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# L5 Hydropower

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Introduction to Hydropower

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### L5 Hydropower

1. 1. ENGINEERING SCIENCE &ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY Lecture 5 - Hydro Power Overview Keith Vaugh BEng (AERO) MEng
2. 2. }
3. 3. HYDROELECTRICPOWER GENERATIONHydropower plants harness the potential energywithin falling water and utilise rotodynamic }machinery to convert that energy to electricity
4. 4. HYDROELECTRICPOWER GENERATIONHydropower plants harness the potential energywithin falling water and utilise rotodynamic }machinery to convert that energy to electricityThe theoretical water power Pwa,th between twopoints for a moving body of water can bedetermined by:
5. 5. HYDROELECTRICPOWER GENERATIONHydropower plants harness the potential energywithin falling water and utilise rotodynamic }machinery to convert that energy to electricityThe theoretical water power Pwa,th between twopoints for a moving body of water can bedetermined by: & Pwa,th = ρwa gVwa ( hhw − htw )
6. 6. Applying Bernoulli’s equation two reference points and , up anddownstream of the hydroelectric power plant; 2 2 2 p1 uwa,1 p2 uwa,2 uwa,2 + z1 + = + z2 + +α = const. ρwa,1g 2g ρwa,2 g 2g 2gwhere; p = pressure head ρwa g z = potential energy head 2 uwa = kinetic energy 2g 2 uwa α = lost energy 2g
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8. 8. { }
9. 9. {HYDROELECTRIC POWERPLANT CONFIGURATION }
13. 13. Stop logsHeadwater Screen Dam
14. 14. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Dam
15. 15. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Dam Penstock
16. 16. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Dam Penstock Turbine
17. 17. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Dam Generator Penstock Turbine
18. 18. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Dam Generator Penstock Turbine Draft tube
19. 19. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Power house Dam Generator Penstock Turbine Draft tube
20. 20. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Power house Dam Generator Tailwater Penstock Turbine Draft tube
21. 21. }
22. 22. CATEGORISATIONLow-head plants: Are categorised by large ﬂow rates andrelatively low heads (less than 20 m). Typically these are run-of-river power plants i.e. harness the ﬂow of the river }
23. 23. CATEGORISATIONLow-head plants: Are categorised by large ﬂow rates andrelatively low heads (less than 20 m). Typically these are run-of-river power plants i.e. harness the ﬂow of the river }Medium-head plants: This category of plant uses the headcreated by a dam (20 - 100 m) and the average discharges used bythe turbines result from reservoir management
24. 24. CATEGORISATIONLow-head plants: Are categorised by large ﬂow rates andrelatively low heads (less than 20 m). Typically these are run-of-river power plants i.e. harness the ﬂow of the river }Medium-head plants: This category of plant uses the headcreated by a dam (20 - 100 m) and the average discharges used bythe turbines result from reservoir managementHigh-head plants: Found in mountainous regions with typicalheads of 100 - 2,000 m. Flow rates are typically low and thereforethe power results from high heads
26. 26. DIVERSION TYPE } }Source: http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&source=s_q&hl=en&geocode=&q=45%C2%B038%E2%80%B239%E2%80%B3N+121%C2%B056%E2%80%B226%E2%80%B3W&aq=&sll=37.052985,37.890472&sspn=1.008309,1.767426&ie=UTF8&ll=45.644288,-121.940603&spn=0.027602,0.055232&t=k&z=15
27. 27. DIVERSION TYPE } } name: Bonneville Dam river: Columbia River location: Oregon, USA head: 18 m no. turbine’s: 20 capacity: 1092.9 MWSource: http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&source=s_q&hl=en&geocode=&q=45%C2%B038%E2%80%B239%E2%80%B3N+121%C2%B056%E2%80%B226%E2%80%B3W&aq=&sll=37.052985,37.890472&sspn=1.008309,1.767426&ie=UTF8&ll=45.644288,-121.940603&spn=0.027602,0.055232&t=k&z=15
30. 30. RUN-OF-RIVER } name: Little Goose Dam river: Lake Bryan location: Washington, USA head: 30 m no. turbine’s: 6 capacity: 932 MWSource: http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&source=s_q&hl=en&geocode=&q=46%C2%B035%E2%80%B215%E2%80%B3N+118%C2%B001%E2%80%B234%E2%80%B3W&aq=&sll=24.943901,105.113523&sspn=0.035799,0.059094&ie=UTF8&t=k&z=15
31. 31. Hydroelectric power stations
32. 32. Hydroelectric power stations Low-headpower stations
33. 33. Hydroelectric power stations Low-headpower stations Run-of-riverpower stations
34. 34. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head power stations Run-of-river power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations
35. 35. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head power stations Run-of-river power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations Run-of-river power stations
36. 36. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head Medium-head High-head power stations power stations power stations Run-of-river power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations Run-of-river power stations
37. 37. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head Medium-head High-head power stations power stations power stations Run-of-river Storage power stations power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations Run-of-river power stations
38. 38. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head Medium-head High-head power stations power stations power stations Run-of-river Storage power stations power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations Run-of-river power stations Storage power stations
39. 39. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head Medium-head High-head power stations power stations power stations Run-of-river Storage power stations power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations Series of power stations with head reservoir Run-of-river power stations Storage power stations
40. 40. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head Medium-head High-head power stations power stations power stations Run-of-river Storage power stations power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations Series of power stations with head reservoir Run-of-river power stations Storage power stations
41. 41. }
42. 42. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dams - are ﬁxed structure and enables a controlled ﬂow of water from the reservoir to the powerhouse. }
43. 43. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dams - are ﬁxed structure and enables a controlled ﬂow of water from the reservoir to the powerhouse. } Weirs - can be either ﬁxed or movable
44. 44. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dams - are ﬁxed structure and enables a controlled ﬂow of water from the reservoir to the powerhouse. } Weirs - can be either ﬁxed or movable
45. 45. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dams - are ﬁxed structure and enables a controlled ﬂow of water from the reservoir to the powerhouse. } Weirs - can be either ﬁxed or movable Barrages - have moveable gates
46. 46. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dams - are ﬁxed structure and enables a controlled ﬂow of water from the reservoir to the powerhouse. } Weirs - can be either ﬁxed or movable Barrages - have moveable gates Reservoirs - A supplementary supply of water
47. 47. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dams - are ﬁxed structure and enables a controlled ﬂow of water from the reservoir to the powerhouse. } Weirs - can be either ﬁxed or movable Barrages - have moveable gates Reservoirs - A supplementary supply of water Intake, penstock, powerhouse, tailrace (discussed above)
48. 48. }
49. 49. }
50. 50. SOCIAL &ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS Hydroelectric power is a mature technology used in many countries, producing about 20% of the world’s electric power. }
51. 51. SOCIAL &ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS Hydroelectric power is a mature technology used in many countries, producing about 20% of the world’s electric power. } Hydroelectric power accounts for over 90% of the total electricity supply in some countries including Brazil & Norway,
52. 52. SOCIAL &ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS Hydroelectric power is a mature technology used in many countries, producing about 20% of the world’s electric power. } Hydroelectric power accounts for over 90% of the total electricity supply in some countries including Brazil & Norway, Long-lasting with relatively low maintenance requirements: many systems have been in continuous use for over fifty years and some installations still function after 100 years.
53. 53. The relatively large initial capital cost has long since beenwritten off, the ‘levelised’ cost of power produced is less thannon-renewable sources requiring expenditure on fuel andmore frequent replacement of plant.
54. 54. The relatively large initial capital cost has long since beenwritten off, the ‘levelised’ cost of power produced is less thannon-renewable sources requiring expenditure on fuel andmore frequent replacement of plant.The complications of hydro-power systems arise mostly fromassociated dams and reservoirs, particularly on the large-scaleprojects.
55. 55. The relatively large initial capital cost has long since beenwritten off, the ‘levelised’ cost of power produced is less thannon-renewable sources requiring expenditure on fuel andmore frequent replacement of plant.The complications of hydro-power systems arise mostly fromassociated dams and reservoirs, particularly on the large-scaleprojects.Most rivers, including large rivers with continental-scalecatchments, such as the Nile, the Zambesi and the Yangtze,have large seasonal flows making floods a majorcharacteristic.
56. 56. Therefore most large dams are (i.e. those >15m high) arebuilt for more than one purpose, apart from the significantaim of electricity generation, e.g. water storage for potablesupply and irrigation, controlling river flow and mitigatingfloods, road crossings, leisure activities and fisheries.
57. 57. Therefore most large dams are (i.e. those >15m high) arebuilt for more than one purpose, apart from the significantaim of electricity generation, e.g. water storage for potablesupply and irrigation, controlling river flow and mitigatingfloods, road crossings, leisure activities and fisheries.Countering the benefits of hydroelectric power are excessivedebt burden (dams are often the largest single investmentproject in a country), cost over-runs, displacement andimpoverishment of people, destruction of important eco-systems and fishery resources, and the inequitable sharing ofcosts and benefits.
58. 58. Therefore most large dams are (i.e. those >15m high) arebuilt for more than one purpose, apart from the significantaim of electricity generation, e.g. water storage for potablesupply and irrigation, controlling river flow and mitigatingfloods, road crossings, leisure activities and fisheries.Countering the benefits of hydroelectric power are excessivedebt burden (dams are often the largest single investmentproject in a country), cost over-runs, displacement andimpoverishment of people, destruction of important eco-systems and fishery resources, and the inequitable sharing ofcosts and benefits.For example, over 3 million people were displaced by theconstruction of the Three Gorges dam in China....