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  1. 1. Chapter 6 Ethical Decision Making and Behavior 2
  2. 2. Ethical Decision Making: A Dual Process Approach (1 of 3) • In recent years, a growing number of scholars have challenged the cognitive approach to ethical decision making. • Social Intuitionist Model (Haidt): – Moral decision making is the product of intuition, not reason. – We decide first, then justify our choice. – Moral dumbfounding--we can’t explain our strong opinions. – Social norms shape our moral determinations. 3 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  3. 3. Ethical Decision Making: A Dual Process Approach (2 of 3) • Neuroimaging studies reveal that ethical decision making is not localized in one portion of the brain but involves several different regions. • Ethical thinking activates both cognitive and emotional areas of the brain. • The dual process perspective is based on the premise that BOTH logic and emotion are essential to making good ethical choices. • As neuroscientists have discovered, we can’t make good ethical choices without employing our feelings. 4 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  4. 4. Ethical Decision Making: A Dual Process Approach (3 of 3) • Train intuitions to eliminate unethical inclinations like prejudices, anger, and condemnation. • Incorporate emotions to improve ethical behavior (reasoning can crowd out altruism, for example). 5 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  5. 5. Ethical Decision Making: A Dual Process Approach (3 of 3) • To draw upon both reason and feeling: – Record your initial reaction to an ethical dilemma. – Use a decision making format to come to a conclusion. – Compare your final decision to your initial reaction. – Will be more comfortable with the final choice because it is informed by your experiences, emotions, intuitions, and conscious reasoning. 6 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  6. 6. Components of Moral Action • James Rest started with the end product--moral action-- and then determined the steps that produce such behavior. • He concluded that ethical action is the result of four psychological subprocesses: 1. Moral sensitivity (recognition); 2. Moral judgment; 3. Moral focus (motivation); 4. Moral character. 7 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  7. 7. Component 1. Moral Sensitivity (Recognition) – Moral sensitivity (recognizing the presence of an ethical issue) is the first step in ethical decision making because we can’t solve a moral problem unless we first know that one exists. – Empathy and perspective skills are essential to this component of moral action. 8 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  8. 8. Component 1. Moral Sensitivity (Recognition) – We may even deceive ourselves into thinking that we are acting morally when we are clearly not, a process called ethical fading. – Enhance moral sensitivity through looking for moral implications, ethics training, using moral terminology, and increasing the importance (salience) of ethical issues. 9 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  9. 9. Component 2. Moral Judgment – Moral judgment has generated more research than the other components of Rest’s model. – Key factors: • Cognitive moral development; • Biases or errors that undermine the decision making process. 10 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  10. 10. Moral Judgment (1 of 6) • Harvard psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg argued that individuals progress through a series of moral stages just as they do physical ones. • Kohlberg identified three levels of moral development, each divided into two stages. 11 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  11. 11. Moral Judgment (2 of 6) • Kohlberg’s Three Levels of Moral Development: – Level I: Preconventional Thinking: • Stage 1: Follow the rules or face the consequences. • Stage 2: Interested in a fair deal. – Level II: Conventional Thinking: • Stage 3: Live up to expectations. • Stage 4: Look to society for direction. – Level III: Postconventional or Principled Reasoning: • Stage 5: The greatest good for the greatest number. • Stage 6: Act according to universal principles. 12 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  12. 12. Moral Judgment (3 of 6) • According to James Rest, individuals rely on more sophisticated moral schemas as they develop. • Schemas are networks of knowledge organized around life events. • Three types of moral schemas (from least to most sophisticated): – Personal interest (concerned only for personal gain); – Maintaining norms (follow the rules); – Postconventional (think like moral philosophers). 13 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  13. 13. Moral Judgment (4 of 6) • Rest developed the Defining Issues Test (DIT) to measure moral development. • Hundreds of studies using the DIT reveal that moral reasoning generally increases with age and education. • Principled leaders can boost the moral judgment of a group by encouraging members to adopt more sophisticated ethical schemas. 14 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  14. 14. Moral Judgment (5 of 6) • Models of cognitive development provide important insights into the process of ethical decision making. 1. Contextual variables play an important role in shaping ethical behavior (look to others and rules). 2. Education fosters moral reasoning. 3. A broader perspective is better. Consider the needs and viewpoints of others outside your immediate group or organization. 4. Base decisions on widely accepted ethical principles. 15 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  15. 15. Moral Judgment (6 of 6) • Ethical Blind Spots (Bazerman) Unethical choices are often the result of these unconscious distortions: 1. Overestimating our ethicality; 2. Forgiving our own unethical behaviour; 3. In-group favouritism; 4. Implicit prejudice; 5. Judging based on outcomes, not the process. 16 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  16. 16. Component 3. Moral Focus (Motivation) (1 of 3) • After deciding on a course of action, must be focused (motivated) to follow through on choices. • Moral values compete with other important values. • Moral potency increases follow through. 17 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  17. 17. Component 3. Moral Focus (Motivation) (2 of 3) • Psychologists report that self-interest and hypocrisy undermine moral motivation. – Sometimes individuals want to do the right thing, but their integrity can be “overpowered.” – Others never intend to follow an ethical course of action but engage in moral hypocrisy instead. – Both self-interest and hypocrisy encourage leaders to set their moral principles aside. 18 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  18. 18. Component 3. Moral Focus (Motivation) (3 of 3) • People are more likely to give ethical values top priority when rewarded through raises, promotions, public recognition, and other means for doing so. • Moral emotions: – Anger, disgust, and contempt are other- condemning emotions that prompt action. – Shame, embarrassment, and guilt are self- conscious emotions that encourage us to obey the rules and uphold the social order. 19 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  19. 19. Component 3. Moral Focus (Motivation) (3 of 3) • Moral emotions: – Sympathy and compassion are other-suffering emotions that prompt us to help. – Gratitude, awe, and elevation are other-praising (positive) emotions that open us up to new opportunities and relationships. 20 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  20. 20. Component 4. Moral Character  Executing the plan of action takes character.  The positive character traits described in Chapter 3 contribute to ethical follow-through. Courage, grit, temperance, wisdom, justice, optimism, integrity, humility, integrity, humility, compassion.  In addition to virtues, other personal characteristics contribute to moral action. Strong will; Internal locus of control; Duty orientation: urge to act based on duty to members, mission, and codes.  Successful implementation also requires competence. 21 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  21. 21. Giving Voice to Values • Mary Gentile, Director of Giving Voice to Values, outlines seven pillars or foundational concepts that equip us to act on our ethical choices: 1. Recognize that certain values are widely shared. 2. Acknowledge the power of choice. 3. Treat values conflicts as normal. 4. Consider your personal and professional purpose. 5. Play to personal strengths. 6. Find your unique voice. 7. Anticipate rationalizations for unethical behavior. 22 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  22. 22. Decision-Making Formats • Decision-making guidelines or formats can help us make better ethical choices. • Taking a systematic approach encourages teams and individuals to carefully define the problem, gather information, apply ethical standards and values, identify and evaluate alternative courses of action, and follow through on their choices. 23 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  23. 23. The Four-Way Method (1 of 3) • Developed by Virterbo professor Richard Kyte. • Addresses the problem of moral disengagement as well as partial disengagement (narrowing our focus to only those principles that support our position). 24 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  24. 24. The Four-Way Method (2 of 3) • Each stage addresses one thinking mode: – Truth: understand the facts and the context. – Consequences: utilitarian reasoning that balances costs and benefits. – Fairness: consider the perspective of the other party and strive for equality. – Character: consider the motivation of the actor and the outcome of the act. 25 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  25. 25. The Four-Way Method (3 of 3) • Advantages (Pros): – Acknowledges barriers to moral reasoning; – Facilitates ethical group discussion; – Incorporates a variety of ethical theories; – Specifically addresses character. – Can be used in explaining decisions. • Disadvantages (Cons): – Disagreement about facts; – Conflicting views of consequences and fairness. 26 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  26. 26. Five Timeless Questions (1 of 3) • Harvard business professor Joseph Badaracco designed a method to help managers deal with the human side of “gray” problems (those without a clear answer). • Question 1: What Are the Net, Net Consequences? • Question 2: What Are My Core Obligations? • Question 3: What Will Work in the World As It Is? • Question 4: Who Are We? • Question 5: What Can I Live With? 27 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  27. 27. Five Timeless Questions (2 of 3) • Advantages (Pros): – Recognizes the “messiness” of ethical problems faced by leaders; – Draws upon prominent thinkers and traditions; – Blends management and humanism, reason and intuition; – Acknowledges painful realities; – Emphasizes the importance of making the choice. 28 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  28. 28. Five Timeless Questions (3 of 3) • Disadvantage (Cons): – Temptation to favor one question over another; – Lacks specifics; – Makes high demands on decision makers. 29 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  29. 29. The Lonergan/Baird Method (1 of 2) • Ethics expert Catharyn Baird used philosopher Bernard Lonergan’s model to develop a framework for making ethical choices. • Baird emphasizes that most conflicts arise along two axes: autonomy versus equality and rationality versus sensibility. – Step 1: Be attentive--Consider what works and what doesn’t; – Step 2: Be intelligent--Sort through the data; – Step 3: Be reasonable--Evaluate the options; – Step 4: Be responsible--Act with courage. 30 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  30. 30. The Lonergan/Baird Method (2 of 2) • Advantages (Pros): – Is widely used; – Emphasizes the importance of paying attention and gathering data; – Incorporates ethical principles, reason, and emotion; – Recognizes the importance of follow-through. • Disadvantages (Cons): – Overlooks many other types of ethical conflicts; – Used as a tool rather than as part of an ongoing process. 31 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  31. 31. The Foursquare Protocol (1 of 3) • Catholic University law professor and attorney Stephen Goldman’s protocol method was designed for use in organizational settings. • Key: come to fair decisions. • Protocols focus on the procedures members use to reach conclusions. – Protocol Element 1: Close description of the situation; – Protocol Element 2: Gathering accumulated experiences in similar situations; – Protocol Element 3: Recognize the significant distinctions between the current problem and past ones; – Protocol Element 4: Situating yourself to decide. 32 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  32. 32. The Foursquare Protocol (2 of 3) • Advantages (Pros): – Highlights the importance of justice and fairness; – Applies broad principles to individual situations; – Situates the decision maker; – Recognizes the influence of self-interest; – Incorporates both intuition and reason. 33 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  33. 33. The Foursquare Protocol (3 of 3) • Disadvantages (Cons): – Undervalues other important ethical values and principles besides fairness; – Hard to recognize what is relevant and significant and what is not; – Self-interest may still influence our decision. 34 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021
  34. 34. Case Study Scenarios • Apply one of the formats to a scenario at the end of the chapter. First, reach your own conclusion. Then discuss the situation in a group. See if you can reach a consensus. Make note of the important factors dividing or uniting group members. 35 Johnson, Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership, 7e. © SAGE Publishing, 2021

Editor's Notes

  • Level I:
    Stage 1: Choosing to obey to avoid punishment.
    Stage 2: Following the rules in order to meet interests.
    Level II:
    Stage 3: People want to live up to the expectations of those they respect.
    Stage 4: Looking to society as a whole for direction.
    Level III:
    Stage 5: Guided by utilitarian principles.
    Stage 6: People operate according to internalized, universal principles such as justice, equality, and human dignity.
  • Level I:
    Stage 1: Choosing to obey to avoid punishment.
    Stage 2: Following the rules in order to meet interests.
    Level II:
    Stage 3: People want to live up to the expectations of those they respect.
    Stage 4: Looking to society as a whole for direction.
    Level III:
    Stage 5: Guided by utilitarian principles.
    Stage 6: People operate according to internalized, universal principles such as justice, equality, and human dignity.

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