Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
❧
FOOD ADDITIVES
Submitted by:
S.Keerthana(FPB12035)
Kunaljit Ojah(FPB13003)
M.Vamshi Krishna(FPB13008)
❧
➢To identify the what are food additives.
➢To understand the reasons why food additives are
used.
➢ To understand the di...
❧❧ Some of the food we eat are fresh. They are not processed.
❧ Most foods, however, are processed.
❧ In food processing ,...
❧In general various definitions have been given.
➢ According to WHO (1965), ‘Food
Protection Committee of the National
Aca...
❧
‘Additives are not considered nutritional even if they have
some nutritive value.’
‘Means any substance not normally con...
❧❧ Unavoidable in the complex and integrated society in which we
live as the area of food production are separated from ar...
❧Use Function
Preservative These help in preservation of food by
increasing its storage life,
e.g. Preservative like sodiu...
❧➢ Foods are subjected to many environmental conditions, such as
temperature changes, oxidation and exposure to microbes,
...
❧
Types of additives
Additives may be:
➢ Natural – found naturally, such as extracts from beetroot juice (E162),
used as a...
❧
❧ Some additives have been approved for use in the EU. These
additives have E-numbers.
❧ The E-numbers tells us “What th...
❧
❧ Prevent the growth of micro-organisms which could cause
food spoilage and lead to food poisoning.
❧ Extend the shelf-l...
❧
❧ Prevent oxidative rancidity in foods high on fats and oils.
❧ Another important reason is that certain vitamins and va...
❧
•Naturally occurring substances that act as antioxidants are tocopherols, but
they are rarely used as additives because ...
❧❧ Food colouring is added to foods to replace lost colours
during preparation, or to make foods look more attractive.
❧ I...
➢ Restore colour lost during processing or storage.
➢ Ensure that each batch produced is identical in appearance or
does n...
Would you like this soft drink if no artificial flavouring and
colouring had been added to it?
Common example:
❧❧ Flavour enhancers bring out the flavour in foods without imparting a flavour
of their own, e.g. monosodium glutamate (E...
Monosodium glutamate is a white
solid. It possesses little flavor of its
own, but it can ‘bring out’ the flavor
of foods. ...
WHY USE FOOD FLAVOURINGS?
∙ To enhance flavor of food
∙ To restore the original flavor which may be lost during food proce...
❧
Flavour enhancers
❧ Flavourings, on the other hand, are added to a wide range of
foods, usually in small amounts to give...
❧
Anticaking Agents
❧ Anticaking agents are placed in powdered or
granulated foods to prevent them from caking or
sticking...
Sodium bicarbonate- It's a white solid that is crystalline,
but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly
salty ta...
❧
Antifoaming agents
❧ Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods.
❧ These agents are included in many foods,
s...
Emulsifiers, stabilisers, gelling
agents
➢ Emulsifiers- help mix ingredients together that would normally
separate, e.g. L...
❧
➢ Thickeners - are substances which, when added a mixture,
increases its viscosity with out substantially modifying its ...
Sweeteners
➢ Intense sweeteners, e.g. saccharin, have a sweetness many times that
of sugar and therefore are used in small...
❧
❧ Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act
as preservatives and antioxidants. Common food acids incl...
❧
Some additives that are found in processed
foods
❧
❧ Evaluate through comprehensive treating and scientific
procedures.
❧ Chemical analyses measure the direct additives ac...
❧a) Only the additives which present no appreciable health risk to consumers
at the use level proposed by the JECFA shall ...
❧
c) The quantity of an additive should be at or below the maximum use
level and is at lowest level necessary to achieve t...
❧❧ Buy foods from reputable sources.
❧ Read the label of prepackaged food carefully in particular the ingredient list
for ...
❧
❧ Food chemistry by Fennema 3rd edition, Page o 767.
❧ Food chemistry y H.K.chopra ( Introduction).
❧ www.foodadditives....
Food Additives
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Food Additives

11,458 views

Published on

Learing object is what are food additives and why they are importanat ?

Published in: Food
  • How can I lose 10 pounds in 10 days naturally? ♣♣♣ https://tinyurl.com/bkfitness4u
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Food Additives

  1. 1. ❧ FOOD ADDITIVES Submitted by: S.Keerthana(FPB12035) Kunaljit Ojah(FPB13003) M.Vamshi Krishna(FPB13008)
  2. 2. ❧ ➢To identify the what are food additives. ➢To understand the reasons why food additives are used. ➢ To understand the different sources of food additives ➢To understand the different roles and functions of food additives in food. Objective
  3. 3. ❧❧ Some of the food we eat are fresh. They are not processed. ❧ Most foods, however, are processed. ❧ In food processing , small amounts of certain chemicals are often added. ❧ These are called food additives. ❧ Any substance that becomes part of a food product either directly or indirectly during some phase of processing, storage or packaging. ❧ Basically, a food additive is something that doesn’t normally occur in the food we eat — it has to be added…. What are Food Additives?
  4. 4. ❧In general various definitions have been given. ➢ According to WHO (1965), ‘Food Protection Committee of the National Academy of Sciences (1959) ‘It is a substance or mixture of substances, other than the basic food stuff, which is present in food as a result of any aspect of production, processing, storage or packaging. This term does not include chance contamination.’ Food Additives
  5. 5. ❧ ‘Additives are not considered nutritional even if they have some nutritive value.’ ‘Means any substance not normally consumed as food by itself and not normally used as a typical ingredient of the food.’ The term does not include contaminants or substances added to food for maintaining or improving nutritional qualities. ➢ Codex Alimentarius
  6. 6. ❧❧ Unavoidable in the complex and integrated society in which we live as the area of food production are separated from areas of consumption. ❧ In present degree of urbanization, its impossible to maintain distribution network without adding preservatives. ❧ Great demand for convenience/ready to eat foods and heat and serve products. ❧ Essential to prevent rancidity of oils and for maintaining the shelf life of high-moisture containing foods. ❧ Food additives must not be used to disguise faulty processing and handling techniques to cheat customers. Need for additive
  7. 7. ❧Use Function Preservative These help in preservation of food by increasing its storage life, e.g. Preservative like sodium benzoate in squashes. Taste Food additives improves the taste or appearance of any food product, e.g. grazing agents on fruits. Quality These improve the quality or stability of the food, e.g. humectants added to mixed dried foods. Colour & Flavour These provide the right colour and improve the flavour, e.g. commercially available colouring agents. ➢ Uses and some of the common functions food additives
  8. 8. ❧➢ Foods are subjected to many environmental conditions, such as temperature changes, oxidation and exposure to microbes, which can change their original composition. ➢ Food additives play a key role in maintaining the food qualities and characteristics that consumers demand, keeping food safe, wholesome and appealing from farm to fork. Importance of food additives
  9. 9. ❧ Types of additives Additives may be: ➢ Natural – found naturally, such as extracts from beetroot juice (E162), used as a colouring agent; ➢ Manmade versions – synthetic identical copies of substances found naturally, such as benzoic acid (E210), used as a preservative; ➢ Artificial – produced synthetically and not found naturally, such as nisin (E234), used as a preservative in some dairy products and in semolina and tapioca puddings.
  10. 10. ❧ ❧ Some additives have been approved for use in the EU. These additives have E-numbers. ❧ The E-numbers tells us “What the additive is used for”. What is E-Number? E-Number Use E 100-199 Food Colours E 200-299 Preservatives E 300-399 Antioxidants E 400-499 Emulsifiers & Stabilisers E 500-599 Anticaking agents E 600-699 Flavourings & Flavour enhancers
  11. 11. ❧ ❧ Prevent the growth of micro-organisms which could cause food spoilage and lead to food poisoning. ❧ Extend the shelf-life of products, so that they can be distributed and sold to the consumer with a longer shelf- life. ❧ Salting and sugaring are two of the oldest methods of preserving food. For example Meats are often treated with nitrite and nitrate (E249 to E252) during the curing process. Preservatives
  12. 12. ❧ ❧ Prevent oxidative rancidity in foods high on fats and oils. ❧ Another important reason is that certain vitamins and various amino acids can easily be destroyed by exposure to air, and antioxidants serve to protect them . ❧ Antioxidant types ❧ Water soluble (synergistic) type ❧ Fat soluble type ANTIOXIDANTS
  13. 13. ❧ •Naturally occurring substances that act as antioxidants are tocopherols, but they are rarely used as additives because they are more expensive than synthetic antioxidant. •They are effective in low concentrations (0.01-0.02%) •Mixed antioxidants sometimes act synergistically. ‘Mostly Antioxidants prevents the browning of cut fruits ,vegetables and fruit juices i.e. increase shelf life and appearance.’
  14. 14. ❧❧ Food colouring is added to foods to replace lost colours during preparation, or to make foods look more attractive. ❧ In the USA there are seven artificial colourings that are permitted in foods. COLOURS FD&C Blue No. 1- Brilliant Blue FCF FD&C Blue No. 2- Indigotine FD&C Green No. 3- Fast Green FD&C Red No. 40- Allura Red AC FD&C Red No. 3- Erythrosine FD&C Yellow No. 5- Tartrazine FD&C Yellow No.6- Sunset Yellow
  15. 15. ➢ Restore colour lost during processing or storage. ➢ Ensure that each batch produced is identical in appearance or does not appear ‘off’. ➢ Reinforces colour already in foods, e.g. enhance the yellowness of a custard. ➢ Give colour to foods which otherwise would be colourless (e.g. soft drinks) and so make them more attractive appetizing and more saleable. ➢ To ensure colour consistency. Why use Colour additives?
  16. 16. Would you like this soft drink if no artificial flavouring and colouring had been added to it? Common example:
  17. 17. ❧❧ Flavour enhancers bring out the flavour in foods without imparting a flavour of their own, e.g. monosodium glutamate (E612) is added to processed foods. For example some soups, sauces and sausages. ❧ Natural flavor substances such as Spices and their extracts, herbs, roots, essence and essential oils have been used. ❧ Flavors of the substance are not uniform as they vary with season and area of production. ❧ Natural are now replaced by synthetic flavour materials. It includes esters, aldehydes,ketones, alcohols and ethers, smoke flavors of glutamates Flavoring agent
  18. 18. Monosodium glutamate is a white solid. It possesses little flavor of its own, but it can ‘bring out’ the flavor of foods. It is therefore a flavor enhancer.
  19. 19. WHY USE FOOD FLAVOURINGS? ∙ To enhance flavor of food ∙ To restore the original flavor which may be lost during food processing ∙ To add flavor to foods which are tasteless themselves (e.g. ice cream, jelly) Common flavorings.
  20. 20. ❧ Flavour enhancers ❧ Flavourings, on the other hand, are added to a wide range of foods, usually in small amounts to give a particular taste. ❧ These do not have E numbers because they are controlled by different food laws. Ingredients lists will say if flavourings have been used, but individual flavourings might not be named.
  21. 21. ❧ Anticaking Agents ❧ Anticaking agents are placed in powdered or granulated foods to prevent them from caking or sticking. ❧ Some anticaking agents include sodium bicarbonate, sodium ferrocyanice, and potassium ferrocyanide.
  22. 22. Sodium bicarbonate- It's a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty taste, and can be found dissolved in many mineral springs. Many people know it as baking soda. ‘Anti-caking agents ensure free movement or flow of particles, e.g. in dried milk or table salt. ’
  23. 23. ❧ Antifoaming agents ❧ Antifoaming agents reduce or prevent foaming in foods. ❧ These agents are included in many foods, such as Diet Pepsi, Diet Coke, and Sprite. antifoaming agents are added to cooking oils to prevent excessive frothing during deep frying. There are many types of defoamers including oil based, water based, silicone based, and EO/PO based.
  24. 24. Emulsifiers, stabilisers, gelling agents ➢ Emulsifiers- help mix ingredients together that would normally separate, e.g. Lecithins (E322). ➢ Stabilisers- prevent ingredients from separating again, e.g. locust bean gum (E410). Two e.g.s of stabilizers are agar and pectin. ➢ Gelling agents- are used to change the consistency of a food, e.g. pectin (E440).
  25. 25. ❧ ➢ Thickeners - are substances which, when added a mixture, increases its viscosity with out substantially modifying its other properties. Its help give food body, e.g. can be found in most sauces. ➢ Glazing agents - provide a protective coating or sheen on the surface of foods, e.g. confectionary (for appearance and shelf-life). Thickeners and glazing agents
  26. 26. Sweeteners ➢ Intense sweeteners, e.g. saccharin, have a sweetness many times that of sugar and therefore are used in small amounts, e.g. in diet foods, soft drinks, sweetening tablets; ➢ Bulk sweeteners, e.g. sorbitol, have a similar sweetness to sugar and are used at similar levels. ‘If concentrated cordial drinks that contain sweeteners are given to children between the ages of 6 months to 4 years, it is important to dilute them more than for adults. Infants under 6 months should not be given cordial drinks’.
  27. 27. ❧ ❧ Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants. Common food acids include vinegar, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, fumaric acid, and lactic acid. ❧ Acids, bases and buffers control the acidity or alkalinity of food, for safety and stability of flavour. Acids, bases and buffers
  28. 28. ❧ Some additives that are found in processed foods
  29. 29. ❧ ❧ Evaluate through comprehensive treating and scientific procedures. ❧ Chemical analyses measure the direct additives accurately in minute quantities. ❧ Variety of animal tests used to estimate the safety of a additive in human diet. ❧ Also required studies on metabolism, genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproduction. Testing methods
  30. 30. ❧a) Only the additives which present no appreciable health risk to consumers at the use level proposed by the JECFA shall be endorsed and included in the standard. b) ADI, its probable daily intake from all food sources for special group consumers (diabetic, medical diet, sick individual on formulated liquid diet) will be taken into account Food Additive Safety
  31. 31. ❧ c) The quantity of an additive should be at or below the maximum use level and is at lowest level necessary to achieve the intended technical effect. d) It should be of food grade quality and is prepared and handled in same way as a food ingredient. e) Carry over of a food additive from a raw material to other ingredient is unacceptable for foods such as infant formula, follow-up formulae and formulae for special medical purposes, complementary foods for infants and young children Food Additive Safety
  32. 32. ❧❧ Buy foods from reputable sources. ❧ Read the label of prepackaged food carefully in particular the ingredient list for food additives added (if any) which you could accept. ❧ People with allergic condition, such as asthma patients, may experience hypersensitive reaction due to some food additives like sulphur dioxide and should be careful in selecting food. Advice from medical professionals may be sought when necessary in Hazards of preservatives. Advice to the public of food additives
  33. 33. ❧ ❧ Food chemistry by Fennema 3rd edition, Page o 767. ❧ Food chemistry y H.K.chopra ( Introduction). ❧ www.foodadditives.org ❧ www.food.gov.uk (E numbers). ❧ www.foodfactoflife.org.uk (types of additives) ❧ www.slideshare.net/bhambieannmalacas/food- additives-ppt ❧ Food additives wikipedia. Bibliography

×