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+
Behavior Modification:
What Is It, And How Do We Use It?
Keith E Lyons
Walden University
2015
+ What Is Behavior Modification?
✜ A therapeutic approach designed to change a
particular undesirable negative behavior. 1...
+
Other Common Clinical Approaches
 Abnormal behaviors are viewed
as symptoms of basic
underlying causes within the
psych...
+
✜ Ivar Lovaas is referred to as the
“Grandfather” of ABA.
✜ Dedicated nearly half a century to
researching how to improv...
+ Applied Behavior Analysis
 Process of systematically applying interventions based upon the principles
of learning theor...
+
How do we use it?
+ Applied Behavior Analysis
 When a behavior is followed by some sort of reward, the
behavior is more likely to be repeat...
+
Behavior is learned through
motivation. The stronger the
motivation, the easier to
increase or reduce behavior
+
Motivation
 There can be no discriminative stimulus without motivation, which
is created through reinforcement 1
 Moti...
+ What do
we do
here and
now?
What behavioral
deficits currently
exist?
What currently elicits and
maintains undesirable
b...
+
+
Co-occurring Disorders
 Behavior could be the result of a co-occurring disorder1
 Be aware, the behavior may or may no...
Current Strategy Process
Result: Behavior Reinforced
Increased attention to problem behavior(s)
Removal of aversive settin...
+
“A person who has been
punished is not less inclined
to behave in a given way; at
best, he learns how to avoid
punishmen...
Proposed Strategy Process
Stimulus: Aversive Setting / Advantageous Situation
(i.e. Group)
Response: Disruptive Behavior (...
+
Behavior Module
Leave
Group1
Complete
Behavior
Module
Speak with
Counselor
Complete
Behavior
Module
Return to
Group2
Spe...
+
Staff Tools and Resources
 Behavior Contract: Can include behavior in group and sessions.
Does not allow for manipulati...
+
Staff Training: It works!

 Typically used restraint and medication
 After receiving training on proper use of these ...
+
Scenarios Workshop
+
Overview and Conclusion
 Look for antecedent or stimulus to understand what may have
“triggered” the behavior
 Be awar...
+
Definitions
 Stimulus:
 Conditioned Stimulus: A stimulus that acquires the ability to invoke
the same response as anot...
+
Definitions
 Generalize: Teaching ability to engage in social
communication, self-initiation, self-management, and to b...
+
References
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). (n.d.). Retrieved March 9,
2015, from https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-auti...
+
References
Sundberg, M. L. (2013). Thirty Points About Motivation From
Skinner’s Book Verbal Behavior. The Analysis of V...
+
References
Thompson, T. (1984). The examining magistrate for nature: A
retrospective review of Claude Bernard’s An
Intro...
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Behavior Mod Presentation (PH)

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Behavior Mod Presentation (PH)

  1. 1. + Behavior Modification: What Is It, And How Do We Use It? Keith E Lyons Walden University 2015
  2. 2. + What Is Behavior Modification? ✜ A therapeutic approach designed to change a particular undesirable negative behavior. 1 ✜ By using a system of positive or negative consequences, an individual learns the correct set of responses for any given stimulus. 2 ✜ It is structured learning in which new skills and behaviors are learned, undesirable habits are reduced, and the client becomes motivated for change. ✜ Behavior Modification can not eliminate genetic, hereditary, physical, or psychological struggles – but it can help the individual live the most fulfilling life possible no matter his/her current struggles. ”The consequences of an act affect the probability of it occurring again. "
  3. 3. + Other Common Clinical Approaches  Abnormal behaviors are viewed as symptoms of basic underlying causes within the psychological system 1  Medication may be prematurely or incorrectly applied for behaviors.  Disempowering to individual  May feel they can not change because it is pathological 2  Implies defect in individual, and can ignore environmental influences.  States it is our thinking that causes us to feel and act the way we do, if our mind is healthy.  Psychotherapy approach, requires focus on the disruptive or maladaptive thoughts an individual has, behavior is a result of this thinking.  Can be combined with Behavior Modification as Cognitive Behavior Therapy.  This works well with individuals that have typically developed cognition abilities. Medical Model Cognitive Therapy Approach
  4. 4. + ✜ Ivar Lovaas is referred to as the “Grandfather” of ABA. ✜ Dedicated nearly half a century to researching how to improve the lives of individuals with Autism and their families ✜ In 1965 he published a series of articles on therapeutic approaches: ✜ Researched effective ways to teach nonverbal children to speak, establishing social (secondary) reinforcers, procedures for teaching children to imitate, and several studies on interventions to reduce life-threatening self-injury and aggression
  5. 5. + Applied Behavior Analysis  Process of systematically applying interventions based upon the principles of learning theory to improve socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree, and to demonstrate that the interventions employed are responsible for improvement of behavior  Contrary to popular belief, the science of behavior must be a natural science, not a social science (Marr, 2009)2  Behavior analysts focus on the observable relationship of behavior to the environment, including antecedents and consequences; without hypothetical constructs (Thompson, 1984)3  ABA differs from traditional behavior modification because it analyzes what is prompting a behavior (the antecedent), establishes replacement behaviors, and then develops consequential strategies to instill change4 What is it?
  6. 6. + How do we use it?
  7. 7. + Applied Behavior Analysis  When a behavior is followed by some sort of reward, the behavior is more likely to be repeated.  Techniques for instructions are research based, and behaviors are measurable through operational definitions.  Behavior is tracked and measured in order to analyze what approaches and schedules of reinforcement are resulting in an actual positive change in behavior. Why does it work?
  8. 8. + Behavior is learned through motivation. The stronger the motivation, the easier to increase or reduce behavior
  9. 9. + Motivation  There can be no discriminative stimulus without motivation, which is created through reinforcement 1  Motivating Operations (MO) are the change in motivation, and include: • Establishing Operations (EO): Increase in value of a consequence as a reinforcer • Abolishing Operations (AO): Decrease in value of a consequence as a reinforcer  MOs vary all the time in strength • Must change MO all the time to maintain interest 3  As well as asking what maintains a behavior, it is equally important to ask, “Why is this consequence acting as an effective reinforcer for this person now?” (McGill, 1999) This is what we try to figure out using cognitive therapy, and talk therapy
  10. 10. + What do we do here and now? What behavioral deficits currently exist? What currently elicits and maintains undesirable behaviors? In the moment it does not matter how the individuals got where they are or acquired certain problems. Historical and psychological information are still used, but only to help determine current variables affecting behavior 1
  11. 11. +
  12. 12. + Co-occurring Disorders  Behavior could be the result of a co-occurring disorder1  Be aware, the behavior may or may not be a result of drug use  The solution is not to block or remove access to substance abuse treatment  Giving the addictive disorder and the co-occurring disorder, including any problem behaviors, the same level of attention and care is imperative  A co-occurring disorder can help to explain some behaviors, but the client should never be allowed to use it as an excuse.  Do not dismiss a co-occurring disorder, but also do not allow it to become a crutch
  13. 13. Current Strategy Process Result: Behavior Reinforced Increased attention to problem behavior(s) Removal of aversive setting (Gets to leave) Missed therapeutic opportunity/learning moment Stimulus: Aversive Setting / Advantageous Situation (i.e. Group) Response: Disruptive Behavior (Glorify drugs, disrupt group) Consequence: Removed from Therapy / Asked to Leave the Facility1
  14. 14. + “A person who has been punished is not less inclined to behave in a given way; at best, he learns how to avoid punishment.” – B.F. Skinner1
  15. 15. Proposed Strategy Process Stimulus: Aversive Setting / Advantageous Situation (i.e. Group) Response: Disruptive Behavior (Glorify drugs, disrupt group) Consequence: Behavior Module: Process 1 Behavior Module: Process 2 Result: Negative behavior not reinforced, Other options presented
  16. 16. + Behavior Module Leave Group1 Complete Behavior Module Speak with Counselor Complete Behavior Module Return to Group2 Speak with Counselor
  17. 17. + Staff Tools and Resources  Behavior Contract: Can include behavior in group and sessions. Does not allow for manipulation or confusion as an excuse. Clearly outlined expectations for client  Aftercare Contract: Client can “step-down” in services, but still have a behavior contract to refer to and maintain solid and clearly defined expectations  Process Flowchart: Reference sheet for staff to clearly define steps to be taken without deviation1  Behavior Module: Worksheet to help client identify maladaptive behavior and encourage insightful thought and discussion
  18. 18. + Staff Training: It works!   Typically used restraint and medication  After receiving training on proper use of these techniques both went up in occurrence  Staff received Positive Behavior Tools training utilizing ABA1  Post training results:  Positive statements were more likely to occur  Less interaction and attention to “junk” behaviors  Overall there was a decrease in behavior for all patient areas2   Utilizes behavior theory to improve performance on an organizational level  Tools to monitor behavior producing work outputs that contribute to business results.  Analyze and improve human performance  www.sixboxes.com
  19. 19. + Scenarios Workshop
  20. 20. + Overview and Conclusion  Look for antecedent or stimulus to understand what may have “triggered” the behavior  Be aware of what behavior you are reinforcing when responding  Are you allowing client to gain control and reinforcing negative behavior?  Be consistent, do not argue, stick to procedure1  Be patient, it took a long time to learn negative behaviors  Pay attention to what the client is really trying to achieve with behavior  Are they crying out for help?  Are they trying to take control?  Are they uncomfortable and trying to avoid situation?  Is there a co-occurring issue?
  21. 21. + Definitions  Stimulus:  Conditioned Stimulus: A stimulus that acquires the ability to invoke the same response as another stimulus that naturally invokes the response (Pavlov)  Discriminative Stimulus: A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced (Malott, 2007)  Shaping: The reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior  Reinforcement  Positive: Adding a reinforcing stimulus or consequence  Negative: Removing an aversive stimulus  Punishment  Positive: Adding an aversive stimulus  Negative: Removing a desired stimulus
  22. 22. + Definitions  Generalize: Teaching ability to engage in social communication, self-initiation, self-management, and to be responsive to multiple cues across multiple settings.  Respondent Conditioning: Also known as “classical conditioning”, behavior that is a response to an antecedent.  Operant Conditioning: Behavior that is an operation of the environment. Behavior that is determined by antecedents and consequences.  Extinction: Systematically removing the reinforcer(s) to a behavior in order to minimize and eventually extinguish targeted behavior. Often results in an extinction burst.  Extinction Burst: Temporary increase of behavior targeted for extinction, as a response to the removed reinforcer(s).
  23. 23. + References Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). (n.d.). Retrieved March 9, 2015, from https://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism/ treatment/applied-behavior-analysis-aba Baer, D.M., Wolf, M.M., & Risley, T.R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91–97. Langthorne, P., & McGill, P. (2009). A Tutorial on the Concept of the Motivating Operation and its Importance to Application. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2(2), 22–31. Marr, M (2009). The natural selection: Behavior analysis as a natural science. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 10(2), 103–118.
  24. 24. + References Sundberg, M. L. (2013). Thirty Points About Motivation From Skinner’s Book Verbal Behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 29(1), 13–40. Skinner B. F. (1936). The verbal summator and a method for the study of latent speech. Journal of Psychology, 2, 71–107. Skinner B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Skinner B. F. (1954). The operational analysis of psychological terms. Psychological Review, 52, 270–277. Skinner B. F.(1953). Science and human behavior. New York, NY: Free Press. Skinner B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York, NY: Appleton- Century-Crofts. Skinner B. F. (1974). About behaviorism. New York, NY: Knopf.
  25. 25. + References Thompson, T. (1984). The examining magistrate for nature: A retrospective review of Claude Bernard’s An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 2(41), 212–13.

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