ENGINEERING SCIENCE &ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY    Lecture 6 - Wind & Wind Energy    Keith Vaugh BEng (AERO) MEng
Wind
Wind
Source: Figure 7.5 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
Source: Figure 7.6 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
Idealized winds generated by pressure   Actual wind patterns owing to land mass     gradient and Coriolis Force.          ...
Idealized winds generated by pressure                            Actual wind patterns owing to land mass                  ...
Source: Figure 7.9 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
Source: Figure 7.9 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
Types of Wind• Geostrophic wind/  Prevailing wind• Storms• Local winds/Sea  breezes• Mountain wind/Valley  wind           ...
Wind variation with time• Inter annual• Annual• Diurnal• Short term
Wind Measurement• Wind Atlas/Wind  resource maps• Available for Europe  and most Western  nations• Ireland’s wind atlas  d...
Wind          Measurement    • Wind Atlas/Wind             resource maps    • Available for Europe             and most We...
Anemometers
Power in the wind                                Lesson Number 1. in an Oklahoma Wind Power Tutorial Series               ...
Swept areaIf you double the diameterof a rotor, the swept areais increased by a factor of4A 2.5 MW turbine has arotor diam...
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TYPICAL WIND TURBINE                         CONFIGURATION                                       }Image source: http://www...
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POWER OUTPUT OF A    WIND TURBINEThe power in the wind, Pw at a given site                                                ...
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WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential                                                       }
WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential                                                       }
WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential                                                       }Mou...
WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential                                                       }Mou...
WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential                                                       }Mou...
WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential                                                       }Mou...
WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential                                                       }Mou...
WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential                                                       }Mou...
WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential                                                       }Mou...
}
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE                                                           }    Natural scenery a...
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE                                                           }    Natural scenery a...
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE                                                           }    Natural scenery a...
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE                                                           }    Natural scenery a...
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE                                                           }    Natural scenery a...
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE                                                           }    Natural scenery a...
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE                                                           }    Natural scenery a...
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE                                                           }    Natural scenery a...
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT  & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE                                                           }    Natural scenery a...
Advantages                             DisadvantagesPrime fuel is free                        Risk of blade failure (total...
L6  Wind Energy
L6  Wind Energy
L6  Wind Energy
L6  Wind Energy
L6  Wind Energy
L6  Wind Energy
L6  Wind Energy
L6  Wind Energy
L6  Wind Energy
L6  Wind Energy
L6  Wind Energy
L6  Wind Energy
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L6 Wind Energy

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Introduction to Wind Energy

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L6 Wind Energy

  1. 1. ENGINEERING SCIENCE &ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY Lecture 6 - Wind & Wind Energy Keith Vaugh BEng (AERO) MEng
  2. 2. Wind
  3. 3. Wind
  4. 4. Source: Figure 7.5 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
  5. 5. Source: Figure 7.6 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
  6. 6. Idealized winds generated by pressure Actual wind patterns owing to land mass gradient and Coriolis Force. distribution..
  7. 7. Idealized winds generated by pressure Actual wind patterns owing to land mass gradient and Coriolis Force. distribution..Source: Figure 7.8 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
  8. 8. Source: Figure 7.9 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
  9. 9. Source: Figure 7.9 in The Atmosphere, 8th edition, Lutgens and Tarbuck, 8th edition, 2001
  10. 10. Types of Wind• Geostrophic wind/ Prevailing wind• Storms• Local winds/Sea breezes• Mountain wind/Valley wind Sea and Land Breeze
  11. 11. Wind variation with time• Inter annual• Annual• Diurnal• Short term
  12. 12. Wind Measurement• Wind Atlas/Wind resource maps• Available for Europe and most Western nations• Ireland’s wind atlas developed by SEI
  13. 13. Wind Measurement • Wind Atlas/Wind resource maps • Available for Europe and most Western nations • Ireland’s wind atlas developed by SEISource: European Wind Atlas. Copyright © 1989 by Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark.
  14. 14. Anemometers
  15. 15. Power in the wind Lesson Number 1. in an Oklahoma Wind Power Tutorial Series By Tim Hughes, Environmental Verification and Analysis Center, The University of Oklahoma Calculation of Wind Energy and Power Calculating the energy (and later power) available in the wind relies on knowledge of basic geometry and the physics behind kinetic energy. The kinetic energy (KE) of an object (or collection of objects) with total mass M and velocity V is given by the expression: KE = ! * M * V2 (1) 1P = ρ Av 3 Air parcel Now, for purposes of finding the kinetic energy of 2 moving air molecules (i.e.:wind), lets say one has a large air parcel with the shape of a huge hockey puck:ρ = Air density that is, it has the geometry of a collection of air molecules passing though the plane of a wind turbines blades (whichA = Swept area of rotor out a cross-sectional area A), with thickness (D) sweep passing through the plane over a given time. A Air flowv = wind speed The volume (Vol) of this parcel is determined by the parcels area multiplied by its thickness:Therefore, Power availableVol = A * D isProportional to the air density letter rho) represent the density Let ! (the greekProportional to the square ofand is expressed as:diameter the rotor of the air in this parcel. Note that density is mass per volume DProportional to the cube of the wind speed ! = M / Vol and a little algebra gives: M = ! * Vol Now lets consider how the velocity (V) of our air parcel can be expressed. If a time T is required for this parcel (of thickness D) to move through the plane of the wind turbine blades, then the parcels velocity can be expressed as V = D / T, and a little algebra gives D = V * T. Lets make some substitutions in expression no. 1 ( KE = ! * M * V2 ) Substitute for M ( = ! * Vol ) to obtain: KE = ! * (! * Vol) * V2 !
  16. 16. Swept areaIf you double the diameterof a rotor, the swept areais increased by a factor of4A 2.5 MW turbine has arotor diameter ofapproximately 80 m 2Swept area A = π r
  17. 17. }
  18. 18. TYPICAL WIND TURBINE CONFIGURATION }Image source: http://www.popsci.com/content/next-gen-wind-turbine-examined
  19. 19. }
  20. 20. POWER OUTPUT OF A WIND TURBINEThe power in the wind, Pw at a given site } 1 1 3 Pw = ρ Au = ρ A ∫ {u ( z )} p ( u )du 3 2 2where: u(z) = wind speed at hub height p(u) = wind frequency distributionThe average output power Po of a turbine 1 3 Po = η ρ A ∫ CP ( λ ) {u ( z )} p ( u )du 2
  21. 21. }
  22. 22. WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential }
  23. 23. WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential }
  24. 24. WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential }Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposedplains
  25. 25. WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential }Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposedplains
  26. 26. WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential }Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposedplainsWind turbine spacing should be of the order 5D → 10D
  27. 27. WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential }Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposedplainsWind turbine spacing should be of the order 5D → 10D
  28. 28. WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential }Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposedplainsWind turbine spacing should be of the order 5D → 10DWind farms will experience array loss, i.e. an array ofturbines will not produce as much power as if they potentiallycould
  29. 29. WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential }Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposedplainsWind turbine spacing should be of the order 5D → 10DWind farms will experience array loss, i.e. an array ofturbines will not produce as much power as if they potentiallycould
  30. 30. WIND FARM’sAccurate wind data for a period of time is essential }Mountainous regions and coasts are ideal as well as exposedplainsWind turbine spacing should be of the order 5D → 10DWind farms will experience array loss, i.e. an array ofturbines will not produce as much power as if they potentiallycouldLow wind shear reduces the differential loading on turbineblades, i.e. fatigue loading
  31. 31. }
  32. 32. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian
  33. 33. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian
  34. 34. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise
  35. 35. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise
  36. 36. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise End of Service Life - recyclability
  37. 37. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise End of Service Life - recyclability
  38. 38. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise End of Service Life - recyclability Embodied energy
  39. 39. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise End of Service Life - recyclability Embodied energy
  40. 40. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT & PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE } Natural scenery and preservation of wildlife particularly avian Electromagnetic interference and noise End of Service Life - recyclability Embodied energy Remote regions - access and grid connections
  41. 41. Advantages DisadvantagesPrime fuel is free Risk of blade failure (total destruction of installation)Infinitely renewable Suitable small generators not readily availableNon-polluting unsuitable for urban areasIn Ireland the seasonal variation matches Cost of storage battery or mainselectricity demands converter systemBig generators can be located on remote Acoustic noise of gearbox and rotorsites including offshore bladesSaves conventional fuels Construction costs of the supporting tower and access roadsSaves the building of conventional Electromagnetic interference due togeneration blade rotationDiversity in the methods of electricity Environmental objectionsgeneration

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