How many archaeologists does it take to make a recording system?
What are the implications of using different recording me...
Overview of Presentation
Conceptual Frameworks
Examples of different
Methods
Similarities
Differences
Conclusions
The Archaeological Archipelagos
Data is derived at different stages in
archaeological project process
Archive data - may be
re-used as Start of
another In...
Simplified Conceptual Reference Model for
Interoperability
Key Concepts for data
Interoperability
Contexts/SU, Finds, Grou...
Stratigraphic Units
Spatial Coordinates
Finds
Contexts
are deposited in
Groups Samples
are taken from
Phases
Dates/
Timesp...
Examination of some examples of
Archaeological Recording Systems
UK - English Heritage
Germany - Bavaria
Italy - Rome
Cata...
Field record based data modelling
Model common ‘core’ of Archaeological
processes
Principle archaeological concepts modell...
With thanks to Gerald Hiebel
English Heritage
Recording Manual
English Heritage
Recording Manual with CRM-EH
German - e.g. Gottingen & Bayer
Befunde - Stratigraphic Unit /
Context
1. Bayer -Befundbuch (positive
deposit?)
Bodenbefun...
With thanks to Gerald Hiebel
Bavarian
Recording Manual
Italy
Rome - Lo Scavo Archeologico
manual
Unita startigraphica - Context
1.US muralia (walls)
2. US di rivestimento (paint...
Catalhoyuk
Units - Stratigraphic units,
similar to Contexts
Features - groupings of
units or more complex
structures, simi...
Israeli - Tell es-Safi
Stratum - distinct level of human activity
(horizon)
Locus - the basic features of excavation
(e.g....
Israeli – e.g.Tell es-Safi
Stratum - distinct level of human
activity (horizon)
Locus - the basic features of
excavation (...
With thanks to Gerald Hiebel
Example of Israeli
Recording Practice
Digging by fixed levels - Spits
Non-stratigraphic approaches
America - Texas (Coulson) system
Other examples in Europe?
Conceptual Models and Knowledge ResourcesConceptual Models and Knowledge Resources
 CIDOC CRM [ http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr...
Other important mechanisms for Semantic
interoperability include syntactic alignment
Shared Vocabularies
Using E55 Type an...
“cast iron”
rdf:value
crm:P105F.consists_of
CRM data instance
EHE0009.ContextFind
[http://...#..12345]
EHE0030.ContextFind...
skos:Concept
Castle:c789
skos:Concept
Motte:c456
skos:broader skos:narrower
skos:Concept
Bailey:c789
skos:Concept
Motte:c4...
Heritage Data Thesauri -Linked Open Data (SKOS)Heritage Data Thesauri -Linked Open Data (SKOS)
 Monument types thesaurus
...
LOD Heritage Vocabularies: http://heritagedata.orgeritagedata.org
Conclusions and Challenges
Different archaeological recording systems share
common conceptual frameworks and semantic
rela...
References
Steve Roskams. "Excavation"
Catalin Pavel. "Describing and Interpreting the Past"
Tudhope, May, Binding, Vlachi...
 EAA2013 Archaeological Recording Methods - How Many Archaeologists does it take to Make a Recording System?
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EAA2013 Archaeological Recording Methods - How Many Archaeologists does it take to Make a Recording System?

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EAA2013 Presentation from Session B13 on New Digital Developments in Heritage Mangement and Research

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EAA2013 Archaeological Recording Methods - How Many Archaeologists does it take to Make a Recording System?

  1. 1. How many archaeologists does it take to make a recording system? What are the implications of using different recording methodologies and terminologies for the data that we generate? What are the possible implications for semantically linked and open data? by Keith May @Keith_May Incorporating work by (amongst others) Prof Doug Tudhope, Ceri Binding Faculty of Advanced Technology University of South Wales
  2. 2. Overview of Presentation Conceptual Frameworks Examples of different Methods Similarities Differences Conclusions
  3. 3. The Archaeological Archipelagos
  4. 4. Data is derived at different stages in archaeological project process Archive data - may be re-used as Start of another Investigation Investigation data - recording on site Analysis data - studies, usually off- site Publication data - results disseminated
  5. 5. Simplified Conceptual Reference Model for Interoperability Key Concepts for data Interoperability Contexts/SU, Finds, Groups, Samples, Phases, Research Objectives Groups & Phases only come at Analysis & Publication stages May also depend upon recording methodology
  6. 6. Stratigraphic Units Spatial Coordinates Finds Contexts are deposited in Groups Samples are taken from Phases Dates/ Timespans Periods Investigations are within Took Place at are within Identifies Identifies Identifies date datedate Spatio- Temporal Relations Research Objectives Inform Simplified Conceptual Model (CRM-EH) for Interoperability between archaeological records
  7. 7. Examination of some examples of Archaeological Recording Systems UK - English Heritage Germany - Bavaria Italy - Rome Catalhoyuk Israeli - Tell es-Safi
  8. 8. Field record based data modelling Model common ‘core’ of Archaeological processes Principle archaeological concepts modelled as CRM entities & relationships Limited degree of minute detail Matrix holds stratigraphic relationships N.B. Distinguishing positive Deposits from negative Cuts
  9. 9. With thanks to Gerald Hiebel English Heritage Recording Manual
  10. 10. English Heritage Recording Manual with CRM-EH
  11. 11. German - e.g. Gottingen & Bayer Befunde - Stratigraphic Unit / Context 1. Bayer -Befundbuch (positive deposit?) Bodenbefunde (soil SU) Baubefunde (built SU e.g. Walls) BefundeKomplex - Feature (Group) Planum = Multi-context plans by level?
  12. 12. With thanks to Gerald Hiebel Bavarian Recording Manual
  13. 13. Italy Rome - Lo Scavo Archeologico manual Unita startigraphica - Context 1.US muralia (walls) 2. US di rivestimento (painted plaster) 3.Etc Distinguish Stratigraphic Units and relationships (matrix) & Positive & Negatives Units
  14. 14. Catalhoyuk Units - Stratigraphic units, similar to Contexts Features - groupings of units or more complex structures, similar to MoLA Groups
  15. 15. Israeli - Tell es-Safi Stratum - distinct level of human activity (horizon) Locus - the basic features of excavation (e.g. a floor, a pit, a dump). Recorded with UID on a Locus card Basket/Bucket - Unit of excavation with all finds from the same Locus Stratigraphic relations recorded between Loci
  16. 16. Israeli – e.g.Tell es-Safi Stratum - distinct level of human activity (horizon) Locus - the basic features of excavation (e.g. a floor, a pit, a Layer). Recorded with UID on a Locus card Basket/Bucket - Unit of excavation with all finds from the same Locus Stratigraphic relations recorded between Loci
  17. 17. With thanks to Gerald Hiebel Example of Israeli Recording Practice
  18. 18. Digging by fixed levels - Spits Non-stratigraphic approaches America - Texas (Coulson) system Other examples in Europe?
  19. 19. Conceptual Models and Knowledge ResourcesConceptual Models and Knowledge Resources  CIDOC CRM [ http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr/ ]  CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model  International standard ISO 21127:2006  CRM-EH [ http://purl.org/crmeh ]  English Heritage Ontological Model  Extends CIDOC CRM for EH archaeological domain  SKOS [ http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/ ]  Simple Knowledge Organization System  RDF representation of thesauri, glossaries, taxonomies, classification schemes etc.
  20. 20. Other important mechanisms for Semantic interoperability include syntactic alignment Shared Vocabularies Using E55 Type and SKOS to relate different terminologies together see following diagram showing how CRM E55 types & SKOS work
  21. 21. “cast iron” rdf:value crm:P105F.consists_of CRM data instance EHE0009.ContextFind [http://...#..12345] EHE0030.ContextFindMaterial [http://......] Linking CRM E55 Type and SKOS Property: EHP10F.is_represented_by (represents) Domain: crm:E55.Type Range: skos:Concept “cast iron” skos:prefLabel skos:broader “Dating from the 15th century, it is a hard alloy of iron and carbon, melted and shaped into various moulded forms” skos:scopeNote SKOS thesaurus concept skos:Concept [http://...#97992] skos:Concept [http://...#97805] EHP10F.is_represented_by
  22. 22. skos:Concept Castle:c789 skos:Concept Motte:c456 skos:broader skos:narrower skos:Concept Bailey:c789 skos:Concept Motte:c456 skos:related skos:related skos:ConceptScheme Monument:s123 skos:Concept Motte:c456 skos:inScheme SKOS_CONCEPTS – scheme_id, broader_id, related_id
  23. 23. Heritage Data Thesauri -Linked Open Data (SKOS)Heritage Data Thesauri -Linked Open Data (SKOS)  Monument types thesaurus - classification of monument type records  Evidence thesaurus - archaeological evidence  Object types thesaurus - archaeological objects  Building Materials thesaurus - construction materials  Archaeological Sciences thesaurus - sampling and processing methods and materials  Timelines thesaurus - periods, and time-based entities
  24. 24. LOD Heritage Vocabularies: http://heritagedata.orgeritagedata.org
  25. 25. Conclusions and Challenges Different archaeological recording systems share common conceptual frameworks and semantic relationships By conceptualising common relationships in our different data sets at a broad level we can cross- search data for patterns and broader answers to related research questions The technologies are being developed but is their a common will for sharing archaeological data openly in the interests of improving research methods?
  26. 26. References Steve Roskams. "Excavation" Catalin Pavel. "Describing and Interpreting the Past" Tudhope, May, Binding, Vlachidis. "Connecting Archaeological Data and Grey Literature via Semantic Cross Search" - Internet Archaeology Vol 30 http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue30/tudhope_index.html Contact: Keith.May@english-heritage.org.uk @Keith_May

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