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Presentation on biotech in agriculture for educational purposes. Thanks to Kevin Folta. I borrowed his concept of showing who benefits from various traits from one of his excellent slide sets.

Presentation on biotech in agriculture for educational purposes. Thanks to Kevin Folta. I borrowed his concept of showing who benefits from various traits from one of his excellent slide sets.

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Agent presentation on gmo 9 25-15

  1. 1. What is a GMO?What is a GMO?
  2. 2. What is a GMO?What is a GMO? Where are they grown?Where are they grown? http://www.isaaa.org/resources/publications/briefs/49/infographic/pdf/B49-MapInfographic-English.pdf
  3. 3. What is a GMO?What is a GMO? Man has been manipulating DNA in plants and animalsMan has been manipulating DNA in plants and animals for millenniafor millennia
  4. 4. What is a GMO?What is a GMO? Man has been manipulating DNA in plants and animals for millenniaMan has been manipulating DNA in plants and animals for millennia
  5. 5. What is a GMO?What is a GMO? Man has been manipulating DNA in plants and animals for millenniaMan has been manipulating DNA in plants and animals for millennia
  6. 6. What is a GMO?What is a GMO?  Transgenic -Transgenic - a gene is moved from one non-a gene is moved from one non- closely related species to anotherclosely related species to another  Cisgenic -Cisgenic - a gene is within the same species or aa gene is within the same species or a closely related species to anotherclosely related species to another  Subgenic -Subgenic - a gene is edited to amplify, delete,a gene is edited to amplify, delete, insert, silence or repress the gene.insert, silence or repress the gene.
  7. 7. What is a GMO?What is a GMO? GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits  Herbicide tolerance -Herbicide tolerance - crop can withstand herbicidecrop can withstand herbicide applicationsapplications  Insect tolerance -Insect tolerance - plant produces toxin to kill pestplant produces toxin to kill pest  Improved nutrition –Improved nutrition – plant produces a substance ofplant produces a substance of nutritive value or is changed to not produce annutritive value or is changed to not produce an antinutrientantinutrient  Disease resistant –Disease resistant – crop is resistant to certain diseasecrop is resistant to certain disease  Stress Tolerance –Stress Tolerance – crop is tolerant of stress, low nutrientcrop is tolerant of stress, low nutrient levels or excess nutrientslevels or excess nutrients  Increased Storage –Increased Storage – crop can be stored longer to avoidcrop can be stored longer to avoid spoilage lossesspoilage losses  Medicinal uses –Medicinal uses – crops that produce medicines or vaccinescrops that produce medicines or vaccines  Industrial uses –Industrial uses – crops to make more efficient industriescrops to make more efficient industries
  8. 8. What is a GMO?What is a GMO?
  9. 9. GE Crops that have been commercialized in USGE Crops that have been commercialized in US
  10. 10. GE Crops that have been approved but notGE Crops that have been approved but not commercialized in UScommercialized in US Arctic AppleArctic Apple Innate PotatoInnate Potato
  11. 11. Herbicide ResistanceHerbicide Resistance X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Decreased tillageDecreased tillage Less soil erosionLess soil erosion CO2 sequestrationCO2 sequestration Increase soil organic matterIncrease soil organic matter Reduced trips through the fieldReduced trips through the field
  12. 12. Herbicide ResistanceHerbicide Resistance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits ConcernsConcerns Weed resistanceWeed resistance Gene flow to closely related speciesGene flow to closely related species Roundup/2,4-D toxicityRoundup/2,4-D toxicity
  13. 13. Herbicide ResistanceHerbicide Resistance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits ConcernsConcerns Weed resistanceWeed resistance Gene flow to closely related speciesGene flow to closely related species Roundup/2,4-D toxicityRoundup/2,4-D toxicity
  14. 14. Herbicide ResistanceHerbicide Resistance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits ConcernsConcerns Weed resistanceWeed resistance Gene flow to closely related speciesGene flow to closely related species RoundupRoundup/2,4-D toxicity/2,4-D toxicity http://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2015/03/23/glyphosate-carcinogenic-independent-global-scientists-weigh-in/ Known carcinogens - Sunshine, ethanol in alcoholic beverages, acrylamide etc. Probable carcinogens - night shifts , wood smoke, glyphosate
  15. 15. Herbicide ResistanceHerbicide Resistance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits ConcernsConcerns Weed resistanceWeed resistance Gene flow to closely related speciesGene flow to closely related species RoundupRoundup/2,4-D toxicity/2,4-D toxicity The U.S. EPA classified glyphosate as Group E, evidence of non-carcinogenicity in humans. The U.S. EPA does not consider glyphosate to be a human carcinogen based on studies of laboratory animals that did not produce compelling evidence of carcinogenicity. German Risk Agency “In conclusion of this re-evaluation process of the active substance glyphosate by BfR the available data do not show carcinogenic or mutagenic properties of glyphosate nor that glyphosate is toxic to fertility, reproduction or embryonal/fetal development in laboratory animals. Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority “The APVMA currently has no data before it suggesting that glyphosate products registered in Australia and used according to label instructions present any unacceptable risks to human health, the environment and trade …” “The weight and strength of evidence shows that glyphosate is not genotoxic, carcinogenic or neurotoxic. “ World Health Organization International Programme on Chemical Safety “Animal studies show that glyphosate is not carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic.”
  16. 16. Herbicide ResistanceHerbicide Resistance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits ConcernsConcerns Weed resistanceWeed resistance Gene flow to closely related speciesGene flow to closely related species Roundup/Roundup/2,4-D toxicity2,4-D toxicity Agent orange was a mixture of herbicides containing 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. The 2,4,5-T, not the 2,4-D was contaminated with dioxin
  17. 17. Insect ResistanceInsect Resistance X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Decreased Insecticide ApplicationsDecreased Insecticide Applications U.S. Insecticide use in Corn (M lbs) of active ingredient) USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service
  18. 18. Insect ResistanceInsect Resistance X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Decreased Insecticide ApplicationsDecreased Insecticide Applications X
  19. 19. Improved NutritionImproved Nutrition X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits X One acre of omega-3 producing soybeans yields as much oil as 10,000 fish! X
  20. 20. Allergy-Free Peanuts Peanut – RNAi suppression Ara h2 X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy Improved NutritionImproved Nutrition GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits
  21. 21. Disease ResistanceDisease Resistance X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Decreased Fungicide and Insecticide ApplicationsDecreased Fungicide and Insecticide Applications X
  22. 22. Disease ResistanceDisease Resistance X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Decreased Insecticide ApplicationsDecreased Insecticide Applications X Stopping Citrus GreeningStopping Citrus Greening Spinach defensin, NPR1, Lytic peptides Many show promise Earliest deregulation is 2019
  23. 23. Disease ResistanceDisease Resistance X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Species RestorationSpecies Restoration X
  24. 24. X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy Stress ToleranceStress Tolerance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits
  25. 25. X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy Stress ToleranceStress Tolerance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits http://earthsky.org/human-world/pamela-ronald-has-developed-a-more-flood-tolerant-
  26. 26. Non Browning Apples and Potatoes Silencing a gene that leads to discoloration X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy Increased StorageIncreased Storage GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits
  27. 27. A Potato a Day Keeps the Cholera AwayA Potato a Day Keeps the Cholera Away Biologist are using genetic engineering to insert a new gene into potatoes. These gene causes the plants to produce a chemical, called a B-protein, that is a harmless part of cholera toxin, or poison. When children eat a certain amount of these genetically altered potatoes, they become vaccinated against cholera. X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy Medicinal UsesMedicinal Uses GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits
  28. 28. X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy Industrial UsesIndustrial Uses GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Enogen corn, developed by Syngenta, contains a microbialEnogen corn, developed by Syngenta, contains a microbial gene that causes it to produce an enzyme (alpha amylase) thatgene that causes it to produce an enzyme (alpha amylase) that breaks down corn starch into sugar, the first step towardbreaks down corn starch into sugar, the first step toward making ethanol.making ethanol. 100 million gallon/year plant can save:100 million gallon/year plant can save: 450,000 gallons of water450,000 gallons of water 1.3 million KWh of electricity1.3 million KWh of electricity  244 billion BTUs of natural gas244 billion BTUs of natural gas reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 106 million poundsreducing carbon dioxide emissions by 106 million pounds X
  29. 29. Who benefits most from crop biotech (GMO)?Who benefits most from crop biotech (GMO)? http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v28/n4/pdf/nbt0410-319.pdf
  30. 30. Who benefits most from crop biotech (GMO)?Who benefits most from crop biotech (GMO)?
  31. 31. True or False?True or False? “Terminator” Seeds
  32. 32. True or False? Kathage and Qian 2012
  33. 33. True or False?True or False?
  34. 34. True or False?True or False?
  35. 35. True or False?
  36. 36. What the Report Really Said: You could detect glyphosate at a few ng / m3 close to a cotton field when glyphosate had been recently applied Glyphosate replaced other more toxic herbicides The use of GM cotton has reduced insecticide use, massively
  37. 37. Change inChange in herbicide useherbicide use
  38. 38. Change inChange in insecticide useinsecticide use
  39. 39. Are non-GMO foodsAre non-GMO foods necessarily more healthy?necessarily more healthy?

Editor's Notes

  • Scientists originally never used the term genetically modified organisms or GMOs to describe genetic engineering. This term seems to have come from the popular media. The term has become so common that even scientists often use the term now. For many the terms genetically modified organisms are synonymous with genetically engineered organisms.
    Most scientists would say that almost all the food we eat has been "genetically modified" by man and that genetic modification includes not only conventional breeding, but simple selections man has made over millennia. 
    Picture 1 teosinte to modern corn – 7000 years, Picture 2 on right - wild carrot vs modern carrots, orange carrots were developed in 1700’s, Picture 3 The exact date of domestication of tomato is unknown: by 500 BC, it was already being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas.
  • Picture 1 center picture is wild cabbage (brassica oleracea) man selected the other crops pictured from this plant.
    Top row pictures left to right – cabbage, kale, broccoli
    Bottom row pictures left to right – brussel sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower
  • You may prefer this slide to the previous one. More info on what was selected for.
  • Chart compares methods of producing new crop varieties. Number of genes affected is a measure of the precision. Since only one or a few genes are moved/deleted/alltered in genetic engineering (last 2 columns, transgenics and cisgenics) you know what protein will be produced and can test for toxicity and allergenicity. The little r before DNA is for recombinant.
  • Both apples (Arctic apples) and potatoes (first generation Innate potatoes) have been genetically engineered so that they do not brown when cut open and reduce losses due to bruising. Both are examples of RNAi, which uses genes from the same species, for gene silencing. The potato also reduces acrylamide in potatoes. Acrylamide has been linked to some cancers. Both products could benefit consumers by reducing food waste. The small company that produced Arctic apples hopes the ability to serve sliced apples that do not brown will increase apple comsumption by children.
    The second generation of Innate potatoes entered the USDA process on the heels of the recent deregulation of its first generation.  The potatoes will also undergo FDA review and must be registered by the US EPA.  The second generation of Innate contains the same traits as the first generation (low black spot bruise and low acrylamide), plus two additional traits consisting of resistance to late blight disease (regulated by the US EPA) and lowered reducing sugars. Late blight disease is what caused the Irish potato famine and is still a problem that often requires multiple pesticide applications)
  • The x’s mean who benefits most from technology
  • Conventional corn is not tolerant to herbicides based on imidazolinones. If farmers use these herbicides to combat weeds, then they kill both the weeds and the crop plants (top photo). If farmers plant Clearfield® seeds and then use an imidazolinone herbicide, then only the weeds are killed and the corn can grow freely (bottom photo). Clearfield" - though in these hybrids, the herbicide-tolerance trait was bred using tissue culture selection and the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate not genetic engineering.Consequently, the regulatory framework governing the approval of transgenic crops does not apply for Clearfield. ALS inhibitors.  
    Pioneer Hi-Bred has developed and markets corn hybrids with tolerance to imidazoline herbicides under the trademark "Clearfield" - though in these hybrids, the herbicide-tolerance trait was bred using tissue culture selection and the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate not genetic engineering. Consequently, the regulatory framework governing the approval of transgenic crops does not apply for Clearfield.
  • Should be considered what technology is involved Roundup Ready or BT vs golden rice
  • World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer announced findings that glyphosate, the main ingredient in Monsanto’s RoundUp line of pesticides, is “probably carcinogenic to humans.” 
    Sunshine, alcoholic beverages (the ethanol therein), wood dust, and outdoor pollution are “known” carcinogens. The “probable” group includes wood smoke, night shifts (they disrupt circadian rhythms), and hot mate (the South American drink). The list includes many common chemicals like acrylamide
    Acrylamide was discovered accidentally in foods in April 2002 by scientists in Sweden when they found the chemical in starchy foods, such as potato chips, French fries, and bread that had been heated higher than 120 °C (248 °F) (production of acrylamide in the heating process was shown to be temperature-dependent). It was not found in food that had been boiled or in foods that were not heated. Later studies have found acrylamide in black olives,  prunes,  dried pears, and coffee.
    See the link at bottom for full statements from global scientist.
  • World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer announced findings that glyphosate, the main ingredient in Monsanto’s RoundUp line of pesticides, is “probably carcinogenic to humans.” 
    Sunshine, alcoholic beverages (the ethanol therein), wood dust, and outdoor pollution are “known” carcinogens. The “probable” group includes wood smoke, night shifts (they disrupt circadian rhythms), and hot mate (the South American drink). The list includes many common chemicals like acrylamide
    Acrylamide was discovered accidentally in foods in April 2002 by scientists in Sweden when they found the chemical in starchy foods, such as potato chips, French fries, and bread that had been heated higher than 120 °C (248 °F) (production of acrylamide in the heating process was shown to be temperature-dependent). It was not found in food that had been boiled or in foods that were not heated. Later studies have found acrylamide in black olives,  prunes,  dried pears, and coffee.
    See the link at bottom for full statements from global scientist.
  • World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer announced findings that glyphosate, the main ingredient in Monsanto’s RoundUp line of pesticides, is “probably carcinogenic to humans.” 
    Sunshine, alcoholic beverages (the ethanol therein), wood dust, and outdoor pollution are “known” carcinogens. The “probable” group includes wood smoke, night shifts (they disrupt circadian rhythms), and hot mate (the South American drink). The list includes many common chemicals like acrylamide
    Acrylamide was discovered accidentally in foods in April 2002 by scientists in Sweden when they found the chemical in starchy foods, such as potato chips, French fries, and bread that had been heated higher than 120 °C (248 °F) (production of acrylamide in the heating process was shown to be temperature-dependent). It was not found in food that had been boiled or in foods that were not heated. Later studies have found acrylamide in black olives,  prunes,  dried pears, and coffee.
    See the link at bottom for full statements from global scientist.
  • Top pictures: Insect tolerant crops are also especially beneficial to farmers in developing countries who have less access to insecticides and often the only insecticides they have access to are more toxic older insecticides. These farmers often spray by hand and do not have proper safety equipment to handle or apply pesticides safely.
    Bottom: Bt brinjal (eggplant) is being grown in Pakistan. The seed is free and farmers are allowed to save seed.
  • Top right - High omega 3 soybeans, canola and flax 1. help consumers by providing omega 3 in diet 2. help environment by providing alternate feed to fish farms. Salmon due not make omega 3, they collect it in their diet, this reduces or eliminates need to use nets to catch feeder fish.
    Golden rice would be beneficial to the needy in developing countries. About 500,000 people go blind every year due to vitamin A deficiency. About half of those die within a year due to other complications related to vitamin A deficiency. There is also active research utilizing genetic engineering to reduce allergens in such foods and peanuts and rice. Bottom left blind girl due to vitamin A deficiency
    Bottom right tomatoes with increased anti-oxidant anthocyanin
  • Top left - Papaya is the only commercially available GE crop that has been engineered for virus resistance (conventional papaya on left and Rainbow GE virus resistant on right). This technology saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. This technology benefits the environment as insecticide sprays are not need to control insects that vector the virus. 
    Top center GE grapes resistant to Pierce’s disease, two plants on right ar GE grapes resistant to Pierce’s disease, plants on left are conventional
    Top right The virus-resistant GE bean plants are on the top. The original susceptible bean is on the bottom. developed by the Brazilian public Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) linked to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply.
    Bottom left GE blight resistant potato has been developed but has not been commercialized due to fears about consumer acceptance. Blight is what caused the Irish potato famine. Blight still is a major pest in potatoes. A blight resistant potato would benefit the environment by reducing fungicide applications.
  • Scientist are working on engineering resistance to diseases in other crops like bananas, grapes and citrus. Citrus greening is a virus that is a serious threat to the citrus industry in Florida and in other parts of the world. Like with papaya, the use of genetic engineering could help save the industry. Currently the only methods of control are removing diseased trees and spraying insecticides in an attempt to limit the spread of the disease. These efforts have not been very successful. GE citrus crops may benefit the consumer by keeping citrus available in markets and benefit the environment by reducing insecticide applications.
  • Researchers have developed GE American chestnut that are resistant to the blight that has almost made them extinct.
  • Top left GE - salt tolerant rice on right, conventional on left
    Top middle - GE flood tolerant rice, areas where you see water is where conventional rice died.
    Top right - Aluminum toxicity is a problem in many poor countries in the tropics, as well as in North Carolina
    Bottom - Crops that resist drought may become even more important with climate change.
  • Top left GE - salt tolerant rice on right, conventional on left
    Top middle - GE flood tolerant rice, areas where you see water is where conventional rice died.
    Top right - Aluminum toxicity is a problem in many poor countries in the tropics, as well as in North Carolina
    Bottom - Crops that resist drought may become even more important with climate change.
  • Both apples (Arctic apples) and potatoes (Innate potatoes) have been genetically engineered so that they do not brown when cut open. The potato also reduces acrylamide in potatoes. Acrylamide has been linked to some cancers. Both products could benefit consumers by reducing food waste. The small company that produced Arctic apples hopes the ability to serve sliced apples that do not brown will increase apple comsumption by children.
  • Picture on right - The structure of lignin naturally contains ether bonds that are difficult to degrade. Researchers used genetic engineering to introduce ester bonds into the lignin backbone that are easier to break down chemically.
    The new technique means that the lignin may be recovered more effectively and used in other applications, such as adhesives, insolation, carbon fibers and paint additives
    Picture on right
  • Studies show that developing countries benefit most from GE crops. Part of the reason is that they have less options for pest control.
  • Studies show that developing countries benefit most from GE crops. Part of the reason is that they have less options for pest control. Another reason is that they do not have proper safety equipment to apply pesticides.
  • Terminator seeds have never been used commercially. Some argue they could be beneficial to prevent gene outcrossing in areas where GE crops have closely related relatives, but the companies have not done this due to public outcry against the technology (terminator gene).
  • Of course nobody think organic food sales is causing autism, but it goes to show how misleading correlations can be. Correlations do not mean causation.
  • Of course nobody think organic food sales is causing autism, but it goes to show how misleading correlations can be. Correlations do not mean causation.
  • In this study the overall levels of herbicides detected in the air close to a field actually decreased from pre-GMO to GMO. Also the herbicides detected shifted to less toxic herbicides.
  • Same here, but with insecticides instead of herbicides. Also, a much more dramatic decrease with GMO crops in terms of insecticides.
  • Genetic engineered (Geed) microorganisms are replacing chemical, synthetic methods to produce vitamins, flavors, enzymes, and other food additives. Consumers that prefer non-GMO foods should be aware that this may result in lower vitamin levels in non-GMO products. The package on the left is non-gmo and the package on the right is conventional and includes vitamins from GEed processes. A discussion of this can be found at http://www.non-gmoreport.com/articles/oct08/vitamins_gmo_challenges_for_organic_industry.php
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