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Agent presentation on gmo 9 25-15

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Presentation on biotech in agriculture for educational purposes. Thanks to Kevin Folta. I borrowed his concept of showing who benefits from various traits from one of his excellent slide sets.

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Agent presentation on gmo 9 25-15

  1. 1. What is a GMO?What is a GMO?
  2. 2. What is a GMO?What is a GMO? Where are they grown?Where are they grown? http://www.isaaa.org/resources/publications/briefs/49/infographic/pdf/B49-MapInfographic-English.pdf
  3. 3. What is a GMO?What is a GMO? Man has been manipulating DNA in plants and animalsMan has been manipulating DNA in plants and animals for millenniafor millennia
  4. 4. What is a GMO?What is a GMO? Man has been manipulating DNA in plants and animals for millenniaMan has been manipulating DNA in plants and animals for millennia
  5. 5. What is a GMO?What is a GMO? Man has been manipulating DNA in plants and animals for millenniaMan has been manipulating DNA in plants and animals for millennia
  6. 6. What is a GMO?What is a GMO?  Transgenic -Transgenic - a gene is moved from one non-a gene is moved from one non- closely related species to anotherclosely related species to another  Cisgenic -Cisgenic - a gene is within the same species or aa gene is within the same species or a closely related species to anotherclosely related species to another  Subgenic -Subgenic - a gene is edited to amplify, delete,a gene is edited to amplify, delete, insert, silence or repress the gene.insert, silence or repress the gene.
  7. 7. What is a GMO?What is a GMO? GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits  Herbicide tolerance -Herbicide tolerance - crop can withstand herbicidecrop can withstand herbicide applicationsapplications  Insect tolerance -Insect tolerance - plant produces toxin to kill pestplant produces toxin to kill pest  Improved nutrition –Improved nutrition – plant produces a substance ofplant produces a substance of nutritive value or is changed to not produce annutritive value or is changed to not produce an antinutrientantinutrient  Disease resistant –Disease resistant – crop is resistant to certain diseasecrop is resistant to certain disease  Stress Tolerance –Stress Tolerance – crop is tolerant of stress, low nutrientcrop is tolerant of stress, low nutrient levels or excess nutrientslevels or excess nutrients  Increased Storage –Increased Storage – crop can be stored longer to avoidcrop can be stored longer to avoid spoilage lossesspoilage losses  Medicinal uses –Medicinal uses – crops that produce medicines or vaccinescrops that produce medicines or vaccines  Industrial uses –Industrial uses – crops to make more efficient industriescrops to make more efficient industries
  8. 8. What is a GMO?What is a GMO?
  9. 9. GE Crops that have been commercialized in USGE Crops that have been commercialized in US
  10. 10. GE Crops that have been approved but notGE Crops that have been approved but not commercialized in UScommercialized in US Arctic AppleArctic Apple Innate PotatoInnate Potato
  11. 11. Herbicide ResistanceHerbicide Resistance X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Decreased tillageDecreased tillage Less soil erosionLess soil erosion CO2 sequestrationCO2 sequestration Increase soil organic matterIncrease soil organic matter Reduced trips through the fieldReduced trips through the field
  12. 12. Herbicide ResistanceHerbicide Resistance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits ConcernsConcerns Weed resistanceWeed resistance Gene flow to closely related speciesGene flow to closely related species Roundup/2,4-D toxicityRoundup/2,4-D toxicity
  13. 13. Herbicide ResistanceHerbicide Resistance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits ConcernsConcerns Weed resistanceWeed resistance Gene flow to closely related speciesGene flow to closely related species Roundup/2,4-D toxicityRoundup/2,4-D toxicity
  14. 14. Herbicide ResistanceHerbicide Resistance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits ConcernsConcerns Weed resistanceWeed resistance Gene flow to closely related speciesGene flow to closely related species RoundupRoundup/2,4-D toxicity/2,4-D toxicity http://www.geneticliteracyproject.org/2015/03/23/glyphosate-carcinogenic-independent-global-scientists-weigh-in/ Known carcinogens - Sunshine, ethanol in alcoholic beverages, acrylamide etc. Probable carcinogens - night shifts , wood smoke, glyphosate
  15. 15. Herbicide ResistanceHerbicide Resistance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits ConcernsConcerns Weed resistanceWeed resistance Gene flow to closely related speciesGene flow to closely related species RoundupRoundup/2,4-D toxicity/2,4-D toxicity The U.S. EPA classified glyphosate as Group E, evidence of non-carcinogenicity in humans. The U.S. EPA does not consider glyphosate to be a human carcinogen based on studies of laboratory animals that did not produce compelling evidence of carcinogenicity. German Risk Agency “In conclusion of this re-evaluation process of the active substance glyphosate by BfR the available data do not show carcinogenic or mutagenic properties of glyphosate nor that glyphosate is toxic to fertility, reproduction or embryonal/fetal development in laboratory animals. Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority “The APVMA currently has no data before it suggesting that glyphosate products registered in Australia and used according to label instructions present any unacceptable risks to human health, the environment and trade …” “The weight and strength of evidence shows that glyphosate is not genotoxic, carcinogenic or neurotoxic. “ World Health Organization International Programme on Chemical Safety “Animal studies show that glyphosate is not carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic.”
  16. 16. Herbicide ResistanceHerbicide Resistance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits ConcernsConcerns Weed resistanceWeed resistance Gene flow to closely related speciesGene flow to closely related species Roundup/Roundup/2,4-D toxicity2,4-D toxicity Agent orange was a mixture of herbicides containing 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. The 2,4,5-T, not the 2,4-D was contaminated with dioxin
  17. 17. Insect ResistanceInsect Resistance X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Decreased Insecticide ApplicationsDecreased Insecticide Applications U.S. Insecticide use in Corn (M lbs) of active ingredient) USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service
  18. 18. Insect ResistanceInsect Resistance X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Decreased Insecticide ApplicationsDecreased Insecticide Applications X
  19. 19. Improved NutritionImproved Nutrition X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits X One acre of omega-3 producing soybeans yields as much oil as 10,000 fish! X
  20. 20. Allergy-Free Peanuts Peanut – RNAi suppression Ara h2 X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy Improved NutritionImproved Nutrition GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits
  21. 21. Disease ResistanceDisease Resistance X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Decreased Fungicide and Insecticide ApplicationsDecreased Fungicide and Insecticide Applications X
  22. 22. Disease ResistanceDisease Resistance X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Decreased Insecticide ApplicationsDecreased Insecticide Applications X Stopping Citrus GreeningStopping Citrus Greening Spinach defensin, NPR1, Lytic peptides Many show promise Earliest deregulation is 2019
  23. 23. Disease ResistanceDisease Resistance X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Species RestorationSpecies Restoration X
  24. 24. X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy Stress ToleranceStress Tolerance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits
  25. 25. X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy Stress ToleranceStress Tolerance GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits http://earthsky.org/human-world/pamela-ronald-has-developed-a-more-flood-tolerant-
  26. 26. Non Browning Apples and Potatoes Silencing a gene that leads to discoloration X X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy Increased StorageIncreased Storage GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits
  27. 27. A Potato a Day Keeps the Cholera AwayA Potato a Day Keeps the Cholera Away Biologist are using genetic engineering to insert a new gene into potatoes. These gene causes the plants to produce a chemical, called a B-protein, that is a harmless part of cholera toxin, or poison. When children eat a certain amount of these genetically altered potatoes, they become vaccinated against cholera. X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy Medicinal UsesMedicinal Uses GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits
  28. 28. X Farmers Consumers Environment Needy Industrial UsesIndustrial Uses GE Crop TraitsGE Crop Traits Enogen corn, developed by Syngenta, contains a microbialEnogen corn, developed by Syngenta, contains a microbial gene that causes it to produce an enzyme (alpha amylase) thatgene that causes it to produce an enzyme (alpha amylase) that breaks down corn starch into sugar, the first step towardbreaks down corn starch into sugar, the first step toward making ethanol.making ethanol. 100 million gallon/year plant can save:100 million gallon/year plant can save: 450,000 gallons of water450,000 gallons of water 1.3 million KWh of electricity1.3 million KWh of electricity  244 billion BTUs of natural gas244 billion BTUs of natural gas reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 106 million poundsreducing carbon dioxide emissions by 106 million pounds X
  29. 29. Who benefits most from crop biotech (GMO)?Who benefits most from crop biotech (GMO)? http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v28/n4/pdf/nbt0410-319.pdf
  30. 30. Who benefits most from crop biotech (GMO)?Who benefits most from crop biotech (GMO)?
  31. 31. True or False?True or False? “Terminator” Seeds
  32. 32. True or False? Kathage and Qian 2012
  33. 33. True or False?True or False?
  34. 34. True or False?True or False?
  35. 35. True or False?
  36. 36. What the Report Really Said: You could detect glyphosate at a few ng / m3 close to a cotton field when glyphosate had been recently applied Glyphosate replaced other more toxic herbicides The use of GM cotton has reduced insecticide use, massively
  37. 37. Change inChange in herbicide useherbicide use
  38. 38. Change inChange in insecticide useinsecticide use
  39. 39. Are non-GMO foodsAre non-GMO foods necessarily more healthy?necessarily more healthy?

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