the wind. The wind vane located above the nacelle provides wind directional information which forms an input to the control system which in turn rotates the turbine via its yaw control mechanism if necessary. \n\nActive pitch control is more common in variable speed turbines. In this case the the turbine is run at constant speed, however the angel of attack is altered to reduce the lift, thereby altering the lift:drag ratio.\n\nImage source: http://www.popsci.com/content/next-gen-wind-turbine-examined\n
  22. There are additional requirements for overspeed protection, particularly when there is a reduction in the turbines electrical load during operation at high tip speed ratios in high winds. \n\nYaw control is the simplest method of achieving power control, i.e the turbine is turned out of the wind direction and its blades are orientated parallel to the wind. The wind vane located above the nacelle provides wind directional information which forms an input to the control system which in turn rotates the turbine via its yaw control mechanism if necessary. \n\nActive pitch control is more common in variable speed turbines. In this case the the turbine is run at constant speed, however the angel of attack is altered to reduce the lift, thereby altering the lift:drag ratio.\n\nImage source: http://www.popsci.com/content/next-gen-wind-turbine-examined\n
  23. There are additional requirements for overspeed protection, particularly when there is a reduction in the turbines electrical load during operation at high tip speed ratios in high winds. \n\nYaw control is the simplest method of achieving power control, i.e the turbine is turned out of the wind direction and its blades are orientated parallel to the wind. The wind vane located above the nacelle provides wind directional information which forms an input to the control system which in turn rotates the turbine via its yaw control mechanism if necessary. \n\nActive pitch control is more common in variable speed turbines. In this case the the turbine is run at constant speed, however the angel of attack is altered to reduce the lift, thereby altering the lift:drag ratio.\n\nImage source: http://www.popsci.com/content/next-gen-wind-turbine-examined\n
  24. \n
  25. \n
  26. \n
  27. \n
  28. \n
  29. \n
  30. Site selection for the wind farm requires that accurate wind data over a period of time is available. Experience has shown that an average wind speed > 6 m⋄s-1 indicates a good location. Ideally, mountainous areas (assuming that access is not an issue) and coastal regions are good candidates for locating a wind farm. However, consideration should also be given to losses that may occur in the cabling from wind farm to the electrical grid. \n\nSpacing between wind turbines is a critical issue. Typical spacing should be in the region of 5D → 10D (D being diameter) between each turbine, thereby allowing for the wind to have regained speed and avoid turbulence. Greater turblance intensity reduces the spacing but increases the fatigue loading on the turbines. \n
  31. Site selection for the wind farm requires that accurate wind data over a period of time is available. Experience has shown that an average wind speed > 6 m⋄s-1 indicates a good location. Ideally, mountainous areas (assuming that access is not an issue) and coastal regions are good candidates for locating a wind farm. However, consideration should also be given to losses that may occur in the cabling from wind farm to the electrical grid. \n\nSpacing between wind turbines is a critical issue. Typical spacing should be in the region of 5D → 10D (D being diameter) between each turbine, thereby allowing for the wind to have regained speed and avoid turbulence. Greater turblance intensity reduces the spacing but increases the fatigue loading on the turbines. \n
  32. Site selection for the wind farm requires that accurate wind data over a period of time is available. Experience has shown that an average wind speed > 6 m⋄s-1 indicates a good location. Ideally, mountainous areas (assuming that access is not an issue) and coastal regions are good candidates for locating a wind farm. However, consideration should also be given to losses that may occur in the cabling from wind farm to the electrical grid. \n\nSpacing between wind turbines is a critical issue. Typical spacing should be in the region of 5D → 10D (D being diameter) between each turbine, thereby allowing for the wind to have regained speed and avoid turbulence. Greater turblance intensity reduces the spacing but increases the fatigue loading on the turbines. \n
  33. Site selection for the wind farm requires that accurate wind data over a period of time is available. Experience has shown that an average wind speed > 6 m⋄s-1 indicates a good location. Ideally, mountainous areas (assuming that access is not an issue) and coastal regions are good candidates for locating a wind farm. However, consideration should also be given to losses that may occur in the cabling from wind farm to the electrical grid. \n\nSpacing between wind turbines is a critical issue. Typical spacing should be in the region of 5D → 10D (D being diameter) between each turbine, thereby allowing for the wind to have regained speed and avoid turbulence. Greater turblance intensity reduces the spacing but increases the fatigue loading on the turbines. \n
  34. Site selection for the wind farm requires that accurate wind data over a period of time is available. Experience has shown that an average wind speed > 6 m⋄s-1 indicates a good location. Ideally, mountainous areas (assuming that access is not an issue) and coastal regions are good candidates for locating a wind farm. However, consideration should also be given to losses that may occur in the cabling from wind farm to the electrical grid. \n\nSpacing between wind turbines is a critical issue. Typical spacing should be in the region of 5D → 10D (D being diameter) between each turbine, thereby allowing for the wind to have regained speed and avoid turbulence. Greater turblance intensity reduces the spacing but increases the fatigue loading on the turbines. \n
  35. Site selection for the wind farm requires that accurate wind data over a period of time is available. Experience has shown that an average wind speed > 6 m⋄s-1 indicates a good location. Ideally, mountainous areas (assuming that access is not an issue) and coastal regions are good candidates for locating a wind farm. However, consideration should also be given to losses that may occur in the cabling from wind farm to the electrical grid. \n\nSpacing between wind turbines is a critical issue. Typical spacing should be in the region of 5D → 10D (D being diameter) between each turbine, thereby allowing for the wind to have regained speed and avoid turbulence. Greater turblance intensity reduces the spacing but increases the fatigue loading on the turbines. \n
  36. Site selection for the wind farm requires that accurate wind data over a period of time is available. Experience has shown that an average wind speed > 6 m⋄s-1 indicates a good location. Ideally, mountainous areas (assuming that access is not an issue) and coastal regions are good candidates for locating a wind farm. However, consideration should also be given to losses that may occur in the cabling from wind farm to the electrical grid. \n\nSpacing between wind turbines is a critical issue. Typical spacing should be in the region of 5D → 10D (D being diameter) between each turbine, thereby allowing for the wind to have regained speed and avoid turbulence. Greater turblance intensity reduces the spacing but increases the fatigue loading on the turbines. \n
  37. Site selection for the wind farm requires that accurate wind data over a period of time is available. Experience has shown that an average wind speed > 6 m⋄s-1 indicates a good location. Ideally, mountainous areas (assuming that access is not an issue) and coastal regions are good candidates for locating a wind farm. However, consideration should also be given to losses that may occur in the cabling from wind farm to the electrical grid. \n\nSpacing between wind turbines is a critical issue. Typical spacing should be in the region of 5D → 10D (D being diameter) between each turbine, thereby allowing for the wind to have regained speed and avoid turbulence. Greater turblance intensity reduces the spacing but increases the fatigue loading on the turbines. \n
  38. Site selection for the wind farm requires that accurate wind data over a period of time is available. Experience has shown that an average wind speed > 6 m⋄s-1 indicates a good location. Ideally, mountainous areas (assuming that access is not an issue) and coastal regions are good candidates for locating a wind farm. However, consideration should also be given to losses that may occur in the cabling from wind farm to the electrical grid. \n\nSpacing between wind turbines is a critical issue. Typical spacing should be in the region of 5D → 10D (D being diameter) between each turbine, thereby allowing for the wind to have regained speed and avoid turbulence. Greater turblance intensity reduces the spacing but increases the fatigue loading on the turbines. \n
  39. Site selection for the wind farm requires that accurate wind data over a period of time is available. Experience has shown that an average wind speed > 6 m⋄s-1 indicates a good location. Ideally, mountainous areas (assuming that access is not an issue) and coastal regions are good candidates for locating a wind farm. However, consideration should also be given to losses that may occur in the cabling from wind farm to the electrical grid. \n\nSpacing between wind turbines is a critical issue. Typical spacing should be in the region of 5D → 10D (D being diameter) between each turbine, thereby allowing for the wind to have regained speed and avoid turbulence. Greater turblance intensity reduces the spacing but increases the fatigue loading on the turbines. \n
  40. Wind turbines and farms can have an adverse impact on the society and the environment. They can spoil areas of natural beauty and affect wildlife. The land area required for wind farms is another concern, however, the land between each turbine can be used of grazing and other farming needs provided access is available and a small exclusion area around the base of the turbine is provided. \n\nThey also can cause electromagnetic interference which affects radar and telecommunications. Noise is another area of concern, however improvements have been made in the blade design to help reduce this. \n\nWhen a turbine has reached its end of service life, it most be disposed of. Established disposal and recycling procedures can be utilised for the metallic parts, however the disposal of the rotor blades consisting of glass reinforced polymers can pose difficulties. \n\nWind turbines reduce CO2 emissions by providing an alternative to fossil fuels. It is also important to stress however that wind turbines do produce CO2, during there manufacture and disposal. Also the construction of turbines in remote regions can affect local communities, the environment, require specialised construction equipment and most also be connected back to the Grid. \n
  41. Wind turbines and farms can have an adverse impact on the society and the environment. They can spoil areas of natural beauty and affect wildlife. The land area required for wind farms is another concern, however, the land between each turbine can be used of grazing and other farming needs provided access is available and a small exclusion area around the base of the turbine is provided. \n\nThey also can cause electromagnetic interference which affects radar and telecommunications. Noise is another area of concern, however improvements have been made in the blade design to help reduce this. \n\nWhen a turbine has reached its end of service life, it most be disposed of. Established disposal and recycling procedures can be utilised for the metallic parts, however the disposal of the rotor blades consisting of glass reinforced polymers can pose difficulties. \n\nWind turbines reduce CO2 emissions by providing an alternative to fossil fuels. It is also important to stress however that wind turbines do produce CO2, during there manufacture and disposal. Also the construction of turbines in remote regions can affect local communities, the environment, require specialised construction equipment and most also be connected back to the Grid. \n
  42. Wind turbines and farms can have an adverse impact on the society and the environment. They can spoil areas of natural beauty and affect wildlife. The land area required for wind farms is another concern, however, the land between each turbine can be used of grazing and other farming needs provided access is available and a small exclusion area around the base of the turbine is provided. \n\nThey also can cause electromagnetic interference which affects radar and telecommunications. Noise is another area of concern, however improvements have been made in the blade design to help reduce this. \n\nWhen a turbine has reached its end of service life, it most be disposed of. Established disposal and recycling procedures can be utilised for the metallic parts, however the disposal of the rotor blades consisting of glass reinforced polymers can pose difficulties. \n\nWind turbines reduce CO2 emissions by providing an alternative to fossil fuels. It is also important to stress however that wind turbines do produce CO2, during there manufacture and disposal. Also the construction of turbines in remote regions can affect local communities, the environment, require specialised construction equipment and most also be connected back to the Grid. \n
  43. Wind turbines and farms can have an adverse impact on the society and the environment. They can spoil areas of natural beauty and affect wildlife. The land area required for wind farms is another concern, however, the land between each turbine can be used of grazing and other farming needs provided access is available and a small exclusion area around the base of the turbine is provided. \n\nThey also can cause electromagnetic interference which affects radar and telecommunications. Noise is another area of concern, however improvements have been made in the blade design to help reduce this. \n\nWhen a turbine has reached its end of service life, it most be disposed of. Established disposal and recycling procedures can be utilised for the metallic parts, however the disposal of the rotor blades consisting of glass reinforced polymers can pose difficulties. \n\nWind turbines reduce CO2 emissions by providing an alternative to fossil fuels. It is also important to stress however that wind turbines do produce CO2, during there manufacture and disposal. Also the construction of turbines in remote regions can affect local communities, the environment, require specialised construction equipment and most also be connected back to the Grid. \n
  44. Wind turbines and farms can have an adverse impact on the society and the environment. They can spoil areas of natural beauty and affect wildlife. The land area required for wind farms is another concern, however, the land between each turbine can be used of grazing and other farming needs provided access is available and a small exclusion area around the base of the turbine is provided. \n\nThey also can cause electromagnetic interference which affects radar and telecommunications. Noise is another area of concern, however improvements have been made in the blade design to help reduce this. \n\nWhen a turbine has reached its end of service life, it most be disposed of. Established disposal and recycling procedures can be utilised for the metallic parts, however the disposal of the rotor blades consisting of glass reinforced polymers can pose difficulties. \n\nWind turbines reduce CO2 emissions by providing an alternative to fossil fuels. It is also important to stress however that wind turbines do produce CO2, during there manufacture and disposal. Also the construction of turbines in remote regions can affect local communities, the environment, require specialised construction equipment and most also be connected back to the Grid. \n
  45. Wind turbines and farms can have an adverse impact on the society and the environment. They can spoil areas of natural beauty and affect wildlife. The land area required for wind farms is another concern, however, the land between each turbine can be used of grazing and other farming needs provided access is available and a small exclusion area around the base of the turbine is provided. \n\nThey also can cause electromagnetic interference which affects radar and telecommunications. Noise is another area of concern, however improvements have been made in the blade design to help reduce this. \n\nWhen a turbine has reached its end of service life, it most be disposed of. Established disposal and recycling procedures can be utilised for the metallic parts, however the disposal of the rotor blades consisting of glass reinforced polymers can pose difficulties. \n\nWind turbines reduce CO2 emissions by providing an alternative to fossil fuels. It is also important to stress however that wind turbines do produce CO2, during there manufacture and disposal. Also the construction of turbines in remote regions can affect local communities, the environment, require specialised construction equipment and most also be connected back to the Grid. \n
  46. Wind turbines and farms can have an adverse impact on the society and the environment. They can spoil areas of natural beauty and affect wildlife. The land area required for wind farms is another concern, however, the land between each turbine can be used of grazing and other farming needs provided access is available and a small exclusion area around the base of the turbine is provided. \n\nThey also can cause electromagnetic interference which affects radar and telecommunications. Noise is another area of concern, however improvements have been made in the blade design to help reduce this. \n\nWhen a turbine has reached its end of service life, it most be disposed of. Established disposal and recycling procedures can be utilised for the metallic parts, however the disposal of the rotor blades consisting of glass reinforced polymers can pose difficulties. \n\nWind turbines reduce CO2 emissions by providing an alternative to fossil fuels. It is also important to stress however that wind turbines do produce CO2, during there manufacture and disposal. Also the construction of turbines in remote regions can affect local communities, the environment, require specialised construction equipment and most also be connected back to the Grid. \n
  47. Wind turbines and farms can have an adverse impact on the society and the environment. They can spoil areas of natural beauty and affect wildlife. The land area required for wind farms is another concern, however, the land between each turbine can be used of grazing and other farming needs provided access is available and a small exclusion area around the base of the turbine is provided. \n\nThey also can cause electromagnetic interference which affects radar and telecommunications. Noise is another area of concern, however improvements have been made in the blade design to help reduce this. \n\nWhen a turbine has reached its end of service life, it most be disposed of. Established disposal and recycling procedures can be utilised for the metallic parts, however the disposal of the rotor blades consisting of glass reinforced polymers can pose difficulties. \n\nWind turbines reduce CO2 emissions by providing an alternative to fossil fuels. It is also important to stress however that wind turbines do produce CO2, during there manufacture and disposal. Also the construction of turbines in remote regions can affect local communities, the environment, require specialised construction equipment and most also be connected back to the Grid. \n
  48. Wind turbines and farms can have an adverse impact on the society and the environment. They can spoil areas of natural beauty and affect wildlife. The land area required for wind farms is another concern, however, the land between each turbine can be used of grazing and other farming needs provided access is available and a small exclusion area around the base of the turbine is provided. \n\nThey also can cause electromagnetic interference which affects radar and telecommunications. Noise is another area of concern, however improvements have been made in the blade design to help reduce this. \n\nWhen a turbine has reached its end of service life, it most be disposed of. Established disposal and recycling procedures can be utilised for the metallic parts, however the disposal of the rotor blades consisting of glass reinforced polymers can pose difficulties. \n\nWind turbines reduce CO2 emissions by providing an alternative to fossil fuels. It is also important to stress however that wind turbines do produce CO2, during there manufacture and disposal. Also the construction of turbines in remote regions can affect local communities, the environment, require specialised construction equipment and most also be connected back to the Grid. \n
  49. Wind turbines and farms can have an adverse impact on the society and the environment. They can spoil areas of natural beauty and affect wildlife. The land area required for wind farms is another concern, however, the land between each turbine can be used of grazing and other farming needs provided access is available and a small exclusion area around the base of the turbine is provided. \n\nThey also can cause electromagnetic interference which affects radar and telecommunications. Noise is another area of concern, however improvements have been made in the blade design to help reduce this. \n\nWhen a turbine has reached its end of service life, it most be disposed of. Established disposal and recycling procedures can be utilised for the metallic parts, however the disposal of the rotor blades consisting of glass reinforced polymers can pose difficulties. \n\nWind turbines reduce CO2 emissions by providing an alternative to fossil fuels. It is also important to stress however that wind turbines do produce CO2, during there manufacture and disposal. Also the construction of turbines in remote regions can affect local communities, the environment, require specialised construction equipment and most also be connected back to the Grid. \n
  50. \n
  51. \n
  52. \n